Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970. In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, launching the Infitah economic policy; as President, he led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel. Although reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was favorable among Egyptians, it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood and the left, which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state.
With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states. His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989; the peace treaty was one of the primary factors that led to his assassination. Anwar Sadat was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom, Egypt to a poor family, one of 13 brothers and sisters. One of his brothers, Atef Sadat became a pilot and was killed in action during the October War of 1973, his father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat was an Upper Egyptian, his mother, Sit Al-Berain, was Sudanese from her father. He was appointed to the Signal Corps, he was posted to Sudan. There, he met Gamal Abdel Nasser, along with several other junior officers they formed the secret Free Officers, a movement committed to freeing Egypt and Sudan from British domination, royal corruption.
During the Second World War he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to obtain help from the Axis Powers in expelling the occupying British forces. Anwar Sadat was active in many political movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the fascist Young Egypt, the pro-palace Iron Guard of Egypt, the secret military group called the Free Officers. Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which overthrew King Farouk on 23 July of that year. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks. During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954, he was appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria. In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly and vice president and member of the presidential council in 1964, he was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969.
Some of the major events of Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" of Egypt's economy, lastly his assassination in 1981. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970. Sadat's presidency was expected to be short-lived. Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right. On 15 May 1971, Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.
In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring, which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then. Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President Ali Sabri, who had close ties with Soviet officials, Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police. Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police, expelled Soviet military from the country and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel. On 6 October 1973, in conjunction
Woodrow Wilson High School is a secondary school in Washington, D. C, it serves grades 9 through 12, as part of the District of Columbia Public Schools. The school is located in the Tenleytown neighborhood, at the intersection of Chesapeake Street and Nebraska Avenue NW, it serves students in Washington's Ward 3, although nearly 30% of the student body live outside the school’s boundaries. The school building, built in 1935 and extensively renovated in 2010–2011, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2010; the school was named for the 28th president of the United States. The school's motto, "Haec olim meminisse juvabit," is a Latin phrase from Virgil's Aeneid. Woodrow Wilson High School was built on a patch of land acquired in 1930, known by the neighboring Tenleytowners as "French's Woods". In March 1934, the D. C. commissioners awarded the contract to build Wilson to the lowest bidder, McCloskey and Co of Philadelphia. It was built for a total cost of $1.25 million. Wilson opened its doors to students on Monday, September 23, 1935, as an all-white school, thus becoming the sixth DC Interhigh school.
The school started with juniors. Many students transferred to Wilson from Western. Western had been running double shifts to accommodate the students from the Wilson neighborhoods; the first principal was Norman J. Nelson, the assistant principal at Western. Woodrow Wilson High School graduated its first students in February 1937. Chester Moye was class president from the February graduation class; the new school held its first spring commencement exercises, on June 1937, for 290 students. The class president was Robert Davidson. In the spring of 1970 about 400 students gathered in the school auditorium to protest inequalities in the school, all of the students were black. Jay Childers, the author of The Evolving Citizen: American Youth and the Changing Norms of Democratic Engagement, wrote that this was an indication of racial tension in the school. Dr. Stephen P. Tarason became the school's 11th principal in January 1999, when he succeeded Dr. Wilma Bonner. Dr. Bonner spent a brief time working at the DCPS office before moving on to a position at the Howard University School of Education.
In mid-2006, Woodrow Wilson High School was proposed to be a charter school, but the superintendent asked the school to hold off in exchange for being granted control over certain areas of autonomy facilities. Upon Tarason's departure to become a middle school principal in Hagerstown, Mrs. Jacqueline Williams became interim principal in 2007. In 2008, DCPS chancellor Michelle Rhee selected Peter Cahall, a former teacher and administrator with the MCPS system, as the new principal; the school building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2010. Woodrow Wilson was one of eleven schools nationwide selected by the College Board for inclusion in the EXCELerator School Improvement Model program beginning the 2006–2007 school year; the project was funded by Melinda Gates Foundation. The campus was renovated in 2011, in a series of school modernizations at D. C. public schools. The extensive renovations to the historic building included certification to the LEED Gold standard. For the 2010–2011 school year, the students of Wilson were placed in a temporary space at the University of the District of Columbia.
The renovated school reopened in October 2011, festivities included a 75th anniversary celebration. Childers wrote that the school had been "increasingly troubled" in a period before 2012. In June 2014 Principal Pete Cahall came out as homosexual to his students during the school's gay pride day, he stated. The Westboro Baptist Church had stated. Pete Cahall left his post as principal in the middle of the school year. DCPS had announced that his contract would not be renewed. Cahall stated. In 2015 Cahall became the principal of Thomas Edison High School of Technology. In spring 2015 a panel headed by teachers and other employees and members of the surrounding community examined candidates for the position of principal. Kimberly Martin, the former principal of Aspen High School, was selected, she had served as the principal of Lorain Admiral King High School in Lorain, from 2003 to 2005, after teaching there for five years. She began her term as principal of Wilson on June 29, 2015. In 2015 DCPS proposed a $15.6 million budget for Wilson, $300,000 fewer than the previous one, despite a projected enrollment of more students.
Wilson was "a staunch supporter of segregation, setting back African Americans in their quest for civil rights. A conversation about whether Wilson is an appropriate name for a high school has been simmering in D. C. for years. It gained traction when Princeton University students protested in 2015 as their school debated removing Wilson's name from campus buildings. Organizers of the latest movement to change the school's name want the school to honor the neighborhood’s black community, not someone whose policies laid the groundwork for dismantling it." According to proponents of name change, "the community in Northwest Washington has to acknowledge that the federal government — after Wilson left office — uprooted established black communities to create the upper-income white enclave it is today. Organizers of the latest movement to change the s
The Bhanja virus is a tick-borne virus first discovered in a tick taken from a paralyzed goat in Bhanjanagar, India in 1954. Bhanja virus in humans was first documented in 1974 when Charles Calisher was working with the virus in a lab and contracted it himself, his experience with the virus was mild and included symptoms of mild aching in muscles and joints, moderate headache, slight photophobia. The Bhanja virus is a member of the Bhanja virus serocomplex and is a member of the Bunyavirales order; the Bhanja virus is transmitted from ticks and has furthermore been isolated from the ticks of the genera Dermacentor and Haemaphysalis, although it can be transmitted by any Ixodidae ticks. Bhanja virus is not known to be transmitted between humans; the Bhanja virus has been found in vertebrate animals, most in sheep, cattle, African hedgehogs, African ground squirrels. It has been known to be pathogenic in small animals and children and can affect adult humans; the Bhanja virus produces febrile illness in humans with symptoms including photophobia, meningoencephalitis, slight or partial paralysis.
Treatment is dependent upon the severity of the symptoms. Due to viral infections not responding to antibiotics, treatment is to reduce the signs and symptoms. Prevention is that of any tick bite, avoid excessive bushy areas. If you do come in contact with these areas, wear long sleeves and pants to cover as much skin as possible. Be careful in areas used to graze or feed goats or sheep; the Bhanja virus has been isolated in Europe, including: Italy, Bulgaria, Eastern Slovakia, in Asia, including: India, Kazakhstan, Armenia and in Africa, including Senegal, Nigeria, Central Africa, Somali. There is a possibility that migratory birds play a role in spreading the virus by carrying infected ticks on them to new regions