Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
RAID is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both. This was in contrast to the previous concept of reliable mainframe disk drives referred to as "single large expensive disk". Data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways, referred to as RAID levels, depending on the required level of redundancy and performance; the different schemes, or data distribution layouts, are named by the word "RAID" followed by a number, for example RAID 0 or RAID 1. Each scheme, or RAID level, provides a different balance among the key goals: reliability, availability and capacity. RAID levels greater than RAID 0 provide protection against unrecoverable sector read errors, as well as against failures of whole physical drives; the term "RAID" was invented by David Patterson, Garth A. Gibson, Randy Katz at the University of California, Berkeley in 1987.
In their June 1988 paper "A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks", presented at the SIGMOD conference, they argued that the top performing mainframe disk drives of the time could be beaten on performance by an array of the inexpensive drives, developed for the growing personal computer market. Although failures would rise in proportion to the number of drives, by configuring for redundancy, the reliability of an array could far exceed that of any large single drive. Although not yet using that terminology, the technologies of the five levels of RAID named in the June 1988 paper were used in various products prior to the paper's publication, including the following: Mirroring was well established in the 1970s including, for example, Tandem NonStop Systems. In 1977, Norman Ken Ouchi at IBM filed a patent disclosing what was subsequently named RAID 4. Around 1983, DEC began. In 1986, Clark et al. at IBM filed a patent disclosing what was subsequently named RAID 5. Around 1988, the Thinking Machines' DataVault used error correction codes in an array of disk drives.
A similar approach was used in the early 1960s on the IBM 353. Industry manufacturers redefined the RAID acronym to stand for "Redundant Array of Independent Disks". Many RAID levels employ an error protection scheme called "parity", a used method in information technology to provide fault tolerance in a given set of data. Most use simple XOR, but RAID 6 uses two separate parities based on addition and multiplication in a particular Galois field or Reed–Solomon error correction. RAID can provide data security with solid-state drives without the expense of an all-SSD system. For example, a fast SSD can be mirrored with a mechanical drive. For this configuration to provide a significant speed advantage an appropriate controller is needed that uses the fast SSD for all read operations. Adaptec calls this "hybrid RAID". A number of standard schemes have evolved; these are called levels. There were five RAID levels, but many variations have evolved, notably several nested levels and many non-standard levels.
RAID levels and their associated data formats are standardized by the Storage Networking Industry Association in the Common RAID Disk Drive Format standard: RAID 0 RAID 0 consists of striping, but no mirroring or parity. Compared to a spanned volume, the capacity of a RAID 0 volume is the same, but because striping distributes the contents of each file among all disks in the set, the failure of any disk causes all files, the entire RAID 0 volume, to be lost. A broken spanned volume at least preserves the files on the unfailing disks; the benefit of RAID 0 is that the throughput of read and write operations to any file is multiplied by the number of disks because, unlike spanned volumes and writes are done concurrently, the cost is complete vulnerability to drive failures. RAID 1 RAID 1 consists of data mirroring, without striping. Data is written identically to two drives. Thus, any read request can be serviced by any drive in the set. If a request is broadcast to every drive in the set, it can be serviced by the drive that accesses the data first, improving performance.
Sustained read throughput, if the controller or software is optimized for it, approaches the sum of throughputs of every drive in the set, just as for RAID 0. Actual read throughput of most RAID. Write throughput is always slower because every drive must be updated, the slowest drive limits the write performance; the array continues to operate as long. RAID 2 RAID 2 consists of bit-level striping with dedicated Hamming-code parity. All disk spindle rotation is synchronized and data is striped such that each sequential bit is on a different drive. Hamming-code parity is stored on at least one parity drive; this level is of historical significance only. RAID 3 RAID 3 consists of byte-level striping with dedicated parity. All disk spindle rotation is synchronized and data is striped such that each sequential byte is on a different drive. Parity is stored on a dedicated parity drive. Although implementations exist, RAID 3 is not
IBM RISC System/6000
The RISC System/6000, is a family of RISC-based UNIX servers and supercomputers made by IBM in the 1990s. The RS/6000 family replaced the IBM RT PC computer platform in February 1990 and was the first computer line to see the use of IBM's POWER and PowerPC based microprocessors. In October 2000, the RS/6000 brand was retired for POWER-based servers and replaced by the eServer pSeries. Workstations continued under the RS/6000 brand until 2002, when new POWER-based workstations were released under the IntelliStation POWER brand; the first RS/6000 models used the Micro Channel bus models used PCI. Some models conformed to the PReP and CHRP standard platforms, which were co-developed with Apple and Motorola, with Open Firmware; the plan was to enable the RS/6000 to run multiple operating systems such as Windows NT, NetWare, OS/2, Taligent, AIX and Mac OS but in the end only IBM's UNIX variant AIX was used and supported on RS/6000. Linux is used on CHRP based RS/6000s, but support was added after the RS/6000 name was changed to eServer pSeries in 2000.
The RS/6000 family included the POWERserver servers, POWERstation workstations and Scalable POWERparallel supercomputer. While most machines were desktops, desksides, or rack-mounted, there was a laptop model too, the Model 860. Famous computers are RS/6000s include the P2SC-based Deep Blue supercomputer that beat world champion Garry Kasparov at chess in 1997, the POWER3-based ASCI White, the fastest supercomputer in the world during 2000–2002; some models were marketed under the RS/6000 POWERserver names. The Model N40 was PowerPC-based notebook developed and manufactured by Tadpole Technology for IBM, it became available on 25 March 1994, priced at US$12,000. The internal batteries could power the system for 45 minutes only and an external battery pack was available for this reason; these workstations were marketed under the PowerStation name. This type was for IBM's line of X terminal; the 380, 390, 39H servers correspond to the 3AT, 3BT, 3CT workstations. Many RS/6000 and subsequent pSeries machines came with a service processor, which booted itself when power was applied and continuously ran its own firmware, independent of the operating system.
The service processor could call a phone number in case of serious failure with the machine. Early advertisements and documentation called the service processor "System Guard", although this name was dropped on around the same time that the simplified RS/6000 name was adopted for the computer line itself. Late in the RS/6000 cycle, the service processor was "converged" with the one used on the AS/400 machines. IBM POWER microprocessors IBM AIX IBM Scalable POWERparallel IBM pSeries IBM System p General27 years of IBM RISC IBM Archives: A Brief History of RISC, the IBM RS/6000 and the IBM eServer pSeries
A motherboard is the main printed circuit board found in general purpose computers and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit and memory, provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard contains significant sub-systems such as the central processor, the chipset's input/output and memory controllers, interface connectors, other components integrated for general purpose use and applications. Motherboard refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name suggests, this board is referred to as the "mother" of all components attached to it, which include peripherals, interface cards, daughtercards: sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; the term mainboard is applied to devices with a single board and no additional expansions or capability, such as controlling boards in laser printers, washing machines, mobile phones and other embedded systems with limited expansion abilities.
Prior to the invention of the microprocessor, the digital computer consisted of multiple printed circuit boards in a card-cage case with components connected by a backplane, a set of interconnected sockets. In old designs, copper wires were the discrete connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice; the Central Processing Unit and peripherals were housed on individual printed circuit boards, which were plugged into the backplane. The ubiquitous S-100 bus of the 1970s is an example of this type of backplane system; the most popular computers of the 1980s such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. Intended for building new computers compatible with the exemplars, many motherboards offered additional performance or other features and were used to upgrade the manufacturer's original equipment. During the late 1981s and early 1990s, it became economical to move an increasing number of peripheral functions onto the motherboard.
In the late 1980s, personal computer motherboards began to include single ICs capable of supporting a set of low-speed peripherals: keyboard, floppy disk drive, serial ports, parallel ports. By the late 1990s, many personal computer motherboards included consumer-grade embedded audio, video and networking functions without the need for any expansion cards at all. Business PCs, servers were more to need expansion cards, either for more robust functions, or for higher speeds. Laptop and notebook computers that were developed in the 1990s integrated the most common peripherals; this included motherboards with no upgradeable components, a trend that would continue as smaller systems were introduced after the turn of the century. Memory, network controllers, power source, storage would be integrated into some systems. A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. Unlike a backplane, it contains the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices.
A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables. An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor's supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components; this chipset determines, to an extent, the capabilities of the motherboard. Modern motherboards include: Sockets. In the case of CPUs in ball grid array packages, such as the VIA C3, the CPU is directly soldered to the motherboard. Memory Slots into which the system's main memory is to be installed in the form of DIMM modules containing DRAM chips A chipset which forms an interface between the CPU's front-side bus, main memory, peripheral buses Non-volatile memory chips containing the system's firmware or BIOS A clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various components Slots for expansion cards Power connectors, which receive electrical power from the computer power supply and distribute it to the CPU, main memory, expansion cards.
As of 2007, some graphics cards require more power than the motherboard can provide, thus dedicated connectors have been introduced to attach them directly to the power supply. Connectors for hard drives SATA only. Disk drives connect to the power supply. Additionally, nearly all motherboards include logic and connectors to support used input devices, such as USB for mouse devices and keyboards. Early personal computers
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah. Its most significant product was the multi-platform network operating system known as Novell NetWare, which became the dominant form of personal computer networking during the second half of the 1980s and first half of the 1990s. Novell technology contributed to the emergence of local area networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe computing model and changed computing worldwide. Novell became instrumental in making Utah Valley a focus for software development. Under the leadership of founder Ray Noorda, during the early- to mid-1990s Novell attempted to compete directly with Microsoft by acquiring Digital Research, Unix System Laboratories, WordPerfect, the Quattro Pro division of Borland; these moves did not work out, NetWare began losing market share once Microsoft bundled network services with the Windows NT operating system and its successors. Despite new products such as Novell Directory Services and GroupWise, Novell entered a long period of decline.
Novell acquired SUSE Linux and attempted to refocus its technology base. The company was an independent corporate entity until it was acquired as a wholly owned subsidiary by The Attachmate Group in 2011, which in turn was acquired in 2014 by Micro Focus International. Novell products and technologies are now integrated within various Micro Focus divisions; the company began in 1979 in Orem, Utah as Novell Data Systems Inc. a hardware manufacturer producing CP/M-based systems. Former Eyring Research Institute employee Dennis Fairclough was a member of the original team, it was co-founded by George Canova, Darin Field, Jack Davis. Victor V. Vurpillat brought the deal to Pete Musser, chairman of the board of Safeguard Scientifics, Inc. who provided the seed funding. The company did not do well; the microcomputer produced by the company was comparatively weak against performance by competitors. In order to compete on systems sales Novell Data Systems planned a program to link more than one microcomputer to operate together.
The former ERI employees Drew Major, Dale Neibaur and Kyle Powell, known as the SuperSet Software group, were hired to this task. At ERI, Major and Powell had worked on government contracts for the Intelligent Systems Technology Project, thereby gained an important insight into the ARPANET and related technologies, ideas which would become crucial to the foundation of Novell; the Safeguard board ordered Musser to shut Novell down. Musser contacted two Safeguard investors and investment bankers, Barry Rubenstein and Fred Dolin, who guaranteed to raise the necessary funds to continue the business as a software company as Novell Data Systems' networking program could work on computers from other companies. Davis left Novell Data Systems in November 1981, followed by Canova in March 1982. Rubinstein and Dolin, along with Jack Messman and hired Raymond Noorda; the required funding was obtained through a rights offering to Safeguard shareholders, managed by the Cleveland brokerage house, Prescott and Turben, guaranteed by Rubenstein and Dolin.
Major and Powell continued to support Novell through their SuperSet Software Group. In January 1983, the company's name was shortened to "Novell, Inc.", Noorda became the head of the firm. That same year, the company introduced its most significant product, the multi-platform network operating system, Novell NetWare; the first Novell product was a proprietary hardware server based on the Motorola 68000 CPU supporting six MUX ports per board for a maximum of four boards per server using a star topology with twisted pair cabling. A network interface card was developed for the IBM PC industry standard architecture bus; the server was using the first network operating system called ShareNet. ShareNet was ported to run on the Intel platform and renamed NetWare; the first commercial release of NetWare was version 1.5. Novell based its network protocol on Xerox Network Systems, created its own standards from IDP and SPP, which it named Internetwork Packet Exchange and Sequenced Packet Exchange. File and print services ran on the NetWare Core Protocol over IPX, as did Routing Information Protocol and Service Advertising Protocol.
Novell had acquired Kanwal Rekhi's company Excelan in 1989, which manufactured smart Ethernet cards and commercialized the Internet protocol TCP/IP, solidifying Novell's presence in these niche areas. Novell did well throughout the 1980s, it aggressively expanded its market share by selling its expensive Ethernet cards at cost. By 1990, Novell had an monopolistic position in NOS for any business requiring a network. With this market leadership, Novell began to acquire and build services on top of its NetWare operating platform; these services extended NetWare's capabilities with such products as NetWare for SAA, Novell multi-protocol router, GroupWise and BorderManager. However, Novell was diversifying, moving away from its smaller users to target large corporations, although the company attempted to refocus with NetWare for Small Business, it reduced investment in research and was slow to improve the product administration tools, although it was helped by the fact its products needed little "tweaking" — they just ran.
Under Noorda, Novell made a series of acquisitions interpreted by many to be a challenge to Microsoft. Novell acquired Digital Research in June 1991. NetWare used DR DOS as a boot loader and maintenance platform, Novell intended to extend its desktop presence by integrating networking into DR DOS and providing an alternative to Microsoft's Windows. At first, the idea was to provide a graphical environment based on
A bulk box known as a bulk bin, skid box, pallet box, bin box, or octabin is a pallet-size box used for storage and shipping of bulk quantities. In the U. S. and Canada, the term gaylord is sometimes used for triplewall corrugated pallet boxes. Bulk boxes are made of corrugated fiberboard, either doublewall or triplewall. Many corrugated bulk boxes have covers; the main body of some is similar to a half slotted container with flaps on the bottom. Additional corrugated liners and box reinforcement are sometimes used to control bulging. Wooden boxes are used for bulk packaging. Reusable plastic totes are used for some logistics chains. For some products, inner plastic liners or bin bags are used to protect the contents. Sealed inner bags with integral valves are sometimes used for liquids. Most bulk boxes are returnable, or reusable; some styles of boxes come apart for easier return shipments. Bulk boxes are used for loose parts, mixed small containers, granular materials, liquids, etc. Use in industry is common: shipping and storage of bulk intermediate materials prior to further processing or packaging.
They are sometimes used to ship materials for recycling and waste. When used to ship hazardous waste or dangerous goods, box construction and use are regulated. D5168 Standard Practice for Fabrication and Closure of Triple-wall Corrugated Containers D6179 Standard Test Methods for Rough Handling of Unitized Loads and Large Shipping Cases and Crates D6251 Standard Specification for Wood-Cleated Panelboard Shipping Boxes D6254 Standard Specification for Wirebound Pallet-Type Wood Boxes D6256 Standard Specification for Wood-Cleated Shipping Boxes and Skidded, Load-Bearing Bases D6573 Standard Specification for General Purpose Wirebound Shipping Boxes D6880-05 Standard Specification for wooden boxes Corrugated box design Intermediate bulk container Shipping container McKinlay, A. H. "Transport Packaging", IoPP, 2004 Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6