Pordenone, Il Pordenone in Italian, is the byname of Giovanni Antonio de’ Sacchis, an Italian Mannerist painter, loosely of the Venetian school. Vasari, his main biographer, wrongly identifies him as Giovanni Antonio Licinio, he painted in several cities in northern Italy "with speed and deliberate coarseness of expression and execution—intended to shock". He appears to have visited Rome, learnt from its High Renaissance masterpieces, but lacked a good training in anatomical drawing. Like Polidoro da Caravaggio, he was one of the artists commissioned to paint the exteriors of buildings. Michelangelo is said to have approved of one palace facade in 1527. Much of his work was lost when the Doge's Palace in Venice was destroyed by fires in 1574 and 1577. A number of fresco cycles survive, for example part of one at Cremona Cathedral, where his Passion scenes have a violence hardly repeated until Goya. Another cycle was at the Scuola Grande della Carità in Venice, now the Gallerie dell'Accademia, the main art museum, where he worked with the young Tintoretto.
His life was as restless as his art. He had some influence on works by Titian and more on Tintoretto, who to some extent took over his position as the leading painter of large mural commissions in Venice. Titian and Pordenone were rivals in his last decade and gossip claimed that his death was suspicious, his name derives from being born in Pordenone in Friuli. He dropped the name of de’ Sacchis, having quarrelled with his brother Bartolomeo, who had wounded him in the hand, he called himself Regillo, or De Regillo. His signature runs De Portunaonis, he was knighted as a cavaliere by the Hungarian King John Zápolya. As a painter, Pordenone was a scholar of Pellegrino da San Daniele, but a leading influence of his style was Giorgione, it was claimed that Pordenone’s first commission was given him by a grocer in his home town, to try his boast that he could paint a picture as the priest commenced High Mass, complete it by the time Mass was over. The district about Pordenone had been somewhat fertile in capable painters.
The 1911 Britannica states that "so far as mere flesh-painting is concerned he was inferior to Titian in breadth and tone". The two were rivals for a time, Giovanni Antonio would sometimes affect to wear arms while he was painting, he excelled in portraits. He executed many works in Pordenone and elsewhere in Friuli and Venice; the figure of St. Roch, in the Dome of Pordenone is considered his own portrait, he was invited by Duke Ercole II of Ferrara to court. His works are comparatively careless and superficial. Pordenone appears to have been a vehement self-asserting man, to which his style as a painter corresponds. Three of his principal pupils were Bernardino Licinio, named Il Sacchiense, his son-in-law Pomponio Amalteo, Giovanni Maria Calderari. Study of the Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr Saint Bonaventure Saint Louis of Toulouse Saints Prosdocimus and St. Peter. Golgotha Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints St Lorenzo Giustiniani and Other Saints Madonna and Child enthroned with Saints Cupula Frescoes: Scenes from Old Testament, Basilica di Santa Maria di Campagna, Piacenza Saint Martin and Saint Christopher San Lorenzo Giustiniani and Two Friars with Saints Saints Sebastian and Catherine Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints.
The dispute of Saint Catherine with Pagan Philosophers Deposition and Immacolata Concezione San Gottardo and Saints Sebastian and Rocco Saint Catherine and Martyrs Drawings from Ambrosiana Library, Milan Magi Giuditta Hartt, History of Italian Renaissance Art, 1987, Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0500235104 Nichols, Tintoretto: Tradition and Identity]], 2015, Reaktion Books, ISBN 1780234813, 9781780234816, google books This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pordenone, Il". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 101–102
Carlo Cignani was an Italian painter. His innovative style referred to as his'new manner' introduced a reflective, intimate mood of painting and presaged the pictures of Guido Reni and Guercino, as well as those of Simone Cantarini; this gentle manner marked a break with the more energetic style of earlier Bolognese classicism of the Bolognese School of painting. He was born to limited resources, in Bologna, his father's first name was Pompeo, his mother, Maddalena Quaini. In Bologna, he studied first under Battista Cairo and under Francesco Albani, to whom he remained allied, was his most famous disciple, his first noted commission was a St Paul exorcising demon for the church of the Gesu in Bologna. For a hall dedicated to the Farnese in the Palazzo Publico, he painted with Taruffi, depicting the Francis, king of France, curing Scrofula on his entry to Bologna and the Entry of Paul III Farnese to Bologna', he was strongly influenced by the genius of Correggio and by the masterworks by Melozzo da Forlì.
For instance, his masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, around the cupola of the church of the Madonna del Fuoco at Forlì, is inspired by the Correggio's frescoes in the cupola of the Cathedral of Parma and by the Melozzo's perspective from down to up. These frescoes occupied Cignani for some twenty years. In 1681 Cignani returned to Bologna from Parma, he opened an accademia del nudo for painting from models and had as one of his pupils Giuseppe Maria Crespi. He had some of the defects of his masters: his elaborate finish and his audacious artificiality in the use of color and in composition mark Albani's influence. Despite that, he imparted to his work more of an intellectual character than his mentors; as a man Cignani was eminently amiable and generous. He accepted no honors lived and died an artist. In 1686 he moved to Forlì; when the Accademia Clementina for Bolognese artists was founded in 1706, Cignani was posthumously elected Principe in absencia for life. His most famous pictures, in addition to the Assumption cited, are the Entry of Paul III into Bologna.
His son Felice Cignani and nephew Paolo Cignani were painters. His most noted pupils were Federico Bencovich. Other pupils include Giacomo Boni and Francesco Bondi. Penitent Magdalen, Dulwich Picture Gallery Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Oil on canvas, 99 x 99 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Dresden Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Musee Fesch, Ajaccio Charity Oil on canvas, 119.4 x 161.3 cm, San Francisco Museum of Art Judgement of Paris, Oil on canvas, 130.5 x 161 cm, Circolo della Scranna, Forlì Incoronazione di Santa Rosa, Oil on canvas, Forlì, Pinacoteca Civica Self-portrait, Oil on canvas, Forlì, Pinacoteca Civica With Felice Cignani, La Vergine e San Filippo Neri, Oil on canvas, Forlì, Pinacoteca Civica. Media related to Carlo Cignani at Wikimedia Commons This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cignani, Carlo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 364–365. Spike, John T.. Centro Di, ed. Giuseppe Maria Crespi and the Emergence of Genre Painting in Italy.
Fort Worth: Kimball Museum of Art. Pp. 14–15. Ippolito, Zanelli. Vita del Gran Pittore Cavalier Carlo Cignani. Bologna: Nella Stamperia di L. dalla Volpe
Vision of St. John on Patmos
The Vision of St. John the Evangelist at Patmos is a series of frescoes by the Italian late Renaissance artist Antonio Allegri da Correggio, it occupies the interior of the dome, the relative pendentives, of the Benedictine church of San Giovanni Evangelista of Parma, Italy. The centre of the cupola is occupied by an illusionistic space based on series of concentric planes indicated by the clouds, from which the apostles stretch out. Starting from the border of the dome, the clouds thin out and open to a shiny light Christ descending towards the floor of the nave; the scene is a faithful rendering of John's Book of Revelation. The figure of St. John leans from the drum of the dome; this part of the fresco was hidden to the people present in the church, but visible to the monks in the choir and under the dome. In the four pendentives Correggio painted, the Four Evangelists and the Four Doctors of the Church; these are: St. Matthew with an angel. Assumption of the Virgin Valerio Terraroli, Elemond Arte, 1992
Treviso is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Treviso and the municipality has 84,669 inhabitants: some 3,000 live within the Venetian walls or in the historical and monumental center, some 80,000 live in the urban center proper while the city hinterland has a population of 170,000; the city is home to the headquarters of clothing retailer Benetton, Stefanel, Geox and Lotto Sport Italia, appliance maker De'Longhi, bicycle maker Pinarello. Treviso is known for being the original production area of Prosecco wine and radicchio, is thought to have been the origin of the popular Italian dessert Tiramisù; some believe that Treviso derived its name from the Celtic word "tarvos" mixed with the Latin ending "isium" forming "Tarvisium". Others believe. Tarvisium a city of the Veneti, became a municipium in 89 BCE after the Romans added Cisalpine Gaul to their dominions. Citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe of Claudia; the city lay in proximity of the Via Postumia, which connected Opitergium to Aquileia, two major cities of Roman Venetia during Ancient and early medieval times.
Treviso is mentioned by ancient writers, although Pliny writes of the Silis, the Sile River, as flowing ex montibus Tarvisanis. During the Roman Period, Christianity spread to Treviso. Tradition records that St. Prosdocimus, a Greek, ordained bishop by St. Peter, brought the Catholic faith to Treviso and surrounding areas. By the 4th century, the Christian population grew sufficient to merit a resident bishop; the first documented bishop was John the Pious who began his episcopacy in 396 AD. Treviso went through a demographic and economic decline similar to the rest of Italy after the fall of the Western Empire. According to tradition, Treviso was the birthplace of Totila, the leader of Ostrogoths during the Gothic Wars. After the Gothic Wars, Treviso fell under the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until 568 AD when it was taken by the Lombards, who made it one of 36 ducal seats and established an important mint; the latter was important during the reign of the last Lombard king and continued to churn out coins when northern Italy was annexed to the Frankish Empire.
People from the city played a role in the founding of Venice. Charlemagne made it the capital of a border march, i.e. the Marca Trevigiana, which lasted for several centuries. Treviso joined the Lombard League, gained independence after the Peace of Constance; this lasted until the rise of seignories in northern Italy. Among the various families who ruled over Treviso, the Da Romano reigned from 1237 to 1260. Struggles between Guelph and Ghibelline factions followed, with the first triumphant in 1283 with Gherardo III da Camino, after which Treviso experienced significant economic and cultural growth which continued until 1312. Treviso and its satellite cities, including Castelfranco Veneto, had become attractive to neighbouring powers, including the da Carrara and Scaligeri. After the fall of the last Caminesi lord, Rizzardo IV, the Marca was the site of continuous struggles and ravages. Treviso notary and physician Oliviero Forzetta was an avid collector of drawings. After a Scaliger domination in 1329–1339, the city gave itself to the Republic of Venice, becoming the first notable mainland possession of the Serenissima.
From 1318 it was for a short time, the seat of a university. Venetian rule brought innumerable benefits. From 1381–1384, the city was captured and ruled by the duke of Austria, by the Carraresi until 1388. Having returned to Venice, the city was fortified and given a massive line of walls and ramparts, still existing; the many waterways were exploited with several waterwheels which powered mills for milling grain produced locally. The waterways were all navigable and "barconi" would arrive from Venice at the Port of Treviso pay duty and offload their merchandise and passengers along Riviera Santa Margherita. Fishermen were able to bring fresh catch every day to the Treviso fish market, held still today on an island connected to the rest of the city by two small bridges at either end. Treviso was taken in 1797 by the French under Mortier, made duke of Treviso. French domination lasted until the defeat of Napoleon, after which it passed to the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the citizens, still at heart loyal to the fallen Venetian Republic, were displeased with imperial rule and in March 1848, drove out the Austrian garrison.
However, after the town was bombarded, the people were compelled to capitulate in the following June 14th. Austrian rule continued until Treviso was annexed with the rest of Veneto to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866. During World War I, Treviso held a strategic position close to the Austrian front. Just north, the Battle of Vittorio Veneto helped turn the tide of the War. During World War II, one of several Italian concentration camps was established for Slovene and Croatian civilians from the Province of Ljubljana in Monigo, near Treviso; the camp was disbanded with the Italian capitulation in 1943. The city suffered several bombings during World War
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. An ancient town, seat of an archbishop, it is known for its automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini and Maserati are, or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself; the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II d'Este in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace; the Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar.
Famous Modenesi include Mary of the Queen consort of England and Scotland. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River, their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel; the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni; these are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences. It has an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall; this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1946 to 1992, Modena had an uninterrupted consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions. At the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party.
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council, composed by 35 members elected every five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor; the current mayor of Modena is member of the Democratic Party of Italy. The territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in 218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the Boii revolted and laid siege to the city. Livy described it as a fortified citadel; the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most abandoned after Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona.
In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice. The first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC; the city surrendered out of hunger, Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the civil war following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate. Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics; until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position as the most important city in the newly formed province Aemilia, but the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, but it was buried by a great flood in the 7th century and abandoned; as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, in central-northern Italy, during construction work to build a residential complex near the ancient walls of the city.
"We found a large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps. There were vases, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in charge of the dig, stated, its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still represented by the village of Cittanova. About the end of the 9th century, Modena
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua
The Basilica of Sant'Andrea is a Roman Catholic co-cathedral and minor basilica in Mantua, Lombardy. It is one of the major works of 15th-century Renaissance architecture in Northern Italy. Commissioned by Ludovico III Gonzaga, the church was begun in 1472 according to designs by Leon Battista Alberti on a site occupied by a Benedictine monastery, of which the bell tower remains; the building, was only finished 328 years later. Though changes and expansions altered Alberti's design, the church is still considered to be one of Alberti's most complete works, it looms over the Piazza Mantegna. The façade, built abutting a pre-existing bell tower, is based on the scheme of the ancient Arch of Trajan at Ancona, it is a brick structure with hardened stucco used for the surface. It is defined by a large central arch, flanked by Corinthian pilasters. There are left of the arch. A novel aspect of the design was the integration of a lower order, comprising the fluted Corinthian columns, with a giant order, comprising the taller, unfluted pilasters.
The whole is surmounted by a pediment and above that a vaulted structure, the purpose of, not known, but to shade the window opening into the church behind it. An important aspect of Alberti's design was the correspondence between the façade and the interior elevations, both elaborations of the triumphal arch motif, the arcades, like the facade, having alternating high arches and much lower square topped openings; the nave is roofed by a barrel vault, one of the first times such a form was used in such a monumental scale since antiquity, modeled on the Basilica of Maxentius in Rome. Alberti planned for the vault to be coffered, much like the shorter barrel vault of the entrance, but lack of funds led to the vault being constructed as a simple barrel vault with the coffers being painted on; the building was planned without a transept, even without a dome. This phase of construction more or less ended in 1494. In 1597, the lateral arms were added and the crypt finished; the massive dome was designed by Filippo Juvarra, the final decorations on the interior added under Paolo Pozzo and others in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The purpose of the new building was to receive the pilgrims who visited it during the feast of Ascension when a vial, that the faithful argue contains the Blood of Christ, is brought up from the crypt below through a hole in the floor directly under the dome. The relic, called Preziosissimo Sangue di Cristo, is preserved in the Sacred Vessels, according to the tradition was brought to Mantua by the Roman centurion Longinus, who had scooped up the earth containing the blood; the first discover was dated to the year 804 when the Roman emperor St Charlemagne asked and obtained by Pope Leo III the official authentication and license for veneration in all the Roman Catholic Church. According to many scholars, Mantua become a diocese and in the place of the discovery was edificated the first nucleous of the odiern Cathedral of St Andrew; the relic was "rediscovered". 1049, at the presence of Matilda of Tuscany. Pope Leo IX recognized this relic as authentic in 1053, it was venerated during the Renaissance.
The shrines are displayed only on the Good Friday, to the faithful and brought out along the streets of Mantua in a procession. Some portions of the precious relic were translation by Charlemagne to the St Chapelle in Paris, to the Weingarten Abbey, to the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran in Rome, to the Church of the Holy Cross in the Guastalla. In the belltower there are five bells cast in the 19th century. One of the chapels is known as the Mantegna funerary chapel, since it houses the tomb of the early Renaissance painter Andrea Mantegna, with a bronze figure of him by Gianmarco Cavalli and Mantegna's own Holy Family. Other artworks in the chapels include frescoes of Correggio. Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua Blood of Christ Johnson, Eugene J.. S. Andrea in Mantua: the building history. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01186-6. Il Sant'Andrea di Mantova e Leon Battista Alberti. Mantova: Ed. della Bibl. Comunale. 1974. OCLC 2549495. La reliquia del sangue di Cristo: Mantova, l'Italia e l'Europa ad tempo di Leone IX, ed. Glauco Maria Cantarella, Verona: Scripta, 2012.
Alberti's Sant' Andrea in Mantua, Heather Horton, article at Smarthistory Basilica Concattedrale di S. Andrea - complesso Mantua tourist guide Mantua tourist guide
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, displays around 750 paintings from the 15th to the 18th centuries. It includes major Italian Renaissance works as well as Flemish paintings. Outstanding works by German and Spanish painters of the period are among the gallery's attractions; the Old Masters are part of the Dresden State Art Collections. The collection is located in the gallery wing of the Zwinger; when the Kunstkammer of the Electors of Saxony in Dresden was founded by Augustus, Elector of Saxony in 1560, paintings were subordinate to collectors' pieces from science, other art works and curiosities. It was not until the beginning of the 18th century that Augustus II the Strong and his son Frederick Augustus II started to collect paintings systematically. Over a period of less than 60 years, these two art-loving Electors of Saxony, who were Kings of Poland, expanded the collections significantly. In 1745, the 100 best pieces of the collection belonging to the Duke of Modena were purchased, arriving in Dresden the following year.
As the fast-growing painting collection soon required more space for storage and presentation, it was moved from Dresden Castle to the adjacent Stallgebäude in 1747. In the meantime the collection had achieved European fame. Paintings from all over Europe from Italy, Paris and Prague, were acquired and sent to Dresden; the purchasing activities of the Electors were crowned by the acquisition of Raphael’s Sistine Madonna in 1754. In 1838, the architect Gottfried Semper was invited by a gallery commission working for King Frederick Augustus II, to design an appropriate architectural setting for the collection; the new gallery wing of the Zwinger was built from 1847 to 1854. On 25 September 1855, the Neues Königliches Museum opened in the Semper Gallery where it is still located today. Due to shortage of space, the Modern Department of the museum with paintings from the 19th and 20th centuries moved into a separate building on Brühl's Terrace, laying the foundations for what is now known as the New Masters Gallery.
When World War II was imminent in 1938, the museum was closed. The artworks were safely stored away when the gallery building itself was damaged in the bombing of Dresden on 13 February 1945. At the end of the war in 1945, most of the paintings were confiscated by the Red Army and transported to Moscow and Kiev. On their return to Dresden in 1955, part of the collection was displayed on the ground floor of the still destroyed Semper Gallery; the Old Masters Gallery re-opened in 1960 after the reconstruction of the gallery building was completed. While the most important paintings survived this period, the losses were significant. Records from 1963 state that 206 paintings had been destroyed and 507 were missing. Of these, some 450 are still missing today; some 750 paintings, or 40 percent of the entire collection, are exhibited in the gallery. They date from the 15th to the 18th centuries. Paintings from the 19th century onwards are displayed in the New Masters Gallery in the Albertinum. Renaissance and Baroque masterpieces by Italian painters such as Raphael, Giorgione, Correggio and Guercino are displayed.
The collection contains a large number of 17th-century Flemish and Dutch paintings by Rubens, Jordaens, Van Dyck and Vermeer. Outstanding works by German and Spanish painters are among the gallery's attractions. With 58 paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder and Lucas Cranach the Younger, the gallery houses the world's largest collection of Cranach paintings. Panels and canvases of the early Renaissance are exhibited, including the restored Saint Sebastian by Antonello da Messina; the color of the walls is used to structure the collection. Italian artwork is exhibited in rooms with deep red walls. Dutch and Flemish paintings are shown on green backgrounds. Spanish and French pictures from the 17th century are displayed on gray walls; the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister receives more than 500,000 visitors a year. The year 2012 marks the 500th anniversary of Raphael's Dresden masterpiece Sistine Madonna, celebrated with a special exhibition; the paintings are moved from their current place in the western part of the building into the renovated eastern part in January 2016.
The visible collection will be reduced to 400 pieces for this period. The renovation of the western part will be finished in 2017. List of museums in Saxony A. H. Payne, Royal Dresden Gallery, New York: D. Appleton, OCLC 8988584 Gemäldegalerie, Complete catalogue of the Royal Picture Gallery at Dresden, Dresden,: G. Schönfeld's Buchhandlung, OCLC 4424862 Gemäldegalerie, Catalogue of the pictures in the Royal Gallery at Dresden, Dresden: Buchdr. Der Wilhelm und Bertha v. Baensch Stiftung, OCLC 4232437 Media related to Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Paintings in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister at Wikimedia Commons Old Masters Picture Gallery of the Dresden State Art Collections