An appellate court called an appeals court, court of appeals, appeal court, court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law, empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal. In most jurisdictions, the court system is divided into at least three levels: the trial court, which hears cases and reviews evidence and testimony to determine the facts of the case. A jurisdiction's supreme court is that jurisdiction's highest appellate court. Appellate courts nationwide can operate under varying rules; the authority of appellate courts to review the decisions of lower courts varies from one jurisdiction to another. In some areas, the appellate court has limited powers of review. An appellate court's judgment provides the final directive of the appeals courts as to the matter appealed, setting out with specificity the court's determination that the action appealed from should be affirmed, remanded or modified. While in many appellate courts have jurisdiction over all cases decided by lower courts, some systems have appellate courts divided by the type of jurisdiction they exercise.
Some jurisdictions have specialized appellate courts, such as the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, which only hears appeals raised in criminal cases, the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which has general jurisdiction but derives most of its caseload from patent cases, on one hand, appeals from the Court of Federal Claims on the other. In the United States, Alabama and Oklahoma have separate courts of criminal appeals. Texas and Oklahoma have the final determination of criminal cases vested in their respective courts of criminal appeals, while Alabama and Tennessee allow decisions of its court of criminal appeals to be appealed to the state supreme court. Court of Criminal Appeals include: CivilianCourt of Criminal Appeal Court of Criminal Appeal U. S. States: Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals Tennessee Court of Criminal Appeals Texas Court of Criminal AppealsMilitaryUnited States Army Court of Criminal Appeals Navy-Marine Corps Court of Criminal Appeals Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals Alabama Court of Civil Appeals Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand's principal intermediate appellate court.
In practice, most appeals are resolved at this intermediate appellate level, rather than in the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeal of Sri Lanka, located in Colombo, is the second senior court in the Sri Lankan legal system. In the United States, both state and federal appellate courts are restricted to examining whether the lower court made the correct legal determinations, rather than hearing direct evidence and determining what the facts of the case were. Furthermore, U. S. appellate courts are restricted to hearing appeals based on matters that were brought up before the trial court. Hence, such an appellate court will not consider an appellant's argument if it is based on a theory, raised for the first time in the appeal. In most U. S. states, in U. S. federal courts, parties before the court are allowed one appeal as of right. This means that a party, unsatisfied with the outcome of a trial may bring an appeal to contest that outcome. However, appeals may be costly, the appellate court must find an error on the part of the court below that justifies upsetting the verdict.
Therefore, only a small proportion of trial court decisions result in appeals. Some appellate courts supreme courts, have the power of discretionary review, meaning that they can decide whether they will hear an appeal brought in a particular case. Many U. S. jurisdictions title their appellate court an court of court of appeals. Others have titled their appellate court a court of errors, on the premise that it was intended to correct errors made by lower courts. Examples of such courts include the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals, the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors, the Kentucky Court of Errors, the Mississippi High Court of Errors and Appeals. In some jurisdictions, a court able to hear appeals is known as an appellate division; the phrase "court of appeals" most refers to intermediate appellate courts. However, the Maryland and New York systems are different; the Maryland Court of Appeals and the New York Court of Appeals are the highest appellate courts in those states. The New York Supreme Court is a trial court of general jurisdiction.
Depending on the system, certain courts may serve as both trial courts and appellate courts, hearing appeals of decisions made by courts with more limited jurisdiction. Court of Criminal Appeal Court of Appeal High Court Court of Appeal Court of cassation Appeals courts are like second chances in the court systems Lax, Jeffrey R. "Constructing Legal Rules on Appellate Courts." American Political Science Review 101.3: 591–604. Sociological Abstracts. Web. 29 May 2012
Rubus niveus is a species of Rubus native to southern Asia, from Afghanistan east through India and China to Taiwan and the Philippines, south to Sri Lanka and Malaysia, north to Gansu in China. Rubus niveus is a shrub growing to 1–2.5 m tall, the stems whitish tomentose at first, becoming glabrous green to purple later. The leaves are pinnate with 5–11 leaflets, the leaflets 2.5–8 cm long and 1–4 cm broad, dark green above, densely pale grey to white tomentose beneath. The flowers are about 1 cm diameter, with five dark pink to red petals; the fruit is 8 -- densely grey tomentose, dark red at first, ripening black. Rubus niveus is cultivated for its edible fruit, it has become invasive in Hawaii and the Galápagos Islands. Media related to Rubus niveus at Wikimedia Commons
Owen Martin Phillips was a U. S. physical oceanographer and geophysicist who spent most of his career at the Johns Hopkins University. Owen Phillips was born at Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia a suburb of Sydney, the son of Richard Keith and Madeline Constance Phillips, his father fought in the Gallipoli Campaign during World War I. In 1936 the family moved to the country town of Tamworth where most of his primary education occurred, he entered the University of Sydney in the fall of 1948. He majored in applied mathematics and physics, graduating with first-class honours in 1952 and sharing the John Coutts Prize for general proficiency in science with J. Stewart Turner, he moved to the famed Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, from which he received his Ph. D. With the exception of a brief stint in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge, most of Phillips career was spent at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, his early career was concerned with the physics of the upper ocean, particular regarding ways in which energy was transferred from the wind into the ocean interior.
A important paper in this respect was his 1957 work in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics, proposing that ocean surface waves were the generated by turbulent eddies in the atmosphere being swept over the surface in such a way that they resonated with surface disturbances.. In work he developed a mathematical theory that built on ideas of resonance for explaining how energy in waves was transferred from short to large scales, he worked on understanding how this energy was transferred to the ocean mixed layer, thus constraining the amount of stirring within this layer. He was awarded the 1974 Sverdrup Gold Medal of the American Meteorological Society "for his outstanding studies of both wave phenomena and turbulence in the upper ocean, in particular for his contributions to the theory of ocean-wave generation." In addition to primary area of scientific research, Phillips worked to synthesize knowledge within the broader field of geophysics in a number of books. In 1965 he published a monograph on the dynamics of the upper ocean which received the Adams Prize from the Royal Society.
Translated into Russian and Chinese, with a second edition appearing in 1977, it was an important textbook in a field which at the time had few such works. He worked with others in the Johns Hopkins department to study flow in porous media, publishing an important monograph on this subject in 1991. Adams Prize Fellow of the Royal Society Sverdrup Gold Medal Award Fellow of the American Meteorological Society Elected U. S. National Academy of Engineering Fellow of the American Geophysical Union Phillips, O. M.. "On the generation of waves by the turbulent wind". Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2: 417–445. Bibcode:1957JFM.....2..417P. Doi:10.1017/s0022112057000233. Phillips, O. M.. "On the dynamics of unsteady gravity waves of finite amplitude, Part 1: The elementary interaction". Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 9: 193–217. Bibcode:1960JFM.....9..193P. Doi:10.1017/s0022112060001043. Kato, H.. M.. "On the penetration of a turbulent layer into a stratified fluid". J. Fluid Mech. 37: 643–655. Bibcode:1969JFM....37..643K.
Doi:10.1017/S0022112069000784. Phillips, O. M.. The dynamics of the upper ocean. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29801-8. Phillips, O. M.. Flow and reactions in permeable rocks. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38098-7. Phillips, O. M.. Geological fluid dynamics – Sub-surface flow and reactions. Cambridge University Press. Doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807473. ISBN 978-0-521-86555-5. Wind wave Mixed layer Olson, Peter. "Owen M. Phillips". Eos. 92: 63–64. Bibcode:2011EOSTr..92...63O. Doi:10.1029/2011eo080006. Tulin, Marshall. "Owen M Phillips". Memorial Tributes-National Academy of Engineering. 17: 245–249. Turner, J. S.. "Owen M. Phillips, 30 December 1930-13 October 2010". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 58: 229–244. Doi:10.1098/rsbm.2012.0028. Full bibliography Turner, J. S.. "Owen Martin Phillips. 30 December 1930 -- 13 October 2010". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 58: 229–244. Doi:10.1098/rsbm.2012.0028
Smart City is a weekly radio show broadcast on National Public Radio stations across the United States. Smart City is a weekly, hour-long public radio interview show that takes an in-depth look at urban life, the people, places and trends shaping cities. Our host, Carol Coletta, talks with national and international public policy experts, elected officials, business leaders, developers and others for a discussion of urban issues. Carol Coletta Carol Coletta Coletta is president and CEO of CEOs for Cities and host and executive producer of the nationally syndicated public radio show Smart City Before moving to Chicago to head CEOs for Cities, she served as president of Coletta & Company in Memphis. In addition, she served as executive director of the Mayors’ Institute on City Design, a partnership of the National Endowment for the Arts, United States Conference of Mayors and American Architectural Foundation; the show consists of two interviews with guests on topics pertaining to city life, urbanism and public policy.
Regular segments include a newsbrief from the assistant editor of Planetizen.com, Nate Berg, a short essay from J. Walker Smith. Smart City will air short, produced pieces on city life, events, or other items of interest; the show is pre-recorded, aired at various times in various markets and is podcast. Carol Coletta - host - executive producer Scotty Iseri - producer - contributing editor Nate Berg - correspondent: Planetizen.com J. Walker Smith - contributor: City Views Otis White: - former contributor The show's theme was composed for the program by Robby Grant and Steve Selvidge. Official website Smart City podcast RSS Feed Show Archive Vending Machine Creators of the Smart City theme music. Producer Scotty Iseri Planetizen.com Contributor Nate Berg
The African Cricket Association is an international body which oversees cricket in African countries. The ACA was founded in 1997, has 22 member countries; the ACA is a sub-ordinate body to the International Cricket Council. South African and Zimbabwean Cricket is independently administered by their own boards, however the ACA is its own national organization responsible for the administration and development of cricket across the rest of Africa, they are responsible for the development of coaching and umpiring, expanding cricket administration within national organisations on the African Continent. Prior to the Creation of the ACA, the rest of Africa was administered by two separate organisations, the East and Central Africa Cricket Conference and the West Africa Cricket Council; the ACA organises the African XI which competes in the Afro-Asian Cup. The Cricket World Cup has been held once in the ACA region when the 2003 Cricket World Cup was hosted in South Africa and Kenya; the following tournaments are contested by teams from African ICC members, with responsibility for each shared to some extent between the ACA and the ICC: ICC Africa Under-19 Championship ICC Africa Women's T20 Championship World Cricket League Africa Region 2020 ACA Africa T20 Cup Finals As of 19 July 2019 ACA Website ICC region page
Carlo Grante is an Italian classical pianist. He graduated at the National Academy of St Cecilia in Rome with Sergio Perticaroli, he studied with Ivan Davis, Rudolf Firkušný, Aliza Kezeradze. He is known as a performer of mainstream classical composers such as Franz Liszt, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Domenico Scarlatti, as well as demanding late romantic and 20th-century composers such as Leopold Godowsky, Ferruccio Busoni, George Flynn, Roman Vlad, Paolo Troncon, Michael Finnissy, Alistair Hinton and Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji, his discography consists of more than 50 albums. Grante graduated in piano at the Conservatory S. Cecilia in Rome with Sergio Perticaroli he studied in the U. S. with Ivan Davis, at the University of Miami and with Rudolf Firkusny at the Juilliard School in New York. Carlo Grante is one of the most active among today's recording pianists and his concert repertoire, which has contributed to the appreciation of lesser-known works, his discography numbers more than fifty CDs, ranging from Domenico Scarlatti, Clementi and Schumann, to twentieth-century composers as Godowsky and Sorabji.
His recent record productions include works by Vlad and Finnissy dedicated to him and inspired by Bach and Busoni, the two concertos for piano and orchestra by Franz Schmidt with the Radio Orchestra of Leipzig conducted by Fabio Luisi, three concertos for piano and orchestra by Mozart with the Orchestra dell'Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome conducted by B. Sieberer, the Busoni Concerto, recorded live in Vienna with the Vienna Symphony under Fabio Luisi, the three sonatas by Schumann, as well as works by Godowsky, Flynn and Liszt. In his concert activity he has performed in major concert venues and prestigious halls: the Grosser Saal of the Konzerthaus and Goldener Saal of the Musikverein in Vienna, Wigmore Hall and Barbican Hall in London, at the Parco della Sala Santa Cecilia Music in Rome, Leipzig Gewandhaus, Dresden Semperoper, Stuttgart, in New York, Milan, Hong Kong, Hanoi, Bucharest, Rio de Janeiro, the Vienna Festival, Husum, Newport, "Neuhaus Festival" in Saratov, Tallinn, Ravello, MDR Musiksommer, etc. with major orchestras, such as Dresden Staatskapelle, Royal Philharmonic in London, Vienna Symphony, Orchestra of St. Cecilia, Pomeriggi Musicali di Milano, Orchestra of Radio-TV in Zagreb Radio Orchestra of Leipzig, Capella Istropolitana of Bratislava, Chamber Orchestra of Europe, etc.
Grante has written scholarly articles regarding research into methodology and piano literature. At the Newport Music Festival in 1995 Carlo Grante performed the world premiere of the 53 Studies on the Etudes of Chopin by L. Godowsky. In 1996, on the occasion of two recitals at the Wigmore Hall in London, Musical Opinion reviewer wrote: "The discs of Grante had shown astonishing qualities... his live performances have proved him to be the first rate pianist that his discs suggested." In 1997 he gave a series of 6 recitals in New York. He performed again at the Newport Music Festival in 2011 and 2012. Busoni: Works for Piano and Orchestra, Orchestra dei Pomeriggi musicali di Milano, Music & Arts CD-1047 Piano Works by Busoni, Finnissy & Flynn, Music & Arts CD-1247 Busoni, Troncon - P. Troncon: 6 Preludes and Fugues F. Busoni: Prélude et Etude.