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Apia is the capital and the largest city of Samoa. From 1900 to 1919, it was the capital of German Samoa; the city is located on the central north coast of Samoa's second largest island. Apia falls within the political district of Tuamasaga; the Apia Urban Area has a population of 36,735 and is referred to as the City of Apia. The geographic boundaries of Apia Urban Area is from Letogo village to the new industrialized region of Apia known as Vaitele. Apia was a small village, from which the country's capital took its name. Apia village still exists within the larger modern capital of Apia which has grown into a sprawling urban area with many villages. Like every other settlement in the country, Apia village has its own matai chiefly leaders and fa'alupega according to fa'a Samoa; the modern capital Apia was founded in the 1850s and has been the official capital of Samoa since 1959. The harbour was the site of an infamous 15 March 1889 naval standoff in which seven ships from Germany, the US, Britain refused to leave harbour while a typhoon was approaching, lest the first moved would lose face.

All the ships were sunk, except the British cruiser Calliope, which managed to leave port at 1 mile per hour and ride out the storm. Nearly 200 American and German lives were lost, as well damaged beyond repair. Western Samoa was ruled by Germany as German Samoa from 1900 to 1914 with Apia as capital. In August 1914, the Occupation of German Samoa by an expeditionary force from New Zealand started. New Zealand governed the islands as the Western Samoa Trust Territory from 1920 until independence in 1962 – firstly as a League of Nations Class C Mandate and after 1945 as a United Nations Trust Territory. During the country's struggle for political independence in the early 1900s, organised under the national Mau movement, the streets of Apia became the center of non-violent protests and marches where many Samoans were arrested. In what became known as "Black Saturday", on 28 December 1929, during a peaceful Mau gathering in the town, the New Zealand constabulary killed paramount chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III.

Apia is situated on a natural harbour at the mouth of the Vaisigano River. It is on a narrow coastal plain with Mount Vaea, the burial place of writer Robert Louis Stevenson, directly to its south. Two main ridges run south on either side of the Vaisigano River, with roads on each; the more western of these is Cross Island Road, one of the few roads cutting north to south across the middle of the island to the south coast of Upolu. Apia features a tropical rainforest climate with consistent temperatures throughout the year; the climate is not equatorial because the trade winds are the dominant aerological mechanism and besides there are a few cyclones. Apia's driest months are August when on average about 80 millimetres of rain falls, its wettest months are December through March when average monthly precipitation exceeds 300 millimetres. Apia's average temperature for the year is 26 °C. Apia averages 3,000 millimetres of rainfall annually. Apia is part of the Tuamasaga political district and of election district Vaimauga West and Faleata East.

There is no city administration for Apia. Apia consists of independent villages. Apia proper is just a small village between the mouths of the Vaisigano and Mulivai rivers, is framed by Vaisigano and Mulivai villages, together constituting "Downtown Apia"; the Planning Urban Management Authority Act 2004 was passed by parliament to better plan for the urban growth of Samoa's built-up areas, with particular reference to the future urban management of Apia. The city's historical haphazard growth from village to colonial trading post to the major financial and business centre of the country has resulted in major infrastructural problems in the city. Problems of flooding are commonplace in the wet season, given the low flood-prone valley that the city is built on. In the inner-city village of Sogi, there are major shoreline pollution and effluent issues given that the village is situated on swamplands; the disparate village administrations of Apia has resulted in a lack of a unified and codified legislative approach to sewerage disposal.

The increase of vehicle ownership has resulted in traffic congestion in the inner city streets and the need for major projects in road-widening and traffic management. The PUMA legislation sets up the Planning Urban Management Authority to manage better the unique planning issues facing Apia's urban growth. Mulinu'u, the old ceremonial capital, lies at the city's western end, is the location of the Parliament House, the historic observatory built during the German era is now the meteorology office; the historic Catholic cathedral in Apia, the Immaculate Conception of Mary Cathedral, was dedicated 31 December 1867. It was pulled down mid-2011 due to structural damage from the earthquake of September 2009. A new cathedral was built and dedicated 31 May 2014. An area of reclaimed land jutting into the harbour is the site of the Fiame Mataafa Faumuina Mulinuu II building, the multi-storey government offices named after the first Prime Minister of Samoa, the Central Bank of Samoa. A clock tower erected.

The new market is inland at Fugalei. Apia still has some of the early, colonial buildings which remain scattered around the town, most notably the old courthouse from the German

Deductive-nomological model

The deductive-nomological model known as Hempel's model, the Hempel–Oppenheim model, the Popper–Hempel model, or the covering law model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?". The DN model poses scientific explanation as a deductive structure—that is, one where truth of its premises entails truth of its conclusion—hinged on accurate prediction or postdiction of the phenomenon to be explained; because of problems concerning humans' ability to define and know causality, it was omitted in initial formulations of the DN model. Causality was thought to be incidentally approximated by realistic selection of premises that derive the phenomenon of interest from observed starting conditions plus general laws. Still, DN model formally permitted causally irrelevant factors. Derivability from observations and laws sometimes yielded absurd answers; when logical empiricism fell out of favor in the 1960s, the DN model was seen as a flawed or incomplete model of scientific explanation.

Nonetheless, it remained an idealized version of scientific explanation, one, rather accurate when applied to modern physics. In the early 1980s, revision to DN model emphasized maximal specificity for relevance of the conditions and axioms stated. Together with Hempel's inductive-statistical model, the DN model forms scientific explanation's covering law model, termed, from critical angle, subsumption theory; the term deductive distinguishes the DN model's intended determinism from the probabilism of inductive inferences. The term nomological is derived from the Greek word νόμος or nomos, meaning "law"; the DN model holds to a view of scientific explanation whose conditions of adequacy —semiformal but stated classically—are derivability, empirical content, truth. In the DN model, a law axiomatizes an unrestricted generalization from antecedent A to consequent B by conditional proposition—If A B—and has empirical content testable. A law differs from mere true regularity—for instance, George always carries only $1 bills in his wallet—by supporting counterfactual claims and thus suggesting what must be true, while following from a scientific theory's axiomatic structure.

The phenomenon to be explained is the explanandum—an event, law, or theory—whereas the premises to explain it are explanans, true or confirmed, containing at least one universal law, entailing the explanandum. Thus, given the explanans as initial, specific conditions C1, C2... Cn plus general laws L1, L2... Ln, the phenomenon E as explanandum is a deductive consequence, thereby scientifically explained. Aristotle's scientific explanation in Physics resembles the DN model, an idealized form of scientific explanation; the framework of Aristotelian physics—Aristotelian metaphysics—reflected the perspective of this principally biologist, amid living entities' undeniable purposiveness, formalized vitalism and teleology, an intrinsic morality in nature. With emergence of Copernicanism, Descartes introduced mechanical philosophy Newton rigorously posed lawlike explanation, both Descartes and Newton shunning teleology within natural philosophy. At 1740, David Hume staked Hume's fork, highlighted the problem of induction, found humans ignorant of either necessary or sufficient causality.

Hume highlighted the fact/value gap, as what is does not itself reveal what ought. Near 1780, countering Hume's ostensibly radical empiricism, Immanuel Kant highlighted extreme rationalism—as by Descartes or Spinoza—and sought middle ground. Inferring the mind to arrange experience of the world into substance and time, Kant placed the mind as part of the causal constellation of experience and thereby found Newton's theory of motion universally true, yet knowledge of things in themselves impossible. Safeguarding science Kant paradoxically stripped it of scientific realism. Aborting Francis Bacon's inductivist mission to dissolve the veil of appearance to uncover the noumena—metaphysical view of nature's ultimate truths—Kant's transcendental idealism tasked science with modeling patterns of phenomena. Safeguarding metaphysics, too, it found the mind's constants holding universal moral truths, launched German idealism speculative. Auguste Comte found the problem of induction rather irrelevant since enumerative induction is grounded on the empiricism available, while science's point is not metaphysical truth.

Comte found human knowledge had evolved from theological to metaphysical to scientific—the ultimate stage—rejecting both theology and metaphysics as asking questions unanswerable and posing answers unverifiable. Comte in the 1830s expounded positivism—the first modern philosophy of science and a political philosophy—rejecting conjectures about unobservables, thus rejecting search for causes. Positivism predicts observations, confirms the predictions, states a law, thereupon applied to benefit human society. From late 19th century into the early 20th century, the influence of positivism spanned the globe. Meanwhile, evolutionary theory's natural selection brought the Copernican Revolution into biology and eventuated in the first conceptual alternative to vitalism and teleology. Whereas Comtean positivism posed science as description, logical positivism emerged in the late 1920s and posed science as explanation to better unify empirical sciences by covering not only fundamental science—that is, fundamental physics—but special sciences, such as biology, psychology and anthropology.

After defeat of National Socialism with World War II's close in 1945, logical positivism shifted to a milder variant, logical empiricism. All variants of the movement, which lasted un

A Is for Alien

A is for Alien is Caitlín R. Kiernan's fifth short story collection, her first devoted to her science fiction work, it was published by Subterranean Press in 2009. Cover art was provided by Jacek Yerka, interior illustrations by Vince Locke; the book closes with an afterword by Elizabeth Bear. "'Ode' to Katan Amano" appeared in Kiernan's 2005 collection of "weird erotica," Frog Toes and Tentacles. "A Season of Broken Dolls" and "In View of Nothing" appeared in Kiernan's Sirenia Digest, issues 15 and 16 respectively. "Riding the White Bull" "Faces in Revolving Souls" "Zero Summer" "The Pearl Diver" "In View of Nothing" "Ode to Katan Amano" "A Season of Broken Dolls" "Bradbury Weather" Afterword by Elizabeth Bear A Is for Alien title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

House of Febo Brigotti

The House di Febo Brigotti is a Renaissance house located on Via dei Corridori 44, in the Borgo rione of Rome. Located in Borgo Nuovo 106-107, it was the residence of Febo Brigotti, a physician in the service of Pope Paul III in the first half of the 16th century. On Borgo Nuovo the house, erected before the construction of Borgo Nuovo in 1499, bordered to the west the Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia; the current building is a reconstruction of the original, demolished along with the rest of the Spina di Borgo in the 1930s during the works for the opening of Via della Conciliazione. The reconstructed facade, attached to the back of the Palazzo Rusticucci-Accoramboni, has a design with simple rectangular windows with an arched portal framed in travertine with an inscription revealing the owner's motto, "OB FIDEM ET CHLIENTELA"; the original building had another inscription above the epistyle, "PHOEBUS BRIGOCTUS MEDICUS". Gigli, Laura. Guide rionali di Roma. Borgo. Roma: Fratelli Palombi Editori. ISSN 0393-2710

School debating in Australia

School debating in Australia is organised by The Australian Debating Federation and its eight affiliates. The focus of the debating year is the Australian National Schools Debating Championships, at which the team, to represent Australia at the World Schools Debating Championships is selected; the Australian Debating Federation is a body that oversees schools debating at a national level in Australia. The ADF has eight affiliate organisations representing the eight states and territories of Australia; the eight affiliates rotate hosting the annual Australian National Schools Debating Championships, contested by eight teams selected and managed by each of eight state and territory affiliate associations. Over 28,000 students across Australia take part in debating events organised by the ADF and its affiliates each year; the ADF has an Executive Committee, responsible for the Federation's administration and the development of debating on a national level. The Executive is elected at an AGM comprising representatives from each affiliate organisation, held annually during the NSDC.

The Australian Debating Federation holds an annual Australian National Schools Debating Championships. The championships, which are contested by eight teams of high school students from each of Australia's eight states and territories, date back to 1971; the tournament uses the World Schools Debating style, each debate is adjudicated by three nationally accredited adjudicators. While team selection methods vary from state to state, debaters are chosen through trials and workshops held by their state's affiliate to the Australian Debating Federation; each team consists of four members and two reserves who may or may not elect to accompany the team to the NSDC tournament. Teams train intensively for 3–5 months prior to the tournament; the tournament is held annually over 8–10 days rotating around the state and territory capitals. Teams compete with each team debating each other once. At the end of these rounds, the four top-performing teams progress to the final rounds, where they compete in semi-finals, a preliminary final, a Grand Final.

During the NSDC, five outstanding individual debaters are selected by the official adjudicators to form the National Schools Team which represents Australia at the World Schools Debating Championships. Australia has a record of exceptional performance at the WSDC, at which it has won a record nine Championship titles; each of the eight states and territories of Australia has a Debating Union or Association, affiliated to the Australian Debating Federation. The Australian Capital Territory Debating Union is an independent not-for-profit organisation promoting debate in the Australian Capital Territory, it was formed in 1961 when some public servants set up a debating society to organise competitions between government departments in Canberra, starting debate competitions for schools in 1978. The ACTDU competitions are: The Ford Trophy competition is for years 6, 7 & 8 students; each debater speaks for 3–4 minutes and all topics are known at least a week in advance. The Murray Trophy competition is for 10 students.

Each debater speaks for 5–6 minutes and debates are a mixture of pre-prepared and secret debates. The ANU Douse Trophy competition is for 12 students; each debater speaks for 7–8 minutes and debates are a mixture of pre-prepared and secret. The Junior Crime Prevention competition is for years 6–9, he competition is held in the will be in Australian format with two teams per debate, each with three speakers. There are no reply topics are known at least a week in advance. New for 2010, Year 9 students may take part in both of the Junior or Senior competitions; the speaking time for the competition is 4–5 minutes. The Senior Crime Prevention competition is for years 9–12; the competition is held in the British Parliamentary format which involves four teams with two members each. It is run in conjunction with the Australian Federal Police and debate subjects reflect issues in the areas of law and order, justice and punishment; the speaking time for the competition is 6–7 minutes, with points of information.

The New South Wales Debating Union is an independent not-for-profit organisation that seeks to promote and develop debating in New South Wales. Its primary focus is on promoting debating to high school students, it holds regular workshops at schools across the state run by experienced debating adjudicators and coaches who offer their services on a voluntary basis. Unique amongst other members of the ADF, the NSWDU does not administer local debating competitions; the Northern Territory Debating Union is a not-for-profit school debating association in the Northern Territory. It conducts Australian-style debates to train and encourage secondary school students to take an interest in world affairs, public speaking and debating, it is responsible for determining the group of debaters who will compete in the Australian Schools Debating Championships. The Queensland Debating Union is the association; the Union runs debating competitions and activities between primary and secondary schools within the state.

The South Australian Debating Association is a not-for-profit organisation established in 1967 which operates across the state of South Australia to provide debating for school and university students in the state. The SADA is co-ordinated by university students and young graduates, most of whom have debated, coached and/or adjudicated at national and inter

Nová Bystrica

Nová Bystrica is a village and municipality in Čadca District in the Žilina Region of northern Slovakia, in the Kysuce region. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1662; the municipality lies at an altitude of 526 metres and covers an area of 125.261 km². It has a population of about 2855 people, it is located in the Bystrica river valley. In the local part Vychylovka, around 4 km further north-east, tourists can find some interesting attractions: the switchback railway, open-air museum of Kysuce village, established in 1974 to save buildings from the now non-existing villages Riečnica and Harvelka, which were inundated by the Nová Bystrica reservoir, though it contains buildings from the other villages as well, it has protected Vychylovka banks on the local Vychylovka stream and Vychylovka rocks. Http:// Official website of Nová Bystrica