Augustus Bampfylde, 2nd Baron Poltimore
Augustus Frederick George Warwick Bampfylde, 2nd Baron Poltimore, styled The Honourable Augustus Bampfylde until 1858, of Poltimore House and North Molton in Devon, was a British Liberal politician. Between 1872 and 1874 he served as Treasurer of the Household to Queen Victoria, under William Ewart Gladstone. Bampfylde was the son and heir of George Bampfylde, 1st Baron Poltimore, by his second wife Caroline Buller, daughter of General Frederick William Buller. Bampfylde succeeded his father in the barony in 1858, he sat on the Liberal benches in the House of Lords and served in the first Liberal administration of William Ewart Gladstone as Treasurer of the Household from 1872 to 1874. In 1872 he was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1858 Lord Poltimore married Florence Sara Wilhelmine Brinsley Sheridan, daughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, MP, of Frampton Court. By her he had children including: 3rd Baron Poltimore. Florence, Lady Poltimore had a diamond tiara made for her by Garrards of London in the 1870s known as the Poltimore Tiara.
It was sold at auction by the 4th Baron for £5,500. It was made famous after having been worn by Princess Margaret at her wedding in 1960 in Westminster Abbey, having been purchased for her shortly beforehand. After the Princess's death, it was sold at auction in 2006 at Christie's, by her children, Viscount Linley and Lady Sarah Chatto, for £926,400, it can be converted into brooches. He died in May 1908, aged 71. Lord Poltimore at the National Portrait Gallery
Henry Beresford, 3rd Marquess of Waterford
Henry de La Poer Beresford, 3rd Marquess of Waterford KP, styled Lord Henry Beresford before 1824 and Earl of Tyrone between 1824 and 1826, was an Irish peer. He was the second son of the 2nd Marquess of Waterford, but became heir apparent to the marquessate on the death of his elder brother, George Beresford, Earl of Tyrone, in 1824, he succeeded to the marquessate on his father's death in 1826. In the early hours of Thursday, 6 April 1837, Henry Beresford, 3rd Marquess of Waterford and his fox-hunting friends arrived in Melton Mowbray at the Thorpe End tollgate, they had been drinking at Croxton races, understandably the tollkeeper asked to be paid before he opened the gate for them. Sadly for him some repairs were underway, ladders and pots of red paint were lying nearby, they nailed up the door of the tollhouse and painted that red before moving into the town carrying the stolen equipment. They rampaged down the Beast Market, through the Market Place, into Burton Street, painting doors as they passed, pulling on door knockers and knocking over flower pots.
At the Red Lion, they threw it into the canal. At the Old Swan Inn in the Market Place, next to what is now the Grapes, the Marquess was hoisted onto the shoulder of another man to paint the carved swan inn sign there red.. They vandalised the Post Office and the Leicestershire banking company before trying to overturn a caravan in which a man was fast asleep. Solitary policemen tried to intervene at intervals and were beaten up and painted red for their trouble. More police arrived in numbers and seized one of the men, Edward Raynard, put in the Bridewell prison; the others promptly returned and rescued him, breaking three locks and beating two constables, threatening them with murder if they did not produce the key. The following day there was uproar, they were found not guilty of riot, but were fined £100 each for common assault, a considerable sum then. Following the incident, the phrase "paint the town red" entered the language. In the late summer of 1837, the Marquess and his entourage, took a pleasure cruise on the yacht Charlotte, belonging to the Royal Yacht Squadron, to the seaport of Bergen in Norway - with the goal to reach The North Pole.
According to the contemporary report in The Times, the Marquess became, together with a local girl, involved in a disorder and he was given a blow on the head by the "morning star" of a local watchman. The Marquess' life was in danger, but he recovered after a period at the local hospital and his conduct was tried in court, it was reported that ‘The Marquis of Waterford is recovered, he was tried at Bergen and sentence passed, he was absolved from the accusation and the watchman from all further prosecution, the latter is to pay the costs’ - due to the interception of the local British consul. On September the 18th, The Times duly printed a brief update of affairs stating:'The Marquis of Waterford, who some time since received some serious injuries in what his Lordship and his friends are pleased to call a lark, at Bergen, is quite recovered, has arrived we understand, in this country. One of the Marquis’s party arrived at Douglas’s hotel here on Tuesday, left next day for the south. We believe the whole party arrived in the Marquis’s yacht at Aberdeen, from Norway.'
A popular rumour, in circulation as early as the 1830s claimed that Lord Waterford was the main suspect behind the "Spring Heeled Jack" phenomenon. However, as that character's acts continued after his death in 1859, Waterford cannot be given sole responsibility; that Lord Waterford had some role has been accepted by several modern authors, who suggest that a humiliating experience with a woman and a police officer could have given him the idea of creating the character as a way of "getting even" with police and women in general. They speculate that he could have designed some sort of apparatus for special spring-heeled boots, that he may have practiced fire-spitting techniques in order to increase the unnatural appearance of his character, they note the embroidered coat of arms with a "W" letter observed by the servant boy during the Ashworth incident, a notorious coincidence with his title's territorial designation. Indeed, Waterford was in the news in the late 1830s for drunken brawling, brutal jokes and vandalism, was said to do anything for a bet.
He was pointed to as the perpetrator by the Revd E. C. Brewer in 1880, who attested that Waterford "used to amuse himself by springing on travellers unawares, to frighten them, from time to time others have followed his silly example". An 1838 news report referred to "that turbulent piece of aristocracy" and his "nocturnal vagaries in the neighbourhood of Melton", adding that his "name in many quarters is regarded with as much terror as that of Spring-heeled Jack himself". Lord Waterford was a keen horseman and in 1840 he entered two horses in the Grand National Steeplechase, regarded today as the most
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward was related to royalty throughout Europe, he was heir apparent to the British throne and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He was heir presumptive to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha until before his marriage he renounced his right to the duchy, which devolved to his younger brother Alfred. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power, came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite, he travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial public duties, represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, but despite public approval his reputation as a playboy prince soured his relationship with his mother; as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War.
He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He fostered good relations between Britain and other European countries France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, was poor; the Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including steam turbine propulsion and the rise of socialism. He died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis, resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords. Edward was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace, he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 25 January 1842.
He was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the royal family throughout his life; as the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 10 September 1849 or 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his succession rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother, Prince Alfred. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a model constitutional monarch. At age seven, Edward embarked on a rigorous educational programme devised by Prince Albert, supervised by several tutors.
Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies. He to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, intelligent and of sweet manner. After the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, the chemist Lyon Playfair. In October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Oxford. Now released from the educational strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time and performed satisfactorily in examinations. In 1861, he transferred to Trinity College, where he was tutored in history by Charles Kingsley, Regius Professor of Modern History. Kingsley's efforts brought forth the best academic performances of Edward's life, Edward looked forward to his lectures.
In 1860, Edward undertook the first tour of North America by a Prince of Wales. His genial good humour and confident bonhomie made the tour a great success, he inaugurated the Victoria Bridge, across the St Lawrence River, laid the cornerstone of Parliament Hill, Ottawa. He watched Charles Blondin traverse Niagara Falls by highwire, stayed for three days with President James Buchanan at the White House. Buchanan accompanied the Prince to Mount Vernon, to pay his respects at the tomb of George Washington. Vast crowds greeted him everywhere, he met Ralph Waldo Emerson and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Prayers for the royal family were said in Trinity Church, New York, for the first time since 1776; the four-month tour throughout Canada and the United States boosted Edward's confidence and self-esteem, had many diplomatic benefits for Great Britain. Edward had hoped to pursue a career in the British Army, but his mother vetoed an active military career, he had been gazetted colonel on 9 November 1858—to his disappointment, as he had wanted to earn his commission by examination.
In September 1861, Edward was sent to Germany to watch military manoeuvres, but in order to engineer a meeting between him and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the eldest daughter of Prince Christian of Denmark and his wife Louise. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had decided that Edward and Alexandra should marry, they met at Speyer on 24 September under the auspices of his elder sister, who ha
Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Earl of Lathom
Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Earl of Lathom, known as The Lord Skelmersdale between 1853 and 1880, was a British Conservative politician. He was a member of every Conservative administration between 1866 and 1898, notably served three times as Lord Chamberlain of the Household under Lord Salisbury. Having succeeded his grandfather as Baron Skelmersdale in 1853, he was created Earl of Lathom in 1880. Bootle-Wilbraham was born at Blythe Hall, Lancashire, the son of Hon. Richard Bootle-Wilbraham, MP, eldest son of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, 1st Baron Skelmersdale, his mother was daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, 6th Baronet of Norton. His father died when Edward was only 7 years old and he was brought up by his grandparents at nearby Lathom House, he was educated at Oxford. Whilst a student at Oxford he was initiated into the Apollo University Lodge No 357, became an active Freemason, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 11th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps on 9 November 1872. Bootle-Wilbraham succeeded his grandfather as second Baron Skelmersdale in 1853 and was entitled to take a seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday in 1858.
He served under the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli as a Lord-in-waiting from 1866 to 1868. In 1870 he became Conservative Chief Whip in the House of Lords, he once again held office under Disraeli as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard from 1874 to 1880, was admitted to the Privy Council in 1874. In 1880 he was created Earl of Lathom, in the County Palatine of Lancaster. Lord Lathom held office under Lord Salisbury as Lord Chamberlain of the Household from 1885 to 1886, from 1886 to 1892, from 1895 to 1898. In 1892 he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. Lord Lathom married Lady Alice Villiers, daughter of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, on 16 August 1860, they had nine children: Edward George Bootle-Wilbraham, 2nd Earl of Lathom, married 1889 Lady Wilma Pleydell-Bouverie, daughter of William Pleydell-Bouverie, 5th Earl of Radnor. Hon. Villiers Richard Bootle-Wilbraham, born abt. 1867, married 1900 to Violet Inez de Romero. Hon. Reginald Francis Bootle-Wilbraham, born abt.
1875, married 1903 to Lilian Mary Holt, daughter of Major William Lyster Holt Lady Alice Maud Bootle-Wilbraham, O. B. E. Lady Constance Adela Bootle-Wilbraham, Lady Bertha Mabel Bootle-Wilbraham, married 1903 to Maj. Arthur Frederick Dawkins Lady Edith Cecil. Bootle-Wilbraham.bap Jan 1870. Died 1899. Lady Florence Mary Bootle-Wilbraham, married the Right Reverend Lord William Cecil, Bishop of Exeter, son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, had issue; the Countess of Lathom died in a carriage accident in November 1897, aged 56. Lord Lathom survived her by a year and died in November 1898, aged 60, he was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son, Lord Skelmersdale
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, plague and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros, Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu; as the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Apollo is the god of archery and the invention of archery is credited to him and his sister Artemis, he had a quiver of golden arrows. He is said to have never missed his aim, his arrows could inflict harm by causing sudden deaths or deadly plague.
As the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functions as the patron god of music and poetry. He is the inventor of string-music; the Cithara and the lyre are said to be his inventions. The lyre is a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. Apollo delights in the foundation of towns and the establishment of civil constitution. Hence is associated with dominion over colonists. Additionally, he is the god of the protector of fugitives and refugees. Apollo is the interpreter of laws, he presides over the divine law and custom along with Zeus and Themis. As the protector of young, Apollo is concerned with the health of children, he brings them out of their adolescence. Boys in Ancient Greece, upon reaching their adulthood, dedicated it to Apollo. Apollo is the patron of protector of herds and flocks, he is causes abundance in the milk produced by cattle, is connected with their fertility. As an agricultural deity, Apollo protects the crops from diseases the rust in corns and grains.
He is the controller and destroyer of pests that infect plants and plant harvests. Apollo is the god who wards off evil, he delivered men from the epidemics. Various epithets call him the "averter of evil". In Hellenistic times during the 5th century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun. In Latin texts, there was no conflation of Apollo with Sol among the classical Latin poets until 1st century AD. Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 5th century CE. Apollo The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is not found in the Linear B texts, although there is a possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo--[) on the KN E 842 tablet; the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form, Apellon, is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων, it is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai.
According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella, which meant "wall," "fence for animals" and "assembly within the limits of the square." Apella is the name of the popular assembly in corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, "to destroy". Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις, "redemption", with ἀπόλουσις, "purification", with ἁπλοῦν, "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, with Ἀειβάλλων, "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, he gives the explanation σηκός, "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means "stone," and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα and Πελλήνη.
A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name, The Hittite form Apaliunas is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter related to Hurrian Aplu, a god of plague, in turn from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning "the son of Enlil", a title, given to the god Nergal, linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
J. Mordaunt Crook
Joseph Mordaunt Crook known as J. Mordaunt Crook, is an English architectural historian and specialist on the Georgian and Victorian periods, he is an authority on the life and work of the Victorian architect William Burges, his study published in 1981 has been described as "one of the most substantial studies of any Victorian architect".. Slade Professor of Fine Art, University of Oxford Professor of Architectural History, Royal Holloway College, Fellow of the British Academy President of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain Supernumerary Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford Member of the Supervisory Committee of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Council Member of the Society of Antiquaries of London Council Member of the Victorian Society of Great Britain Vice Chairman Westminster Abbey Fabric Commission The History of the King's Works volumes V-VI HMSO The British Museum: a Case-study in Architectural Politics, Pelican The Greek Revival: Neo-Classical Attitudes in British Architecture 1760-1870 John Murray The Reform Club article for and published by the Reform Club Strawberry Hill Revisited Reprints from Country Life of 7/14/21 June 1973 William Burges and the High Victorian Dream John Murray.
Club Government: How the Early Victorian World was Ruled from London Clubs. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781784538187