Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819
The Argentine Confederation was the last predecessor state of modern Argentina. It was the name of the country from 1831 to 1852, when the provinces were organized as a confederation without a head of state; the governor of Buenos Aires Province managed foreign relations during this time. Under his rule, the Argentine Confederation resisted attacks by Brazil, Uruguay and the UK, as well as other Argentine factions during the Argentine Civil Wars. Rosas was ousted from power in 1852 after the battle of Caseros. Urquiza convened the 1853 Constituent Assembly to write a national constitution. Buenos Aires resisted Urquiza and seceded from the Confederation in 1852, becoming the State of Buenos Aires. Modern Argentina is a small subset of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of Spain which included present day Bolivia, part of Peru and most of Paraguay. Long after attaining independence, Argentina conquered large areas of indigenous land; the May Revolution in Buenos Aires began the Argentine War of Independence, the country was renamed the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
Modern Bolivia and Paraguay became new states. Uruguay was invaded and annexed by Brazil in 1816, until the Thirty-Three Orientals led an insurrection to rejoin the United Provinces; this began the Cisplatine War, which ended with the Treaty of Montevideo that made Uruguay a new state. When Argentine forces returned to Buenos Aires, Juan Lavalle led a military coup against governor Manuel Dorrego, he executed him and began a campaign against all federals, supported by José María Paz in Córdoba, who deposed Juan Bautista Bustos and took similar measures against federals. The rancher Juan Manuel de Rosas organized the resistance against Lavalle, forcing him out of government and restoring the Legislature. Paz organized the Unitarian League with the provinces that joined him, Rosas signed the Federal Pact with Entre Ríos and Santa Fe. All the unitarian provinces were defeated and joined the Pact, became the Argentine Confederation. Rosas declined a new term as governor after the victory over the unitarian league.
Rosas left Buenos Aires and waged the first campaign in the desert in the south, to prevent further malones from the indigenous peoples. The campaign combined military actions and negotiations, succeeded in preventing malones for several years. Despite being absent, the political influence of Rosas in Buenos Aires was still strong, his wife Encarnación Ezcurra was in charge of keeping good relations with the people of the city. On October 11, 1833, the city was filled with announcements of a trial against "The restorer of laws". A large number of gauchos and poor people instigated the Revolution of the Restorers, a demonstration at the gates of the legislature, praising Rosas and demanding the resignation of Governor Juan Ramón Balcarce; the troops who were organized to fight the demonstration instead joined it. The legislature gave up the trial, a month ousted Balcarce and replaced him with Juan José Viamonte. Still, the social unrest led many people to believe that only Rosas could secure order, that Viamonte or Manuel Vicente Maza would be unable to do so.
The murder of Facundo Quiroga in Córdoba increased this belief, so the legislature appointed him governor in 1835, with the sum of public power. Rosas faced a difficult military threat during first years of his second administration. First, the Peru–Bolivian Confederation in the North declared the War of the Confederation against Argentina and Chile. France made diplomatic requests which were denied by Rosas, subsequently imposed a naval blockade as a result. France invaded Martín García island and deposed the Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe, appointing instead the loyal Fructuoso Rivera, who declared war on Argentina in support of France. Domingo Cullen, from Santa Fe, promoted the secession of all provinces, leaving Buenos Aires alone in the conflict. Berón de Astrada, from Corrientes, opposed Rosas as well, Juan Lavalle organized an army to take Buenos Aires; the ranchers organized the "Freemen of the South" militia. Rosas overcame all these threats; the Peru–Bolivian Confederation was defeated by Chile and ceased to exist.
Cullen was defeated and shot, Astrada was defeated by Justo José de Urquiza. The ranchers were defeated as well; the diplomat Manuel Moreno channeled the protests of the British merchants in Buenos Aires who were impacted by the blockade. France lifted the blockade with the Mackau-Arana treaty. Lavalle sought to continue the conflict anyway, he retreated before reaching Buenos Aires, without starting any battles, escaped to the North. He was chased by Oribe, now in charge of Argentine armies, died in unclear circumstances. Despite the French defeat, Uruguay was still an open war theater. Manuel Oribe claimed to be the rightful president of Uruguay, waged the Uruguayan Civil War against Rivera. Rosas supported Oribe in the conflict. Oribe laid siege to Montevideo. Britain and France joined forces with Rivera, captured the Argentine navy, began a new naval blockade against Buenos Aires. Giuseppe Garibaldi helped to secure the Uruguay river, aided by Italian soldiers. A new expedition tried to
Manuel de Sarratea
Manuel de Sarratea, was an Argentine diplomat and soldier. He was the son of Martin de Sarratea, of the richest merchant of Buenos-Aires and Tomasa Josefa de Altolaguirre, his sister Martina de Sarrateas married Santiago de Liniers, vice-roy del Rio de la Plata. Sarratea was educated in Madrid, he returned to the country to work as a diplomat. He participated in the May Revolution of 1810 and per advice from Belgrano he was named ambassador in Río de Janeiro; when the Primera Junta was dissolved, he returned and took part on the following government body, the so-called First Triumvirate. One of the Triumvirate's political accomplishments was a treaty signed with vicerroy Francisco Javier de Elío, where the Banda Oriental (present-day Uruguay was ceded to the crown. In 1812, after the change of government in Montevideo, the treaty was broken and the war against the royalists in the city was resumed. Most of the Criollo soldiers had abandoned the territory, following José Artigas. Sarratea took charge of the army in the Banda Oriental, making his primary mission to get back the troops from Artigas.
He attempted to convince him and when this failed he attempted to bribe him without success. He declared Artigas a traitor but this measure was rejected by the rest of the Triumvirate; the Triumvirate was dominated by minister Rivadavia, until its fall in October 1812. Sarratea continued to be in charge of the Banda Oriental army until the first part of the following year, when he was replaced by José Rondeau. Only when the ex-Triumvir Sarratea left, did Artigas and his men return to the siege of Montevideo. Sarratea remained inactive for more than two years, until Director Gervasio Posadas sent him on a diplomatic mission to Madrid and London. Arriving in Spain he offered the restored king, Ferdinand VII, the submission of the United Provinces to the Spanish crown under a certain autonomy. Instead he was treated as the representative of a group of rebels and had to leave and go to England. Sarratea returned to Buenos Aires in mid-1816, was named government minister of foreign relations for the Supreme Director, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón.
He resigned for health reasons and made contacts within the porteño political opposition, so he was expelled and exiled to Montevideo by order of the same Director. After the battle of Cepeda he joined the federalist army commanded by Estanislao López and Francisco Ramírez, they sent him as their representative to the Buenos Aires Cabildo, whom he convinced to name him provincial governor. He assumed the governorship on February 18, 1820 and soon after he signed the Treay of Pilar with the federalist chiefs, through which the Buenos Aires province agreed to be recognized as equal to the other United Provinces. AS one of the secret clauses of the treaty, he promised the delivery of armament to the federalist caudillos; when the Buenos Aires military found he was to deliver armament, they raised against him, deposed him on March 6, replacing him with general Balcarce. He lasted only one week as governor, when general Ramírez threatened with attacking the city if they did not deliver the promised armament.
Sarratea assumed government again on May 11, gave Ramírez some military units under the command of colonel Mansilla. Sarratea could not contain the permanent state of anarchy in the province, nor gain the obedience and trust of the military, so he was forced to resign at the end of May, he joined Ramírez's army in his campaign against Artigas, defeating him was his greatest personal success. On he took part in the preparations for the war Ramirez would fight against Buenos Aires, Santa Fé and Córdoba, which ended in disaster. Sarratea recused himself from politics for a time. On August 31, 1825, Juan Gregorio de Las Heras, named Sarratea as Encargado de Negocios de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata cerca de Gran Bretaña. President Rivadavia sent him in 1826 to be the United Provinces representative in London again. There he supported the British policy of separating the Banda Oriental from the rest of the provinces, accomplished in 1828. Governor Manuel Dorrego kept him as ambassador, Juan Manuel de Rosas named him ambassador to Brazil and France.
Decreto del mombramiento como Encargado de Negocios en 1825
Juan Galo Lavalle was an Argentine military and political figure. Lavalle was born in Buenos Aires to María Mercedes González Bordallo and Manuel José Lavalle, general accountant of rents and tobacco for the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1799, the family moved to Santiago de Chile, but returned to Buenos Aires in 1807. In 1812 Lavalle joined the Regiment of mounted grenadiers as a cadet. By 1813 he reached the grade of lieutenant and moved to the army, which under orders of Carlos María de Alvear besieged Montevideo. Lavalle fought against José Gervasio Artigas in 1815 and in the Battle of Guayabos under the command of Manuel Dorrego. In 1816 Lavalle moved to Mendoza to join the Army of the Andes of the "liberator" José de San Martín and fought in Chacabuco and the Maipú in Chile, he continued along with San Martín on his way to Peru and Ecuador and took part in the battles of Pichincha and the Riobamba, after which he became known as the Hero of Riobamba. Because of disagreements with Simón Bolívar, Lavalle returned to Buenos Aires by the end of 1823.
He would govern Mendoza Province for a short time. He fought in the war against Brazil in command of 1,200 cavalry, with great episodes of valour in the battles of Bacacay and Ituzaingó in February 1827, beating the forces of General Abreu and being himself proclaimed General on the field of battle itself. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, Lavalle was a freemason. By the time he returned to Buenos Aires, the President of the United Provinces, Unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia, had resigned, Manuel Dorrego was elected the federal governor of Buenos Aires Province. Lavalle, a Unitarian himself, led a coup to take the government and executed governor Dorrego without a trial, his government started a reign of terror, aiming to destroy the Federal Party, but the resistance in the countryside didn't recede. In 1829, the demographic growth was negative. During that time, José de San Martín had returned from Europe. While he was in Montevideo, Lavalle offered him the government of Argentina as he was the only man capable of putting an end to the chaotic situation, because of his authority over leaders on both sides.
But when he learned about the spiraling factionalist violence, San Martín realised that he would have to choose sides as the only actual way to govern, so he refused and returned instead to self-exile in Europe. The other provinces did not recognize Lavalle as the legitimate governor, supported the rosista resistance instead. Lavalle would be defeated a short time at the Battle of Márquez Bridge by the forces of Juan Manuel de Rosas and Santa Fe governor Estanislao López. López returned to his province, menaced by Unitarian José María Paz. Meanwhile, Rosas forced him to resign with the Cañuelas pact. Juan José Viamonte was designated as interim governor, the legislature, removed during Lavalle's coup d'état was restored; this legislature would elect Rosas as the governor. Lavalle retired to the Banda Oriental. During the French blockade to the Río de la Plata, Fructuoso Rivera was reluctant to take military actions against Rosas, aware of his strength. Unitarians, who thought that the whole Argentine Confederation would rise against Rosas at the first chance, urged Lavalle to lead the attack, who requested not to share command with Rivera.
As a result, they led both their own armies. His imminent attack was backed up by conspiracies in Buenos Aires, which were discovered and aborted by the Mazorca. Manuel Vicente Maza and his son were among the perpetrators, were executed as a result. Pedro Castelli organized an ill-fated uprising against Rosas, was executed as well. Rosas did not wait to be attacked and ordered Pascual Echagüe to cross the Paraná river and take the fight to Uruguay; the Uruguayan armies split: Rivera returned to defend Montevideo, Lavalle moved to Entre Ríos Province. He expected that the local populations would join him against Rosas and increase his forces, but he found severe resistance, so he moved instead to Corrientes Province. Governor Pedro Ferré defeated López, Rivera defeated Pascual Echagüe, clearing for Lavalle the way to Buenos Aires. However, by that point France had given up its trust on the effectiveness of the blockade, as what was thought it would be an easy and short conflict was turning into a long war, without clear security of a final victory.
France cut its financial support to Lavalle. He didn't find help at local towns either, there was widespread desertion among his ranks. Buenos Aires was ready to resist his military attack, but the lack of support forced him to give up and retire from the battlefield, without starting any battle. Persecuted, his troops suffered constant attacks and Lavalle was forced to move further north, being defeated by Manuel Oribe in La Rioja and Tucumán. Escaping with a small group of 200 men, he was accidentally shot by a Montonera detachment which spread-shot a reputed Unitarian's house, not realizing that Juan Lavalle, the chief of the Unitarians, was staying there; this occurred in 1841 in San Salvador de Jujuy. Afraid that his body would be desecrated by the Federales, his followers fled to Bolivia carrying Lavalle's decomposing remains with them. Hurrying over the Humahuaca pass, they decided to strip the skeleton by boiling it and, after burying the flesh in an unmarked grave, carry the bones, which are today buried at the La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
A statue of the general standing on top of a long, slender column, commemorates the figure of Lavalle at Plaza Lavalle in Buenos Aires. The classic source on Lavalle is "History of Arg
Miguel Estanislao Soler
Miguel Estanislao Soler was an Argentine general, who fought in the Argentine War of Independence. He was appointed governor of the Banda Oriental by Buenos Aires in 1814, but he was resisted by Artigas and left the city in 1815, he was one of the three generals of the Crossing of the Andes, along with José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins. He fought in the battle of Ituzaingó, against Brazil. Rodríguez, Gregorio F.. Compañía Sud-Americana de Billetes de Banco, ed. El general Soler. Contribución histórica, documentos inéditos. Buenos Aires
Eustaquio Díaz Vélez
Eustoquio Antonio Díaz Vélez, Argentine military officer who fought in the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, participated in the May Revolution and fought in the war of independence and Argentine civil wars. His name was Eustoquio but is cited, incorrectly, as Eustaquio, his parents were Francisco José Díaz Vélez, a wealthy merchant born in Huelva, Spain, former chapter of Buenos Aires Cabildo, María Petrona Sánchez Araoz de Lamadrid, a native of Tucumán, from an important colonial family. He was the seventh child of a total of twelve. Among his brothers deserve to be named the second child of the marriage, Dr. José Miguel Díaz Vélez, politician who participated in the war of independence and in the Argentine civil wars. Young joined the army, in the Regiment of Blandengues of the Frontier of Buenos Aires, he combined these activities with trade. During the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, in the first, he collaborated with Santiago de Liniers and was discharged in the Regiment of Patricians, on October 8, 1806, as assistant graduate second lieutenant, participating in the Reconquista of Buenos Aires.
The following year, during the second British Invasion, distinguished himself in the Defense of Buenos Aires, under the command of Cornelio Saavedra, submitted the English in the "House of the Widow Virreyna", between 2 and 7 July. He was promoted to captain. During the Mutiny of Álzaga of January 1, 1809, he fought on the side of Liniers loyalists and was wounded; that earned him a promotion to lieutenant colonel graduated. Díaz Vélez had good relations with the conspirators who, before 1810, sought to achieve the independence of his country, he supported the May Revolution, participating in the meetings that decided the dismissal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, attending the one of May 19, called by Nicolás Rodríguez Peña. On the occasion of the Open cabildo of May 22, Colonel Cornelio Saavedra appointed him as head of the Patricians guards that enabled the assembly meeting that expressed the will of the people, but as these guards were composed of the body of the patricians, most touched by the insurrectionary spirit, as they were under the command of Captain Don Eustaquio Díaz Vélez, one of the boldest officers and most developed in the riot, the result was that so far from the entrance clogged it lavishly provided to all who submitted their note with the sign or signal agreed between the patriots, while at the other side was allowed to enter only the personages well known for his official position, opposing difficulties and insurmountable observations to all those who could be taken as strangers or persons of lower position if they were Europeans.
He integrated the resistance focus to the brand-new Board of May 24 for being consists with the ex viceroy. That night, he met at Rodriguez Peña home, with Domingo French, Feliciano Antonio Chiclana and other conspirators who managed the resignation of its members and demanded that the cabildo "proceeds with other election in persons that may merit the confidence of the people, course that do not deserve the ones that constitute the present Board, believing that will be the means of calming the agitation and excitement, renovated between people.... " Emerged the Primera Junta of Government, it entrusted his first military mission to occupy the square of Colonia del Sacramento, in the Banda Oriental, whose population sympathized with the revolutionary patriots, beating its garrison and carrying large amount of ammunition to Buenos Aires. By this victory the Primera Junta appointed to be effective, he was part of the Army of the North that the Board of Buenos Aires had sent to military aid the Intendencias of the Upper Perú and participated in the defeated of Cotagaita.
Weeks on November 7, 1810, he fought in the Battle of Suipacha, first win rioplatenses revolutionary arms, which allowed the rise of the cities of Potosí, Chuquisaca and La Paz, opening the patriots all the Upper Perú. By order of the Board representative, Juan José Castelli, complied with the execution in the main square of Potosí of the royalist authorities Vicente Nieto the governor of Chuquisaca, Francisco de Paula Sanz the governor of Potosí, José de Córdoba and Rojas Major General defeated in Suipacha on December 15, 1810, he was promoted to colonel. He was present at the defeat at Cotagaita, he was promoted to the rank of colonel. Castelli signed an armistice with the Spanish commander José Manuel de Goyeneche, but subsequent events showed that neither of them intended to abide by it. Díaz Vélez and Juan José Viamonte, commanding their regiments, were sent as advance parties toward the border; when a royalist attack came at the Battle of Huaqui, on 19 June 1811, both regiments were destroyed without being able to receive help or to assist the rest of the army.
Despite the defeat the government recognized him with the title of "bravo" because of the value shown on the battlefield. Mr. Díaz Vélez exit without troop running any horse in the front and goes to the rear to the left of the line of battle... The flight was a disaster and, lacking any support, groups of soldiers crossed the Altiplano as they could, fleeing to Humahuaca. Díaz Vélez, in a letter sent to the revolutionary authorities in Buenos Aires regarding the causes and responsibilities Huaqui's defeat, dated A
Vicente López y Planes
Alejandro Vicente López y Planes was an Argentine writer and politician who acted as interim President of Argentina from July 7, 1827 to August 18, 1827. He wrote the lyrics of the Argentine National Anthem adopted on May 11, 1813. López began his primary studies in the San Francisco School, studied in the Real Colegio San Carlos, today the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, he obtained a doctorate of laws in the University of Chuquisaca. He served as a captain in the Patriotic Regiment during the English invasions. After the Argentine victory he composed a poem entitled El triunfo argentino, he participated in the Cabildo Abierto of May 22, 1810 and supported the formation of the Primera Junta. He had good relations with Manuel Belgrano; when the royalist members of the city government of Buenos Aires were expelled, he was elected mayor of the city. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. López was a member of the Constituent Assembly of year XIII, representing Buenos Aires.
At the request of the Assembly, he wrote the lyrics to a "patriotic march", which became the Argentine National Anthem. It was a military march; the first public reading was at a tertulia on May 7 in the house of Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson. It displaced a different march, written by Esteban de Luca, which would have been the anthem if not for the more militaristic Lopez. López participated in the government of Carlos María de Alvear, with his fall he was sent to prison, he held a few more public offices, was named Secretary of the Constituent Congress of 1825, and, a little minister for the president Bernardino Rivadavia. After the scandal of negotiations with the Brazilian Empire, Rivadavia resigned the presidency. In his place, López was elected as caretaker, signing the dissolution of the Congress and calling elections in Buenos Aires; the new governor, Manuel Dorrego took charge of the ministry. When Dorrego fell from grace and was executed by firing squad by Juan Lavalle, Lopez was exiled to Uruguay.
He returned in 1830 as a member of the Tribunal of Justice for Juan Manuel de Rosas. He was president of the Tribunal for many years and, among other things, presided over the judgement of the assassins of Juan Facundo Quiroga, he was president of the literary salon led by Marcos Sastre, but was not part of the group known as the Generation of'37, to which belonged his two sons, Vicente Fidel López and Lucio Vicente López. List of heads of state of Argentina Works by Vicente López y Planes at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Vicente López y Planes at Internet Archive Vicente López y Planes at Find a Grave