A commander-in-chief called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.

Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, the president of Afghanistan is the commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.

According to the Constitution of Albania, the president of the Republic of Albania is the commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the president of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the president is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the president in the management of the armed forces. Being the head of state, the president of Armenia holds the title of Supreme Commander in Chief of the Armenian Armed Forces. Despite this, all administrative and operational power over the military is vested in the prime minister of Armenia, the country's de facto representative under the 2015 constitution.

The hereditary title and rank of Sparapet' was a used to describe the supreme commander of the military forces of ancient and medieval Armenia. Since its introduction in the 2nd century BC, it is used today to describe famous and high-ranking military officials. Notable Armenians to have held the title include Garegin Nzhdeh, the supreme commander of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia. and Vazgen Sargsyan, the two-time defense minister of Armenia and prime minister in the 1990s. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF; the Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation.

Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister. The commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister; the only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the president of Bangladesh. Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the presid


Hinterbrühl is a town in the district of Mödling in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. It is home to the Seegrotte, a system of caves including Europe's largest underground lake. During World War II, a satellite camp of Mauthausen concentration camp was opened inside the caverns, producing parts for the He 162 jet fighter. Hinterbrühl was settled as early as 6,000 years ago. In 1182, the first named. Like the neighbor areas, Hinterbrühl suffered mightily under the two Turkish sieges of 1529 and 1683. Since a majority of the population was killed, the area was inhabited by settlers who moved north from Styria after 1683. Since 1883, Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram, the first electric streetcar in continental Europe, linked Hinterbrühl to Mödling railway station, it was closed on March 31, 1932. Today, only the Bahnplatz remains of this historic achievement. On August 4, 1943 a satellite camp of Mauthausen concentration camp was built in the city; the prisoners there built parts, sub-assemblies and BMW 003 turbojet engines for the He 162 jet fighter in a hastily converted underground factory during late autumn and spring 1945.

The 162, created for the Emergency Fighter Program and known as the Volksjäger was an lightweight and fast plane that could be discarded if it suffered any damage. Hinterbrühl was just part of a vast crash production program where dozens of factories of varying sizes would make parts for the jet send them to sites like Hinterbrühl for final assembly and transshipment to flight test centers — or directly to airbases, such was the desperate last-minute nature of the enterprise. In the last days of the war in 1945, the inmates of other camps had to make a 200 km-long march to the concentration camp Mauthausen in Hinterbrühl. None of them survived. Fifty-one inmates were killed before the march, by gasoline injections or strangled by SS-officers. In 1988 a monument was erected above the Subterranean Lake to honor the 51 victims of this massacre. From 1964, the SOS Children's Villages in Hinterbrühl was led by Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger; the Hinterbrühl Seegrotte is a large underground lake located in Hinterbrühl.

This grotto is an important historic site. It is open to the public for tours; the grotto is an old gypsum mine. By the end of 1800 it was used to make white plaster. In 1912 a blast released millions of gallons of water and flooded the lower caverns of the mine, creating the largest underground lake in Europe. In the 1930s a team of cave explorers found the lake and managed to open the grotto for the public; the upper tunnels of the same old mine were reused by Nazi German authorities as an aircraft-manufacturing facility with the use of forced labor called Seegrotte. Holdrichsmühle, an old mill, is an hotel in Hinterbrühl, featured on the 24g Austrian definitive stamp of 1945. Holdrichsmühle was a regular subject for postcards from the late 1890s onwards. Many of these cards claim an association with the composer Franz Schubert, there have been various plaques and internal features in support of these claims. Early postcards claim that Schubert wrote Die schöne Müllerin here cards claim that it was Der Lindenbaum.

There is no documentary evidence to support these claims, though there is a claim in Deutsch's Schubert: Memoirs by his friends made by Hermann Rollett in 1897 that he had seen Franz Schubert at Holdrichsmühle around 1825 or 1826, when Rollett was aged seven. Karl Motesiczky Official Homepage Hinterbrühl More information on Hinterbrühl

List of The Big O episodes

The Big O is an anime series based on the manga of the same name. The series is directed by Kazuyoshi animated by the Japanese animation studio Sunrise; the series follows Paradigm City's top Negotiator. The first season of the series premiered on October 13, 1999 on WOWOW with the episode "Roger the Negotiator" and concluded with "R. D." on January 19, 2000. Starting on April 2, 2001, The Big O aired two times in its edited form on the Cartoon Network: once during the afternoon Toonami block at 5:30 PM, once at 12:30 AM during Toonami: Midnight Run. In anticipation of the premiere of The Big O: Season Two, the first thirteen episodes were re-aired uncut, on the Adult Swim block. A 26-episode series, it was reduced to 13 episodes due to low ratings in Japan. However, positive international reception resulted in a second season co-produced by Cartoon Network and Bandai Visual; the Big O: Season Two premiered on 2 January 2003 on SUN-TV with the episode "Roger the Wanderer" and concluded with "The Show Must Go On" on March 27, 2003.

The American premiere took place on August 3, 2003. On October 26, the scheduled premiere of the final episode, October, a rerun of episode 20, "Stripes", was aired; this resulted in the Adult Swim message boards being flooded with complaints by viewers. After an apology from Kim Manning, programming director for Adult Swim, the final episode was aired on November 2; the first opening theme is the Queen-inspired "BIG-O!" Composed and performed by Rui Nagai. The second opening theme is "Respect," composed by Toshihiko Sahashi; the track is an homage to the music of Gerry Anderson's UFO, composed by Barry Gray. In 2007, Rui Nagai composed "Big-O! Show Must Go On," a 1960s hard rock piece, for Animax's reruns of the show; this opening was subsequently used in the 2007 North American DVD re-release of the series. The closing theme is "And Forever," composed by Ken Shima; the duet is performed by Naoki Takao. When the series was re-broadcast on the Animax channel, a new theme song composed and performed by Nagai titled "Big-O!

Show Must Go On" was used for the opening sequence, instead. Official sitesEpisode listings at Bandai Channel Episode listings at Adult Swim