Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Visa policy of Egypt
Visitors to Egypt must obtain a visa from one of the Egyptian diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries that are eligible for visa on arrival. Visitors must hold passports from the date of arrival to Egypt. In March 2015 it was announced that all foreigners travelling to Egypt for tourism will require visas in advance as of May 15, 2015; the only exemption will be for organized groups visiting through an Egyptian travel agency. In April 2015 Egyptian authorities announced that they have reversed the decision until an electronic visa system is in place. Citizens of the following 9 countries and territories may visit Egypt without a visa for 3 months: The visa-free regime applies to the citizens of the following countries under certain conditions: Afghanistan – provided being aged 50 years and above or 16 years and below Algeria – provided being aged 14 years and below China – provided holding a return/onward ticket, a hotel reservation confirmation in a 4 or 5 star rating hotel and an equivalent of USD 2000.
Libya – provided being a female national or for residents of Butnan District on Sundays and Mondays. Jordan – if holding a normal 5-year passport, provided passport does not contain a stamp from the Jordanian Registration Office on the reverse side cover of the passport Lebanon – provided being aged 50 years and above or 16 years and below, visa not required for Alexandria and South Sinai Morocco – provided being aged 14 years and below Sudan – provided being aged 50 years and above or 16 years and below or being a female national South Sudan – provided being aged 50 years and above or 16 years and below or being a female national Tunisia – provided being aged 14 years and below Yemen – provided being aged 50 years and above or 16 years and below or traveling for medical reasonsTravel document issued by Egypt, Lebanon and Syria to female Palestinian or to male Palestinian who are older than 40 years or younger than 18 years. If travelling as part of the tourist group that consists of at least 5 persons citizens of Azerbaijan, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Jordan, Lebanon, Nicaragua, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turkey who hold a return ticket, booked accommodation, a signed guarantee letter from a travel agency, do not require a visa for Egypt.
Visa exemption applies to sons and daughters born to an Egyptian father, to an Egyptian mother if born after 25 July 2004, to wives of Egyptian nationals holding proof of marriage. According to the Egyptian Consulate General in the United Kingdom, citizens of the following countries can obtain visa upon arrival at any of the Egyptian ports of entry: 1 - Nationals of Belgium, Germany and Portugal can enter with a national ID card, they must bring a passport photo to be affixed to the visa. Citizens of Turkey can obtain a visa on arrival if provided being aged 45 years and above or 18 years and below or having residence permit issued by Australia, Canada, USA and an EU Member state Citizens of Sudan can obtain a visa on arrival residence permit issued by Australia, Canada, USA and an EU Member state Passengers with a residence permit issued by a GCC Member State can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 30 days; the residence permit must be valid for a minimum of 6 months from the arrival date.
According to the data Egyptian Government provided to IATA citizens of all countries may obtain a visa on arrival to Egypt valid for 30 days except for the citizens of the following 84 countries and territories: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belize and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Comoros, R Congo, DR Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Djibouti, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, India, Iran, Israel, Kenya, DPR Korea, R Kosovo, Lebanon, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Palestine, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Swaziland, Qatar, Tanzania, Togo, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam and Zimbabwe. From 3 December 2017 citizens of 46 countries may apply for tourist or business types of visa for 30 days online through the eVisa system. According to the Egyptian Consulate General in the United Kingdom citizens of all European Union countries, the United States, Israel do not require a visa prior to travelling as a free entry permission stamp will be granted upon arrival if they are travelling to Sharm El Sheikh, Dahab and Taba resorts only without leaving them and for a maximum of 14 days:According to the data Egyptian Government provided to IATA citizens of all countries may obtain a Sinai resort visa on arrival at Sharm el-Sheikh, Saint Catherine or Taba airports valid for 15 days except for the citizens of the following 81 countries and territories: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belize and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Comoros, R
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the Egyptian government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Egypt. On 17 July 2014 Sameh Shoukry was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. In the 19th century, the Ministry was one of the divans established by Muhammad Ali Pasha, known as the'founder of modern Egypt'; the aim of the Ministry was to organize Egypt's internal, external affairs, was concerned with trade, commerce. It became the Divan of Foreign Affairs, was concerned with trade, citizen's affairs, it continued to function after the Muhammad Ali’s reign, it was one of the fundamental divans of the state. It was concerned with abolishing slavery, following up international treaties. During the era of Sa'id Pasha, Isma'il Pasha, there were some modifications in the Ministry, due to the increasing presence of the Europeans in Egypt. Due to the change of rule in Egypt in 1878, the absolute jurisdictions given to rulers were diminished, the divans were replaced by portfolios.
During this period, the foreign portfolio was headed by prominent figures such as Boutros Ghali, who spent the longest period in office from 1894–1910. The foreign portfolio was put to an end after the declaration of the British Protectorate over Egypt in 1914. After Egyptian independence was recognised by the United Kingdom on 22 February 1922, the Ministry of Foreign affairs was re-established on 15 March 1922. Ahmed Heshmat Pasha, who became the first Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1923, laid the cornerstone of the organizational structure of the Ministry and took Al Bustan Palace in Bab El Louk, a palace owned by King Fuad, to be the first official headquarters to his Ministry, he divided the Ministry into four main departments, the Minister's divan, the department of political and commercial affairs, the department of consular affairs, the department of administrative affairs. In 1925, the first special decree regarding the consular system was issued, the decree regarding the system of the political positions.
Although the reestablishment of the Ministry was approved, the continuing British occupation of the country imposed restrictions on the level of the Egyptian diplomatic representation abroad. After the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, diplomatic representation of Egypt was raised to be at the same level as the diplomatic representation in London. Under the treaty, Britain recognised Egypt's right to raise its diplomatic representation to the level of "ambassador" which in turn enabled Egypt to join the League of Nations in 1937.join the League of Nations. This enabled Egyptian diplomacy to have a role in the international arena once more; the Egyptian diplomatic representation spread to many parts of the world. During this period, the Egyptian consular representation spread more than the diplomatic representation due to the large number of consuls who functioned in cities like London, Liverpool in Britain, Paris and Lyons in France, Berlin, Hamburg in Germany; the aftermath of the Second World War had a great impact on the Egyptian diplomatic performance through the structural changes made by the Egyptian Ministers at that time in order to cope with the profound changes created by the war.
After the end of the war, the Egyptian Ministers made changes to cope with the effect of the war. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 led to transformation of the organisational structure of the Ministry. On 21 September 1955, law number 453 was issued to define the role of the Foreign Ministry in implementing Egyptian foreign policy, developing foreign relations of Egypt with foreign governments, international organisations, protecting Egyptian interests abroad, issuing diplomatic passports, following up issues related to diplomatic immunities and privileges. In 1966, the Ministry set up the Institute for Diplomatic Studies. In 1979, the Egyptian Foreign Minister, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, decided to reorganise the Ministry to deal with the new circumstances following the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty, the following year, Foreign Minister Kamal Hassan, reorganised the Ministry in order to develop the internal work mechanisms, worked on enhancing the Diplomatic Institute. Hosni Mubarak became the President of Egypt on 14 October 1981, after which the Ministry went through a comprehensive reform process.
For the first time in 30 years, the law related to the Diplomatic and Consular Corps was modified. Law Number 45 for year 1982 regarding the Diplomatic and Consular Corps was issued to cope with the new prospects of the Egyptian diplomatic and consular relations, according to the two Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic and Consular Relations which Egypt joined in the 1960s. In the 1990s, a restructuring process for the Egyptian diplomatic practice took place; this process was influenced by the factors affecting the international arena such as the information and technological revolution, the increase in the role of non-governmental organisations in international relations, the emergence of economic globalisation. The Ministry is responsible for conducting the Egypt's foreign relations within the framework of the Egyptian Cabinet, it plays an essential role in collecting and evaluating political, economic and scientific information that may affect foreign relations. It is responsible for planning and implementing Egyptian foreign policy, co-ordinating with the other Egyptian ministries and institutions concerned.
After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the decision-making patterns in the Ministry underwent alteration. Such alteration depended on the nature of the relationship between the Presidential institution and the Ministry, on the sort of issues with which the decision-maker is dealing; the changes ma
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil El-Sisi is an Egyptian politician, the sixth and current President of Egypt, in office since 2014. Starting February 10, 2019, Sisi began serving a one-year term as Chairperson of the African Union. Sisi was born in Cairo and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia before enrolling in the Egyptian Army's Command and Staff College. In 1992, Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College at Watchfield, Oxfordshire, in the United Kingdom, in 2006 trained at the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and as director of military intelligence. After the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and election of Mohamed Morsi to the Egyptian presidency, Sisi was appointed Minister of Defence by Morsi on 12 August 2012, replacing the Mubarak-era Hussein Tantawi; as Minister of Defence, Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Sisi was involved in the military coup that removed Morsi from office on July 3, 2013, in response to June 2013 Egyptian protests, called a revolution by its proponents.
He dissolved the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 and proposed, along with leading opposition and religious figures, a new political road map, which included the voting for a new constitution, new parliamentary and presidential elections. Morsi was replaced by Adly Mansour, who appointed a new cabinet; the interim government cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its Islamist supporters in the months that followed, on certain liberal opponents of the post-Morsi administration. On 14 August 2013, police carried out the August 2013 Rabaa massacre, killing hundreds of civilians and wounding thousands, leading to international criticism. On 26 March 2014, in response to calls from supporters to run for presidency, Sisi retired from his military career, announcing that he would run as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election; the election, held between 26 and 28 May, featured one sole opponent, Hamdeen Sabahi, saw 47% participation by eligible voters, resulted in Sisi winning in a landslide victory with more than 97% of the vote.
Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014. Sisi's government has given the Egyptian military unchecked power, some media reports have labeled him a dictator and a strongman, comparing him to Egypt's former dictators. In the 2018 presidential election, Sisi faced only nominal opposition after the military arrest of Sami Anan and his enforced disappearance afterwards, threats made to Ahmed Shafik with old corruption charges and sex tape, the withdrawal of Khaled Ali and Mohamed Anwar El-Sadat due to the overwhelming obstacles and violations made by the elections committee. Sisi was born in Old Cairo on 19 November 1954, to parents Said Hussein Khalili al-Sisi and Soad Mohamed, he grew up in Gamaleya, near al-Azhar Mosque, in a quarter where Muslims and Christians resided and in which he recalled how, during his childhood, he heard church bells and watched Jews flock to the synagogue unhindered. Sisi would enroll in the Egyptian Military Academy, upon graduating he held various command positions in the Egyptian Armed Forces and served as Egypt's military attaché in Riyadh.
In 1987 he attended Staff College. In 1992 he continued his military career by enrolling in the British Command and Staff College, in 2006 enrolled in the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, serving as the director of military intelligence and reconnaissance department, he was chosen to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and serve as the commander-in-chief and Minister of Defence and Military Production on 12 August 2012. Sisi's family originated from Monufia Governorate, he is the second of eight siblings. His father, a conservative but not radical Muslim, had a wooden antiques shop for tourists in the historic bazaar of Khan el-Khalili, he and his siblings studied at the nearby library at al-Azhar University. Unlike his brothers – one of whom is a senior judge, another a civil servant – el-Sisi went to a local army-run secondary school, where concurrently his relationship with his maternal cousin Entissar Amer started to develop.
They were married upon Sisi's graduation from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977. He attended the following courses: General Command and Staff Course, Egyptian Command and Staff College, 1987, he became Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria in 2008 and Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance. El-Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt. While a member of the Supreme Council, he made controversial statements regarding allegations that Egyptian soldiers had subjected detained female demonstrators to forced virginity tests, he is reported to have told Egypt's state-owned newspaper that "the virginity-test procedure was done to protect the gi
The Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into ersh, or 1,000 milliemes; the Egyptian pound is abbreviated as LE or L. E. which stands for livre égyptienne. E£ and £E are used on the internet; the name Genēh is derived from the Guinea coin, which had the same value of 100 piastres at the end of the 19th century. In 1834, a khedival decree was issued, adopting an Egyptian currency based on a bimetallic standard on the basis of the Maria Theresa thaler, a popular trade coin in the region; the Egyptian pound, known as the geneih, was introduced, replacing the Egyptian piastre as the chief unit of currency. The piastre continued to circulate as 1⁄100 of a pound, with the piastre subdivided into 40 para. In 1885, the para ceased to be issued, the piastre was divided into tenths; these tenths were renamed milliemes in 1916. The legal exchange rates were fixed by force of law for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions; this led to Egypt using a de facto gold standard between 1885 and 1914, with E£1 = 7.4375 grams pure gold.
At the outbreak of World War I, the Egyptian pound was pegged to the British pound sterling at EG£0.975 per GB£1. Egypt remained part of the Sterling Area until 1962, when Egypt devalued and switched to a peg to the United States dollar, at a rate of EG£1 = US$2.3. This peg; the pound was itself devalued in 1978 to a peg of 1 pound. The pound floated in 1989. However, until 2001, the float was managed by the Central Bank of Egypt and foreign exchange controls were in effect; the Central Bank of Egypt voted to end the managed-float regime and allowed the pound to float on 3 November 2016. The official rate fell twofold; the Egyptian pound was used in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1899 and 1956, Cyrenaica when it was under British occupation and an independent emirate between 1942 and 1951. The National Bank of Egypt issued banknotes for the first time on 3 April 1899; the Central Bank of Egypt and the National Bank of Egypt were unified into the Central Bank of Egypt in 1961. Several unofficial popular names are used to refer to different values of Egyptian currency.
These include nekla for 2 milliemes, ta'rifa for 5 milliemes, shelen for 5 piastres, bariza for 10 piastres, reyal for 20 piastres. Since the piastre and millieme are no longer legal tender, the smallest denomination minted being the 25-piastre coin, these terms have fallen into disuse and survive as curios. A few have survived to refer to pounds: bariza now refers to a ten-pound note and reyal can be used in reference to a 20-pound note. Different sums of EGP have special nicknames, for example: 1 EGP Bolbol meaning nightingale or Gondi meaning soldier, 1,000 EGP baku "pack". Between 1837 and 1900, copper 1 and 5 para*, silver 10 and 20 para, 1, 5, 10 and 20 piastre, gold 5, 10 and 20 piastre and 1 pound coins were introduced, with gold 50 piastre coins following in 1839. Copper 10 para coins were introduced in 1853. Copper 10 para coins were again introduced in 1862, followed by copper 4 para and 21⁄2 piastre coins in 1863. Gold 25 piastre coins were introduced in 1867. In 1885, a new coinage was introduced consisting of bronze 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1, 2 and 5 millieme, silver 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins.
The gold coinage ceased, with only small numbers of 5 and 10 piastre coins issued. In 1916 and 1917, a new base metal coinage was introduced consisting of bronze 1⁄2 millieme and holed, cupro-nickel 1, 2, 5 and 10 millieme coins. Silver 2, 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins continued to be issued, a gold 1 pound coin was reintroduced. Between 1922 and 1923, the gold coinage was extended to include 20 and 50 piastre and 1 and 5 pound coins. In 1924, bronze replaced cupro-nickel in the 1 millieme coin and the holes were removed from the other cupro-nickel coins. In 1938, bronze 5 and 10 millieme coins were introduced, followed in 1944 by silver, hexagonal 2 piastre coins. Between 1954 and 1956, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of aluminium-bronze 1, 5 and 10 millieme and silver 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins, with the size of the silver coinage reduced. An aluminium-bronze 2 millieme coin was introduced in 1962. In 1967 the silver coinage was abandoned and cupro-nickel 5 and 10 piastre coins were introduced.
Aluminium replaced aluminium-bronze in the 1, 5 and 10 millieme coins in 1972, followed by brass in the 5 and 10 millieme coins in 1973. Aluminium-bronze 2 piastre and cupro-nickel 20 piastre coins were introduced in 1980, followed by aluminium-bronze 1 and 5 piastre coins in 1984. In 1992, brass 5 and 10 piastre coins were introduced, followed by holed, cupro-nickel 25 piastre coins in 1993; the size of 5 piastre coins was reduced in 2004, 10 and 25 piastre coins - in 2008. On June 1, 2006, 50 piastre and 1 pound coins dated 2005 were introduced, its equivalent banknotes were phased out and disappeared from circulation in 2010; the coins bear the face of Cleo
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t