Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Alexander Ivanovich Oparin was a Soviet biochemist notable for his theories about the origin of life, for his book The Origin of Life. He studied the biochemistry of material processing by plants and enzyme reactions in plant cells, he showed that many food-production processes were based on biocatalysis and developed the foundations for industrial biochemistry in the USSR. Born in Uglich in 1894, Oparin graduated from the Moscow State University in 1917 and became a professor of biochemistry there in 1927. Many of his early papers were about their role in metabolism. In 1924 he put forward a hypothesis suggesting that life on Earth developed through a gradual chemical evolution of carbon-based molecules in the Earth's primordial soup. In 1935, along with academician Alexey Bakh, he founded the Biochemistry Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. In 1939, Oparin became a Corresponding Member of the Academy, and, in 1946, a full member. In 1940s and 1950s he supported the theories of Trofim Lysenko and Olga Lepeshinskaya, who made claims about "the origin of cells from noncellular matter".
"Taking the party line" helped advance his career. In 1970, he was elected President of the International Society for the Study of the Origins of Life, he died in Moscow on April 21, 1980, was interred in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. Oparin became Hero of Socialist Labour in 1969, received the Lenin Prize in 1974 and was awarded the Lomonosov Gold Medal in 1979 "for outstanding achievements in biochemistry", he was a five-time recipient of the Order of Lenin. Although Oparin's started out reviewing various panspermia theories, including those of Hermann von Helmholtz and William Thomson Kelvin, he was interested in how life began; as early as 1922, he asserted that: There is no fundamental difference between a living organism and lifeless matter. The complex combination of manifestations and properties characteristic of life must have arisen as a part of the process of the evolution of matter. Taking into account the recent discovery of methane in the atmospheres of Jupiter and the other giant planets, Oparin suggested that the infant Earth had possessed a reducing atmosphere, containing methane, ammonia and water vapor.
In his opinion, these were the raw materials for the evolution of life. In Oparin's formulation, there were first only simple solutions of organic matter, the behavior of, governed by the properties of their component atoms and the arrangement of these atoms into a molecular structure. Though, he said, the resulting growth and increased complexity of molecules brought new properties into being and a new colloidal-chemical order developed as a successor to more simple relationships between and among organic chemicals; these newer properties were determined by the interactions of these more complex molecules. Oparin posited. According to Oparin, speed of cell growth, survival of the fittest, struggle for existence and natural selection determined the form of material organization characteristic of modern-day living things. Oparin outlined a way he thought that basic organic chemicals might have formed into microscopic localized systems, from which primitive living things could have developed, he cited work done by de Jong on coacervates and research by others, including himself, into organic chemicals which, in solution, might spontaneously form droplets and layers.
Oparin suggested that different types of coacervates could have formed in the Earth's primordial ocean and been subject to a selection process that led to life. While Oparin himself was unable to conduct experiments to test any of these ideas researchers tried. In 1953, Stanley Miller attempted an experiment to investigate whether chemical self-organization could have been possible on pre-historic Earth; the Miller–Urey experiment introduced heat and electrical energy into a mixture of several simple components that would be present in a reducing atmosphere. Within a short period of time a variety of familiar organic compounds, such as amino acids, were synthesised; the compounds that formed were somewhat more complex than the molecules present at the beginning of the experiment. The Communist Party's official interpretation of Marxism, dialectical materialism, fit Oparin's speculation on the origins of life as'a flow, an exchange, a dialectical unity'; this notion was re-enforced by Oparin's association with Lysenko.
Oparin, A. I. Proiskhozhdenie zhizni. Moscow: Izd. Moskovskii Rabochii, 1924. English translations: Oparin, A. I. "The origin of life", translation by Ann Synge. In: Bernal, J. D; the origin of life, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1967, p. 199–234. Google, Valencia University. Oparin, A. I; the Origin and Development of Life. Washington: D. C. L GPO, 1968. Oparin, A. I. Vozniknovenie zhizni na zemle. Moscow: Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1936. English translations: Oparin, A. I; the Origin of Life, 1st ed. New York: Macmillan, 1938. Oparin, A. I; the Origin of Life, 2nd ed. New York: Dover, 1953, reprinted in 2003, Google. Oparin, A. I; the Origin of Life on the Earth, 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1957, BHL Oparin, A. Fesenkov, V. Life in the Universe. Moscow: USSR Academy of Sciences publisher, 3rd edition, 1956. English translation: Oparin, A. and V. Fesenkov. Life in the Universe. New York: Twayne Publishers. "The External Factors in Enzyme Interactions Within a Plant Cell" "Life, Its Nature and Evolution" "The History of the Theory of Genesis and Evolution of Life" Abiogenesis Biochemistry Microsphere Proteinoid Sid
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Escuela Nacional Preparatoria
The Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, the oldest senior High School system in Mexico, belonging to the National Autonomous University of Mexico, opened its doors on February 1, 1868. It was founded by Gabino Barreda, M. D. following orders of President of Mexico Benito Juárez. It is modern UNAM's oldest institution; this institution's location was the Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso, located in the heart of Mexico City's historic center. This college was founded in 1588 by the Jesuits and was prestigious during colonial times, but it had completely fallen into ruin by the time of the Reform Laws in the 1860s; these Laws secularized most of Church property, including the San Ildefonso College building In 1867, Benito Juárez began reform of the educational system, taking it out of clerical hands and making it a government function. San Ildefonso was converted into the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria directed by Gabino Barreda, who organized the new school on the Positivist model of Auguste Comte; the initial purpose of the school was to provide the nucleus of students for the soon-to-be-reconstructed Universidad Nacional National Autonomous University of Mexico, re-established in 1910 by Justo Sierra.
The new preparatory school began functioning at the San Ildefonso building with more than 700 day students and 200 live-in students. The complex remained a separate entity until 1929, when the Universidad Nacional gained autonomy, meaning it became independent of the government, though still government-sponsored; the Preparatory School became part of the newly independent university system, being designated as Preparatory #1 for a short time. Following this, because of the increasing demand, nine more schools were built, as well as a new organizational organism called General Direction; these schools were located at the center of Mexico City, but due the increasing size of the city and the necessity for modern buildings, they were relocated in the vicinity of the city orientated in the southern neighborhoods like Coyoacán, Xochimilco and Villa Coapa. The original San Ildefonso College location remained open until 1978, it is now cultural museum. In 1972, the School's orchestra was founded by Uberto Zanolli.
Its present director is Luis Samuel Saloma, who made a tour along the 9 schools of the ENP, giving a final concert at the Auditorium at the General Direction. Frida Kahlo was one of their many students, she attended the school in 1922. The school runs academic exchanges with different foreign institutions, they are run on a yearly basis; the Horizon High School in Broomfield, United States, has a 10-day exchange plan for 9 students and 2 teachers at School number 3. City High School at Oklahoma has an exchange of 15 days with School number 9. Although the schools all have a name and a number, they are referred to by their numbers rather than by their names; the school has 2 kinds of study plan: Iniciación Universitaria: Is only run at School 2, it consists in 6 years, which covers Mexican Secondary and Preparatory School, the second half of it, is identical to all the other Schools plan. High School, it is the main plan in all 9 schools. Last year is divided in 4 specialization areas: Physics and Engineering/ Biology and Health Sciences/Social Sciences/ Arts and Humanities.
Gabino Barreda Miguel E. Schultz José Vasconcelos Ezequiel A. Chávez Alfonso Caso Andrade - Moisés Hurtado González Guadalupe Gorostieta y Cadena Ernesto Schettino Maimone José Luis Balmaceda Becerra Héctor Enrique Herrera León y Vélez María de Lourdes Sánchez Obregón Silvia Jurado Cuéllar “Alumnos de la UNAM, carne de cañon de aspirantes presidenciales”, DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, S. A. de C. V, México, November 13, 2005 “Continuaran protestas de estudiantes”, DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, S. A. de C. V, México, November 21, 2005 "Solucion en Preparatoria 5 y 6”, DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, S. A. de C. V, México, November 23, 2005 Revista Vértigo, año V No. 245 / November 27, 2005, Julio Derbéz del Pino pp. 26–28. Sistema Escolar de Calificaciones Gaceta ENP
Tijuana is the largest city of both Baja California State and the Baja Peninsula. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana transborder urban agglomeration and the larger Southern California megalopolis; as the 6th-largest city in Mexico and center of the 6th-largest metro area in Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence in education and politics – across Mexico, in transportation and art – across both Californias, in manufacturing and as a migration hub – across the North American continent. One of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in Mexico, Tijuana maintains global city status; as of 2015, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,641,570. Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, is the municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality. Tijuana covers 70 % of 80 % of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of many multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century, Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North America.
Tijuana is a growing cultural center and has been recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most visited border city in the globe. More than fifty million people cross the border between these two cities every year; this metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone. Tijuana is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city itself was 6th largest and the municipality 3rd largest nationally; the international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, the largest bi-national conurbation, shared between US and Mexico.
Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego. Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias; as the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded on July 1889 as urban development began. Known by its supposed initials, T. J. and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s. The city’s name comes from the rancho that Santiago Argüello Moraga established in 1829 on his Mexican land grant, naming it Rancho Tía Juana; the first Spanish mission call the settlement variously as'La Tía Juana','Tiguana','Tiuana','Tiwana','Tijuan','Ticuan', as well as'Tijuana'. While the Mexican city standardized to "Tijuana", the American term for both the river and a U. S. settlement, now part of San Ysidro remained "Tia Juana" until the mid-20th century.
The accepted theory among historians is that Tía Juana, as Argüello named his rancho, is derived from the word "Tiwan" in the language of the Kumeyaay – the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region. Urban legend, states that Tía Juana, which means Aunt Jane in Spanish, was a real person whose inn provided food and lodging to travelers. There is however no record of such an inn. In Spanish, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nah" /tiˈxwana/ – with three syllables, the "j" in Mexican Spanish pronounced as a guttural "h" sound. In English, the name is pronounced "Tee-HWAH-nuh" /tiːˈhwɑːnə/ but the incorrect pronunciation "Tee-uh-WAH-nuh" /tiːəˈwɑːnə/, based on the obsolete "Tía Juana", persists outside the San Diego area. In Southern California, Tijuana is referred to as "TJ" or T. J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan. A common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero.
The nickname Tijuas is popular among residents and visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing; the phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to I Tijuanate, you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and crossing the border; the land was inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which Sebastián Vizcaíno mapped in 1602. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more details about the area, called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in nearby San Diego. Further settlement took place near the end of the mission era when José María de Echeandía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829; this large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana, covered 100 km2.
Although "Tia Juana" means "Aunt Jane" in Spanish, the name was an adaptation of
School of Architecture, UNAM
The School of Architecture at UNAM is one of the leading schools of architecture and design in Mexico. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate studies in architecture, landscape architecture and industrial design; the School is one of the follow-up institutions of the former Academia de San Carlos, the other one being the School of Arts and Design. The Academia de San Carlos offered studies in architecture since 1791, under control of the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. In 1910, Porfirio Diaz's government grants autonomy to the university, thus the academy was reorganized as the Escuela Nacional de Arquitectura and the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas. In 1954 the architecture school moved to its current facilities in Ciudad Universitaria as Facultad de Arquitectura; the first postgraduate studies in both architecture and urbanism were opened in 1968. In 1969 the school opened its undergraduate program in industrial design, in 1985 the undergraduate programs in urbanism and landscape architecture and postgraduate studies in industrial design.
The School is run by a dean B. A. Marcos Mazari Hiriart, he is aided by a Technical Council, composed of professors and student and administrative representatives, which makes decisions regarding curriculum, school calendars and schedules, among other tasks. The school includes the four undergraduate programs, the graduate and research programs. In addition, the school holds its own architectural office, which develops projects both for the University and for external clients; the undergraduate program in architecture is organised within five branches: project. Furthermore, the program is spread among 16 independent studios or workshops which offer all the mandatory courses; these studios are physically located in eight two story buildings. These workshops were conceived to perform long-standing projects and focus on experimentation of different architectural conceptions, depending on the staff that the studio had, the profile of the students was formed; the workshops are named after Mexican architects or architects that had contributed to Mexican architecture: Luis Barragán Max Cetto Ehécatl 21 Juan Antonio García Gayou Domingo García Ramos Jorge González Reyna Carlos Lazo Barreiro Jorge González Reyna Ramón Marcos Noriega Federico Mariscal y Piña Hannes Meyer Juan O'Gorman José Revueltas José Villagrán García Tres Uno The School is located in Ciudad Universitaria in Mexico City, near the School of Engineering, UNAM.
It is spread in two separate building complexes. A separate building houses the graduate programs and the undergraduate programs in industrial design and urbanism, two libraries specializing in industrial design and in doctorate-level research, a cafeteria. Bachelor of Architecture Bachelor of Industrial Design Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Bachelor of Urbanism Master of Architecture Master of Industrial Design Master of Urbanism Doctor of Architecture Doctor of Urbanism Architectural specialization in Housing Architectural specialization in Lightweight Structures Architectural specialization in Real estate appraisal Antonio Attolini Lack Alberto Arai Augusto H. Álvarez Honorato Carrasco Gabriela Carrillo Ignacio del Rio - on behalf of STUDIO MMX Carlos Obregón Santacilia Teodoro González de León Juan O'Gorman Carlos Lazo Carlos Leduc Montaño Ricardo Legorreta Enrique del Moral José de Arimatea Moyao Mario Pani Emmanuel Ramirez -on behalf of STUDIO MMX Pedro Ramírez Vázquez Diego Ricalde -on behalf of STUDIO MMX José Revueltas Mauricio Rocha Mario Schjetnan Javier Senosiain Juan Sordo Madaleno José Villagrán García http://arquitectura.unam.mx/arquitectura.html#talleres Official Website
School of Chemistry, UNAM
The School of Chemistry is one of the 27 academic institutions that are part of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The School carries out research activities in the fields of biochemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, food chemistry, metallurgy, chemical engineering, inorganic chemistry, nuclear chemistry, theoretical chemistry and theoretical physics; the School is organized into 4 units. The School of chemistry offers five 4.5-year undergraduate degrees: Chemical engineering Metallurgical chemical engineering Chemistry Pharmaceutical Biological Chemistry Food chemistryMost of the School's buildings are located in the main campus of UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, while two more external campuses are part of the School, the External Complex of Tacuba, in Tacuba, west Mexico City, the Sisal Foreign Station, in Sisal, Mérida, south-east Mexico. The institution offers graduate level studies in diverse areas: Chemical Sciences Biochemical Sciences Chemical Engineering Industrial Management Teaching in Chemical Sciences for High School Education Material Science and Engineering Marine Sciences and Limnology Clinical BiochemistryIn addition, the School offers several Lifelong Learning programs as well as a wide range of training certificates.
In the early 20th century, the Mexican industry was focused on beer brewing, sugar processing and textile manufacturing and some pharmaceutical industries. However, the harsh national and international context, derived from the mexican revolution movement and the World War I affected the availability of skilled personnel. Therefore, in January 1913, Juan Salvador Agraz presented an initiative to the mexican president Francisco I. Madero to create the School of Chemistry. On September 23, 1916, the Mexican president Venustiano Carranza promulgated by government-decree the foundation of the National School of Industrial Chemistry in the town of Tacuba. In February 1917, the school was incorporated to the National University of Mexico. In 1919, the school incorporated the degree of pharmacy to its curricula, until provided by the National School of Medicine. Soon, the school established the Laboratory of Analysis and the Laboratory of Preparative Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. In a similar manner, the school installed an ether production plant and created new buildings for fermentative and starch processing, tannery chemicals and pharmaceutical industries.
The first course on organic chemistry applied to pharmacy was taught by Adolfo P. Castañares, who was, after some years, elected as director of the school; the degree in chemical engineering was implemented in 1925 by the pioneering engineer Estanislao Ramírez. He studied in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he learned unit operations from their creator, William H. Walker. Estanislao Ramírez was professor of industrial physics since 1922, 19 years after creating the degree in chemical engineering in the National University of Mexico, he was founder of the degree of industrial chemical engineering in the National Polytechnic Institute, in 1944. In 1965, the National School of Chemical Sciences was awarded the rank of "Faculty", meaning it now had graduate school programs. Mario J. Molina, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1995. Luis E. Miramontes, co-inventor of the first oral contraceptives. Francisco Gonzalo Bolívar Zapata, Prince of Asturias awardee in 1991, developed molecular biology-based techniques used to produce insulin and somatostatin.
Jesús Romo Armería, National Prize for Arts and Sciences in 1971, synthetic chemist who first developed an economical method to synthesize the feminine hormones estradiol and progesterone from dioscoreas. Alfonso Romo de Vivar, developed an economical technique to obtain steroids using natural products from vegetal resources such as Yucca filifera. Benito Bucay Faradji, professor and mathematician. Roberto Medellín, dean of UNAM and director of the IPN in the decade of 1930; the School of Chemistry consists of the following buildings: Complexes A, B, C and F, in the main area of Ciudad Universitaria campus. Complexes D and E, in the south sector of Ciudad Universitaria. External Complex of Tacuba, it is placed where the original building of the National School of Chemical Sciences was first established, it is located in the borough of San Álvaro, north-west Mexico City. Sisal Foreign Station, in Sisal, Mérida, Yucatán. Juan Salvador Agraz Adolfo P. Castañares Francisco Lisci, Roberto Medellín, Julián Sierra Ricardo Caturegli Fontes, Juan Manuel Noriega Rafael Illiescas Fribie, Fernando Orozco Díaz Manuel Dondé Gorozpe Eugenio Álvarez Francisco Díaz Lombardo Manuel Madrazo Garamendi José F. Herrán Arellano Armando Xavier Padilla Olivares Francisco José Barnés de Castro Andoni Garritz Ruiz Enrique Bazúa Rueda Santiago Capella Vizcaíno Eduardo Bárzana García Jorge Manuel Vázquez Ramos Manuel Dondé Gorozpe † Fernando Orozco Díaz † Rafael Illescas Frisbie † Humberto Estrada Ocampo † Alberto Urbina del Raso † José Giral † José Francisco Herrán Arellano † Fernando González Vargas † Francisco Giral González † César R