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Aphotic zone

The aphotic zone is the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight. It is formally defined as the depths. Bioluminescence is the only light found in this zone. Most food in this zone comes from dead organisms sinking to the bottom of the lake or ocean from overlying waters; the depth of the aphotic zone can be affected by such things as turbidity and the season of the year. The aphotic zone underlies the photic zone, that portion of a lake or ocean directly affected by sunlight. Depending on how aphotic zone is defined, the aphotic zone of the ocean begins between depths of 200 m to 1,000 m, extends to the ocean floor. Temperatures can range from 0 °C to 6 °C. Unusual and unique creatures dwell in this expanse of pitch black water, such as the gulper eel, the giant squid, the anglerfish, the vampire squid; the aphotic zone is further divided into additional zones: the bathyal zone, the abyssal zone, the hadal zone. The bathyal zone extends from 200 metres to 2,000 metres; the abyssal zone extends from 2,000 metres to 6,000 metres.

The hadal zone spans from depths of 6,000 metres to the ocean floor. Creatures in these areas must be able to live in complete darkness. Abyssal zone Benthic zone Hadal zone Pelagic zone Photic zone

Muscle reading

Muscle reading known as "Hellstromism", "Cumberlandism" or "contact mind reading", is a technique used by mentalists to determine the thoughts or knowledge of a subject, the effect of which tends to be perceived as a form of mind reading. The performer can determine many things about the mental state of a subject by observing subtle, involuntary responses to speech or any other stimuli, it is related to the ideomotor effect, whereby subtle movements made without conscious awareness reflect a physical movement, action or direction which the subject is thinking about. The term "muscle reading" was coined in the 1870s by American neurologist George M. Beard to describe the actions of mentalist J. Randall Brown, an early proponent of the art. Muscle reading is known by the names of those who have used it in popular performances; the success of one early performer, Stuart Cumberland, led to the technique's alternate name of Cumberlandism. The fame of the mentalist Axel Hellstrom led to it being called Hellstromism.

Performers such as J. Randall Brown, Erik Jan Hanussen, Franz Polgar, Kreskin have used muscle reading in their acts. In 1924, magician Carl Hertz noted. In all the cases where the mind-reader is supposed to lead a person to a hidden object, the spectator is guided by an involuntary movement of the subject's muscles." The mentalist Washington Irving Bishop could drive a car blindfolded by muscle reading techniques. Kreskin, one of the most accomplished performers of muscle reading in modern times, can tell a driver where to go in a car while a subject holds his wrist. In one of his books he relates the technique to the children's game within which a hidden object is located by feedback of "hot" or "cold". June Downey had studied the practice of muscle reading from a psychological perspective, she has been described as an expert on the subject of muscle reading. The technique relies on the assertion that the subject will subconsciously reveal their thoughts through slight involuntary physical reactions known as ideomotor responses.

The performer can determine what the subject is thinking by recognising and interpreting those responses. Muscle reading may be billed by some entertainers as a psychic phenomenon, where the audience will be told that by creating physical contact with the subject, a better psychic connection can be formed. In fact, the contact allows the performer to read more subtle reactions in the subject's motor functions that may not be apparent without contact, such as muscle control and heart rate; because muscle reading relies so on the subject's subconscious reactions to their environment and situation, this technique is used when performing stunts dealing with locating objects in an auditorium or on stage, as such, it can be done'clean' by the magician skilled in reading body language. Performers instruct the subject to imagine voicing instructions, which amplifies the reactions of the subject, thus promoting the idea that the trick involves genuine thought transference or mind-reading; however the subject, "thinking directions" has a physical, kinaesthetic reaction that guides the performer so that he or she can, for example, locate a specific place on a wall on which to place a pin, without prior knowledge of where the pin should go.

Knowledge of muscle reading is a technique, reportedly used by poker players to hide their reactions to the game, as well as to read the other players for potential bluffs and/or better hands. Billet reading Cold reading Ideomotor effect George M. Beard.. The Study of Trance, Muscle-Reading and Allied Phenomena in Europe and America. New York. H. J. Burlingame.. Mind-Readers and Their Tricks. In Leaves from Conjurers' Scrap books: Or, Modern Magicians and Their Works. Chicago: Donohue, Henneberry & Co. pp. 108-127 June Downey.. Automatic Phenomena of Muscle-Reading; the Journal of Philosophy 5: 650-658. June Downey.. Muscle-Reading: A Method of Investigating Involuntary Movements and Mental Types. Psychological Review 16: 257-301. Http://www.randi.org/encyclopedia/muscle%20reading.html - James Randi on the subject http://dict.die.net/muscle%20reading/ - dictionary definition Marom mor mentalist

1993–94 Biathlon World Cup

The 1993–94 Biathlon World Cup was a multi-race tournament over a season of biathlon, organised by the International Biathlon Union. The season started on 9 December 1993 in Bad Gastein and ended on 20 March 1994 in Canmore, Canada, it was the seventeenth season of the Biathlon World Cup. Below is the IBU World Cup calendar for the 1993–94 season. Results from the Olympic Games did not count toward the World Cup; the relays were technically unofficial races as they did not count towards anything in the World Cup. Final standings after 12 races. Final standings after 12 races. Victory in this World Cup Following notable biathletes retired during or after the 1993–94 season: Franz Schuler Christian Dumont Elmar Mutschlechner Eirik Kvalfoss Valeriy Medvedtsev Lise Meloche Gabriela Suvová Anne Elvebakk Anfisa Reztsova Elena Belova IBU official site

List of Professor Layton media

The Professor Layton video game series is a franchise of puzzle games produced and developed by Level-5, with some games being published by Nintendo outside Japan. The series is based on games for the Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS systems, it debuted on February 15, 2007 with Reiton-kyōju to Fushigi na Machi localized as Professor Layton and the Curious Village in the North American and PAL regions. The series focuses on Professor Hershel Layton, an archaeologist, his apprentice, Luke Triton, their investigations into various mysterious towns, they encounter people who require the player to solve puzzles or brain teasers in exchange for small trinkets or picarats, the score system used within the games. There are six games in the main series, all of which have been released outside Japan. Additionally, there have been three novels as well as an animated movie, Professor Layton and the Eternal Diva; the series has been financially successful, with over 15 million units having been shipped of the games alone.

The idea for the franchise was conceived by Akihiro Hino, was intended to be a successor to Nintendo's Brain Age series. Professor Layton series official website Professor Layton series official website Layton-kyōju VS Gyakuten Saiban official website

Manuel Zelaya

José Manuel Zelaya Rosales is a Honduran politician, President of Honduras from 27 January 2006 until 28 June 2009. He is the eldest son of a wealthy businessman, inherited his father's nickname "Mel". Before entering politics he was involved in his family's timber businesses. Elected as a liberal, Zelaya shifted to the political left during his presidency, forging an alliance with the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas known as ALBA. On 28 June 2009, during the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, he was seized by the military and sent to Costa Rica in an American-backed coup d'état. On 21 September 2009 he returned to Honduras clandestinely and resurfaced in the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa. In 2010 he left Honduras for an exile that lasted more than a year, he now represents Honduras as a deputy of the Central American Parliament. Since January 1976 Zelaya has been married to Xiomara Castro de Zelaya, a presidential candidate in the 2013 general election but lost to Juan Orlando Hernández.

The surname'Zelaya' is a word from the Basque language, which means'field'. Zelaya was born the eldest of four children in Olancho. Two of his brothers remain alive. Zelaya's mother, Ortensia Rosales de Zelaya, has been described as his best campaigner, his family first lived in Copán they moved east to Catacamas, Olancho. He attended Niño Jesús de Praga y Luis Landa elementary school and the Instituto Salesiano San Miguel, he began his university studies in civil engineering, but left in 1976 with 11 courses completed, for agriculture and the forestry sector. He was forced to take over the family business by the arrest of his father José Manuel Zelaya Ordoñez, implicated in the murders known as "Slaughter of the Horcones." These murders involved Mayor José Enrique Chinchilla, Sub-Lieutenant Benjamín Plata, José Manuel Zelaya Ordoñez and Carlos Bhar. They were taken to the Central Prison, he has engaged in business activities that including timber and cattle, handed down to him by his late father.

He is now a landowner in Olancho. In 1987, Zelaya became manager of the Honduran Council of Private Enterprise, as well as of the National Association of Wood Processing Enterprises; the COHEP occupies a important role in Honduran politics, as the Constitution delineates that the organization elects one of the seven members of the Nominating Board that proposes nominees to the Supreme Court of Honduras. Zelaya's father got a 20-year prison sentence for his role in the 1975 Los Horcones massacre, which took place on the Zelaya family ranch, Los Horcones; as a result of an amnesty, he served less than two. Zelaya joined the Liberal Party of Honduras, Partido Liberal de Honduras, in 1970 and became active a decade later, he was a deputy in the National Congress for three consecutive times between 1985 and 1998. He held many positions within the PLH and was Minister for Investment in charge of the Honduran Social Investment Fund in a previous PLH government. Under the administration of Zelaya the FHIS lost $40 million.

Zelaya escaped prosecution. In the 2005 presidential primaries, his faction was called Movimiento Esperanza Liberal, he received 52% of the 289,300 Liberal votes, vs. 17% for Jaime Rosenthal Oliva and 12% for Gabriela Núñez, the candidate of the Nueva Mayoría faction. During Zelaya's time in office Honduras became a member of ALBA, an international cooperation organization based on the idea of social and economic integration between the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, it marked his turning to a left-of-center politics, the first such case of right to left policy switch as he had been elected in on a conservative platform. Political opponents business elites, opposed his foreign policy, including his alliance with Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, friendship with Cuba's Raúl Castro. In spite of a number of economic problems, there were a number of significant achievements under Zelaya's presidency. Under his government, free education for all children was introduced, subsidies to small farmers were provided, bank interest rates were reduced, the minimum wage was increased by 80%, school meals were guaranteed for more than 1.6 million children from poor families, domestic employees were integrated into the social security system, poverty was reduced by 10% during two years of government, direct state help was provided for 200,000 families in extreme poverty, with free electricity supplied to those Hondurans most in need.

On 22 July 2008, Zelaya sought to incorporate Honduras into ALBA, an international cooperation organization based on the idea of social and economic integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. Zelaya said that the main media outlets in Honduras, owned by wealthy conservatives, were biased against him and did not cover what his government was doing: "No one publishes anything about me.... What prevails here is censorship of my government by the mass media." Inter Press Service says that the vast majority of radio and TV stations and print publications are owned by just six families. According to a paper written by Manuel Orozco and Rebecca Rouse for the Inter-American Dialogue think tank in the United States, the Honduran media operate as arms of political parties. Honduran journalists say that most of the news media in Honduras are unabashedly partisan, allied with political parties and local power brokers. On 24 May 2007, Zelaya ordered ten two-hour cadenas on all television and radio stations, "to counteract the misinformation of the news media".

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Brady Street Cemetery

The Brady Street Cemetery is a disused Jewish cemetery on Brady Street in Bethnal Green in the East End of London, E1. The cemetery opened in 1761 as the burial ground for the New Synagogue and was subsequently used by the Great Synagogue, it closed in 1857. Several notable people are buried there; the cemetery is surrounded by a wall topped with broken glass. The London: East edition of the Pevsner Architectural Guides describes the cemetery as "crowded with later Victorian monuments" and highlights Miriam Levy's monument for its "considerable lavishness"; the land the cemetery occupies was a brickfield on Ducking Pond Lane and was subsequently known as North Street. In 1761 it was leased to the New Synagogue for an annual rent of 12 guineas; the cemetery was extended in 1795. The Brady Street Cemetery filled, a solution was found with the addition of a four-foot layer of soil in the centre of the cemetery to allow additional burials; the raised area became known as the'Strangers Mound' as many of the new burials were not affiliated to any particular congregation.

The headstones of the burials in the Strangers Mound and the ones below are set back to back. The Great Synagogue subsequently buried people in the New Synagogue's Jewish cemetery at West Ham after forming a Conjoint Burial Board with the New Synagogue. In the 1980s the local council intended to redevelop the cemetery with the use of a compulsory purchase order as it had not been used for many years. If a cemetery has not had any interments for 100 years it may be redeveloped, but with the burial of Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild in the cemetery in 1990, the future of the Brady Street Cemetery was secured from building development until at least 2090; the cemetery is open only by appointment. Centenarian Nathan Moses who died aged 107 in 1799 Financiers Benjamin and Abraham Goldsmid who both committed suicide.