Jocelyn Bell Burnell
Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell is an astrophysicist from Northern Ireland who, as a postgraduate student, co-discovered the first radio pulsars in 1967. She was credited with "one of the most significant scientific achievements of the 20th century"; the discovery was recognised by the award of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics, but despite the fact that she was the first to observe the pulsars, Bell was not one of the recipients of the prize. The paper announcing the discovery of pulsars had five authors. Bell's thesis supervisor Antony Hewish was listed first, Bell second. Hewish was awarded the Nobel Prize, along with the astronomer Martin Ryle. Many prominent astronomers criticised Bell's omission, including Sir Fred Hoyle. In 1977, Bell Burnell played down this controversy, saying, "I believe it would demean Nobel Prizes if they were awarded to research students, except in exceptional cases, I do not believe this is one of them." The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in its press release announcing the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics, cited Ryle and Hewish for their pioneering work in radio-astrophysics, with particular mention of Ryle's work on aperture-synthesis technique, Hewish's decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.
Bell served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society from 2002 to 2004, as president of the Institute of Physics from October 2008 until October 2010, as interim president of the Institute following the death of her successor, Marshall Stoneham, in early 2011. In 2018, she was awarded the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, she donated the whole of the £2.3 million prize money to help female and refugee students become physics researchers. Jocelyn Bell was born in Northern Ireland, to M. Allison and G. Philip Bell, her father was an architect who had helped design the Armagh Planetarium, during visits she was encouraged by the staff to pursue astronomy professionally. Young Jocelyn discovered her father's books on astronomy, she grew up in Lurgan and attended the Preparatory Department of Lurgan College from 1948 to 1956, where she, like the other girls, was not permitted to study science until her parents protested against the school's policy. The girls' curriculum had included such subjects as cooking and cross-stitching rather than science.
She failed the eleven-plus exam and her parents sent her to The Mount School, a Quaker girls' boarding school in York, England. There she was favourably impressed by her physics teacher, Mr Tillott, stated: You do not have to learn lots and lots... of facts. He was a good teacher and showed me how easy physics was. Bell Burnell was the subject of the first part of the BBC Four three-part series Beautiful Minds, directed by Jacqui Farnham, she graduated from the University of Glasgow with a Bachelor of Science degree in Natural Philosophy, with honours, in 1965 and obtained a PhD degree from the University of Cambridge in 1969. At Cambridge, she attended New Hall and worked with Hewish and others to construct the Interplanetary Scintillation Array to study quasars, discovered. In July 1967, she detected a bit of "scruff" on her chart-recorder papers that tracked across the sky with the stars, she established that the signal was pulsing with great regularity, at a rate of about one pulse every one and a third seconds.
Temporarily dubbed "Little Green Man 1" the source was identified after several years as a rotating neutron star. This was documented by the BBC Horizon series, she worked at the University of Southampton between 1968 and 1973, University College London from 1974 to 82 and the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. From 1973 to 1987 she was a tutor, consultant and lecturer for the Open University. In 1986, she became the project manager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Hawaii, she was Professor of Physics at the Open University from 1991 to 2001. She was a visiting professor at Princeton University in the United States and Dean of Science at the University of Bath, President of the Royal Astronomical Society between 2002 and 2004. Bell Burnell is Visiting Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of Mansfield College, she was President of the Institute of Physics between 2008 and 2010. In February 2018 she was appointed Chancellor of the University of Dundee. In 2018, Bell Burnell visited Parkes, NSW, to deliver the keynote John Bolton lecture at the CWAS AstroFest event.
In 2018, she was awarded the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, worth three million dollars, for her discovery of radio pulsars. The Special Prize, in contrast to the regular annual prize, is not restricted to recent discoveries, she donated all of the money "to fund women, under-represented ethnic minority and refugee students to become physics researchers", the funds to be administered by the Institute of Physics. That Bell did not receive recognition in the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics has been a point of controversy since, she helped build the Interplanetary Scintillation Array over two years and noticed the anomaly, sometimes reviewing as much as 96 feet of paper data per night. Bell claimed that she had to be persistent in reporting the anomaly in the face of scepticism from Hewish, insistent that it was due to interference and man-made, she spoke of meetings held by Ryle to which she was not invited. In 1977, she commented on the issue: First, demarcation disputes between supervisor and student are always difficult impossible to resolve.
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Royal Astronomical Society
The Royal Astronomical Society is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science and related branches of science. Its headquarters are on Piccadilly in London; the society has over 4,000 members, termed Fellows, most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK. Members of the public who have an interest in astronomy and geophysics but do not qualify as Fellows may become Friends of the RAS; the society holds monthly scientific meetings in London, the annual National Astronomy Meeting at varying locations in the British Isles. The RAS publishes the scientific journals Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Geophysical Journal International, along with the trade magazine Astronomy & Geophysics; the RAS maintains an astronomy research library, engages in public outreach and advises the UK government on astronomy education. The society recognises achievement in astronomy and geophysics by issuing annual awards and prizes, with its highest award being the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The RAS is the UK adhering organisation to the International Astronomical Union and a member of the UK Science Council. The society was founded in 1820 as the Astronomical Society of London to support astronomical research. At that time, most members were'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals, it became the Royal Astronomical Society in 1831 on receiving a Royal Charter from William IV. A Supplemental Charter in 1915 opened up the fellowship to women. One of the major activities of the RAS is publishing refereed journals, it publishes two primary research journals, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society in astronomy and the Geophysical Journal International in geophysics. It publishes the magazine A&G which includes reviews and other articles of wide scientific interest in a'glossy' format; the full list of journals published by the RAS, with abbreviations as used for the NASA ADS bibliographic codes is: Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society: 1822–1977 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Since 1827 Geophysical Supplement to Monthly Notices: 1922–1957 Geophysical Journal: 1958–1988 Geophysical Journal International: Since 1989 Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society: 1960–1996 Astronomy & Geophysics: Since 1997 Full members of the RAS are styled Fellows, may use the post-nominal letters FRAS.
Fellowship is open to anyone over the age of 18, considered acceptable to the society. As a result of the society's foundation in a time before there were many professional astronomers, no formal qualifications are required. However, around three quarters of fellows are professional geophysicists; the society acts as the professional body for astronomers and geophysicists in the UK and fellows may apply for the Science Council's Chartered Scientist status through the society. The fellowship passed 3,000 in 2003. In 2009 an initiative was launched for those with an interest in astronomy and geophysics but without professional qualifications or specialist knowledge in the subject; such people may join the Friends of the RAS, which offers popular talks and social events. The Society organises an extensive programme of meetings: The biggest RAS meeting each year is the National Astronomy Meeting, a major conference of professional astronomers, it is held over 4-5 days each spring or early summer at a university campus in the United Kingdom.
Hundreds of astronomers attend each year. More frequent smaller'ordinary' meetings feature lectures about research topics in astronomy and geophysics given by winners of the society's awards, they are held in Burlington House in London on the afternoon of the second Friday of each month from October to May. The talks are intended to be accessible to a broad audience of astronomers and geophysicists, are free for anyone to attend. Formal reports of the meetings are published in The Observatory magazine. Specialist discussion meetings are held on the same day as each ordinary meeting; these are aimed at professional scientists in a particular research field, allow several speakers to present new results or reviews of scientific fields. Two discussion meetings on different topics take place at different locations within Burlington House, prior to the day's ordinary meeting, they charge a small entry fee for non-members. The RAS holds a regular programme of public lectures aimed at a non-specialist, audience.
These are held on Tuesdays once a month, with the same talk given twice: once at lunchtime and once in the early evening. The venues have varied, but are in Burlington House or another nearby location in central London; the lectures are free. The society hosts or sponsors meetings in other parts of the United Kingdom in collaboration with other scientific societies and universities; the Royal Astronomical Society has a more comprehensive collection of books and journals in astronomy and geophysics than the libraries of most universities and research institutions. The library receives some 300 current periodicals in astronomy and geophysics and contains more than 10,000 books from popular level to conference proceedings, its collection of astronomical rare books is second only to that of the Royal Obser
Telecommunications Research Establishment
The Telecommunications Research Establishment was the main United Kingdom research and development organization for radio navigation, infra-red detection for heat seeking missiles, related work for the Royal Air Force during World War II and the years that followed. The name was changed to Radar Research Establishment in 1953, again to the Royal Radar Establishment in 1957; this article covers the precursor organizations and the Telecommunications Research Establishment up to the time of the name change. The work at the site is described in the separate article about RRE; because of its change of name to Royal Radar Establishment, TRE is best known for work on defensive and offensive radar. TRE made substantial contributions to radio-navigation and to jamming enemy radio-navigation. Radar dominates the history; the development of radar in the United Kingdom was started by Sir Henry Tizard's Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence in 1935. Experimental work was begun under the direction of Robert Watson-Watt at Orfordness near Ipswich.
Looking for a suitable permanent location, one of the team members recalled an empty manor house a short distance south of Orfordness and the location became Bawdsey Research Station in 1936. At that time the team became known as the Air Ministry Experimental Station. Bawdsey was only a short E-boat dash across the English Channel from France, a fact, not lost on the Air Ministry. Watson-Watt planned to move the teams to a safer location in the event of war, approached the rector of his alma mater, University College at Dundee, it is not clear whose fault it was, but when the war opened in 1939 the AMES teams rushed to Dundee they found the rector was only dimly aware of the earlier conversation and nothing had been prepared. By this time the students had returned for the fall session, there was little room for the researchers. In addition to lacking room at the Univerisity, the teams working on Airborne Interception radar were sent to a small civilian airfield near Perth, unsuited to the scale of their work.
Complaints by one of the AI team members worked their way up to higher levels of the Ministry, which led to a search for a more suitable location. Late in the year, the AI team was moved to RAF St Athan in Wales, but found the location to be only marginally better than Perth; the "Army Cell" that had formed to take advantage of the AMES research followed their moves. In 1941 they moved to join their colleagues of the Air Defence Experimental Establishment who had moved from RAF Biggin Hill to Christchurch, Dorset on the south coast of England; the merged group became Development Establishment. By the early part of 1940 it was clear that the location in Dundee was not going to work in the long term. A new location was selected in Worth Matravers on the south coast of England, a short distance from the ADRDE teams; the location had a number of advantages, including good views over the English Channel not unlike the ones they had at Bawdsey. However, there was no infrastructure at the site, which had to be hurriedly prepared.
As there was no real village at the site, the location is referred to as Swanage, a small town a short distance to the east. The move took place in late May 1940, further annoyance was created when the careful planning for the move was upset with the AI team arrived first. On arrival, what was AMES was renamed again as the Ministry of Aircraft Production Research Establishment, it was established as the central research group for RAF applications of radar. The name was once again changed to the Telecommunications Research Establishment in November 1940. In parallel with these technical developments, the Ministry of Home Security developed a plan, early in 1939, "to evacuate the critical functions of government out of London" if a threat of air raids developed. A site was purchased in Malvern for the Ministry itself. Although it was not developed, the location had become well known to defence officials; the Air Ministry acquired jurisdiction, used the site for a Signals Training Establishment, housed in prefabricated one storey buildings.
In May 1942, the Radar Research and Development Establishment was set up on the site, to develop truck mounted early warning radars. In the second week of February 1942, the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau escaped from Brest in the Channel Dash, they were undetected until well into the English Channel because German ground forces had increased the jamming of British radar over a period of weeks. The British command had not realized. In the aftermath, Lord Mountbatten and Winston Churchill approved plans for a raid on the German radar station at Bruneval, near Le Havre; the landing party included D. H. Priest, of TRE; the Bruneval raid captured a radar operator. These were taken to TRE. During the weeks that followed, the British authorities became concerned that the Germans would retaliate in kind; when intelligence reported the arrival of a German paratroop battalion across the Channel in May, the staff of TRE pulled out of the Swanage site in a period of hours. The former Telecommunications Research Establishment moved to Malvern, taking up residence in the buildings of Malvern College, an independent boys' boarding school.
The move, carried out in great urgency, is described in detail by Reginald Jones in his book Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. At the end of the war TRE moved from Malvern College, to HMS Duke, a Royal Navy training school, about a mile away in St. Andrews Road adjacent to the area of Barnards Gree
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. He held controversial stances on other scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth, he wrote science fiction novels, short stories and radio plays, co-authored twelve books with his son, Geoffrey Hoyle. He spent most of his working life at the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge and served as its director for six years. Hoyle was born near Bingley in West Riding of Yorkshire, England, his father, Ben Hoyle, a violinist and worked in the wool trade in Bradford, served as a machine gunner in the First World War. His mother, Mabel Pickard, had studied music at the Royal College of Music in London and worked as a cinema pianist. Hoyle was educated at read mathematics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1936 he won the Mayhew Prize. In late 1940, Hoyle left Cambridge to go to Portsmouth to work for the Admiralty on radar research, for example devising a method to get the altitude of the incoming aeroplanes.
He was put in charge of countermeasures against the radar guided guns found on the Graf Spee. Britain's radar project employed more personnel than the Manhattan project, was the inspiration for the large British project in The Black Cloud. Two key colleagues in this war work were Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold, the three had many and deep discussions on cosmology; the radar work paid for a couple of trips to North America, where he took the opportunity to visit astronomers. On one trip to the US he learned about supernovae at Caltech and Mount Palomar and, in Canada, the nuclear physics of plutonium implosion and explosion, noticed some similarity between the two and started thinking about supernova nucleosynthesis, he had an intuition at the time "I will make a name for myself if this works out." His prescient and ground breaking paper came out. He formed a group at Cambridge exploring Stellar nucleosynthesis in ordinary stars and was bothered by the paucity of stellar carbon production in existing models.
He noticed that one of the existing processes would be made a billion times more productive if the carbon-12 nucleus had a resonance at 7.7 MeV, but the nuclear physicists did not list such a one. On another trip he visited the nuclear physics group at Caltech, spending a few months of sabbatical there and persuaded them against their considerable scepticism to look for and find the Hoyle state in carbon-12, from which developed a full theory of stellar nucleosynthesis, co-authored by Hoyle with some members of the Caltech group. After the war, in 1945, Hoyle returned to Cambridge University, starting as a lecturer at St John's College, Cambridge. Hoyle's Cambridge years, 1945–1973, saw him rise to the top of world astrophysics theory, on the basis of a startling originality of ideas covering a wide range of topics. In 1958, Hoyle was appointed to the illustrious Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge University. In 1967, he became the founding director of the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy (subsequently renamed the Institute of Astronomy, where Hoyle's innovative leadership led to this institution becoming one of the premier groups in the world for theoretical astrophysics.
In 1971 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject "Astronomical Instruments and their Construction". Hoyle was knighted in 1972. Hoyle resigned his Plumian professor position in 1972 and his directorship of the institute in 1973, with this move cutting him off from most of his establishment power-base and steady salary. After his leaving Cambridge, Hoyle wrote many popular science and science fiction books, as well as presenting lectures around the world. Part of the motivation for this was to provide a means of support. Hoyle was still a member of the joint policy committee, during the planning stage for the 150-inch Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, he became chairman of the Anglo-Australian Telescope board in 1973, presided at its inauguration in 1974 by Charles, Prince of Wales. After his resignation from Cambridge, Hoyle moved to the Lake District and occupied his time with a mix of treks across the moors, writing books, visiting research centres around the world, working on science ideas that have been nearly-universally rejected.
On 24 November 1997, while hiking across moorlands in west Yorkshire, near his childhood home in Gilstead, Hoyle fell down into a steep ravine called Shipley Glen. Twelve hours Hoyle was found by a search dog, he was hospitalised for two months with pneumonia, kidney problems as a result of hypothermia, a smashed shoulder, while he afterwards suffered from memory and mental agility problems. In 2001, he died in Bournemouth on 20 August. Hoyle authored the first two research papers published on the synthesis of the chemical elements heavier than helium by nuclear reactions in stars; the first of these in 1946 showed that the cores of stars will evolve to temperatures of billions of degrees, much hotter than temperatures considered for thermonuclear origin of stellar power in main sequence stars. Hoyle showed that at such high temperatures the element iron can become much more abundant than other heavy elements owing to thermal equilibrium among nuclear particles, explaining the high natural abundance of iron.
This idea would be called the e Process. Hoyle's second founda
The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is named after the American scientist and statesman, Benjamin Franklin, houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial. Founded in 1824, the Franklin Institute is one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States. On February 5, 1824, Samuel Vaughan Merrick and William H. Keating founded the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. "…With a view further to develop the resources of the union, increase the national independence, call forth the ingenuity and industry of the people, thereby increase the comforts of the community at large. Franklin Institute, opening day 1924, Begun in 1825, the Institute was an important force in the professionalization of American science and technology through the nineteenth century, beginning with early investigations into steam engines and water power. In addition to conducting scientific inquiry it fostered research and education by running schools, publishing the influential Journal of The Franklin Institute, sponsoring exhibitions, recognizing scientific advancement and invention with medals and awards.
In the late twentieth century the Institute's research roles gave way to educating the general public through its museum. The Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute, founded in 1924 to conduct research in the physical sciences, is now part of the University of Delaware; the Franklin Institute Laboratories for Research and Development operated from the Second World War into the 1980s. Many scientists have demonstrated groundbreaking new technology at the Franklin Institute. From September 2 to October 11, 1884, it hosted the International Electrical Exhibition of 1884, the first great electrical exposition in the United States; the world's first public demonstration of an all-electronic television system was given by Philo Taylor Farnsworth on August 25, 1934. The first female member, Elizabeth Skinner, was elected to membership in 1833; the Franklin Institute was integrated in 1870, when Philadelphia teacher and activist Octavius Catto was admitted as a member. The Institute's original building at 15 South 7th Street, now the home of the Atwater Kent Museum proved too small for the Institute's research, educational programs, library.
The Institute moved into its current home on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, near the intersection with 20th Street, in 1934. The new facility was intended from the start to educate visitors through hand-on interactions with exhibits: "Visitors to this museum would be encouraged to touch and operate the exhibits in order to learn how things work." Funds to build the new Institute and Franklin Memorial came from the Poor Richard Club, the City Board of Trust, the Benjamin Franklin Memorial, Inc. and the Franklin Institute. John T. Windrim's original design was a square building surrounding the Benjamin Franklin Statue, which had yet to be built. Despite the effects of the Great Depression, the Benjamin Franklin Memorial, Inc. raised $5 million between December 1929 and June 1930. Only two of the four wings envisioned by Windrim were built. On March 31, 1940, press agent William Castellini issued a press release stating that the world would end the next day; the story was picked up by KYW, which reported, "Your worst fears that the world will end are confirmed by astronomers of Franklin Institute, Philadelphia.
Scientists predict. This is no April Fool joke. Confirmation can be obtained from Wagner Schlesinger, director of the Fels Planetarium of this city." This caused a panic in the city which only subsided when the Franklin Institute assured people it had made no such prediction. Castellini was dismissed shortly thereafter. On December 21, 2017, during a party hosted by the museum, a partygoer with his companions slipped into a closed-off exhibit of ten terracotta warriors on loan from China. After his companions left, the partygoer stole a thumb from one of the warriors. Law enforcement agents recovered the stolen thumb; the vandalized cavalryman is valued at 4.5 million USD, is considered a "priceless part of China's cultural heritage". The vandalism stoked outrage in Chinese media such as Xinhua; the Franklin Institute blamed its external security contractor, stated it has reviewed its security measures and procedures to prevent such situations from recurring. James Ronaldson Samuel V. Merrick John C.
Cresson William Sellers John Vaughan Merrick Coleman Sellers Robert Empie Rogers William Penn Tatham Joseph Miller Wilson Dr. Walton Clark Dr. W. Laurence LePage Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus Dr. Bowen C. Dees Dr. Joel N. Bloom Dr. James L. Powell Dr. Dennis M. Wint Larry Dubinski Donald Morel William J. Avery Marsha R. Perelman James A. Unruh In 2006, the Franklin Institute began fundraising activities for the Inspire Science! capital campaign, a $64.7 million campaign intended to fund the construction of a 53,000 square foot building addition, new exhibits, upgrades and renovations to the existing Institute building and exhibits. In 2011, the Franklin Institute received a $10 million gift from Athena and Nicholas Karabots towards the Inspire Science! capital campaign. This gift is the largest gift in the Institute's history, put the Franklin Institute within $6 million of the $64