Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It was first described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot, it is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder extracted from citrus fruits, is used in food as a gelling agent in jams and jellies. It is used in dessert fillings, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks, as a source of dietary fiber. In plant biology, pectin consists of a complex set of polysaccharides that are present in most primary cell walls and are abundant in the non-woody parts of terrestrial plants. Pectin is a major component of the middle lamella, where it helps to bind cells together, but is found in primary cell walls. Pectin is deposited by exocytosis into the cell wall via vesicles produced in the golgi; the amount and chemical composition of pectin differs among plants, within a plant over time, in various parts of a plant. Pectin is an important cell wall polysaccharide that allows primary cell wall extension and plant growth.
During fruit ripening, pectin is broken down by the enzymes pectinase and pectinesterase, in which process the fruit becomes softer as the middle lamellae break down and cells become separated from each other. A similar process of cell separation caused by the breakdown of pectin occurs in the abscission zone of the petioles of deciduous plants at leaf fall. Pectin is a natural part of the human diet, but does not contribute to nutrition; the daily intake of pectin from fruits and vegetables can be estimated to be around 5 g if 500 g of fruits and vegetables are consumed per day. In human digestion, pectin binds to cholesterol in the gastrointestinal tract and slows glucose absorption by trapping carbohydrates. Pectin is thus a soluble dietary fiber. In non-obese diabetic mice pectin has been shown to increase the incidence of diabetes. A study found that after consumption of fruit the concentration of methanol in the human body increased by as much as an order of magnitude due to the degradation of natural pectin in the colon).
Pectin has been observed to have some function in repair the DNA of some types of plant seeds desert plants. Pectinaceous surface pellicles, which are rich in pectin, create a mucilage layer that holds in dew that helps the cell repair its DNA. Consumption of pectin has been shown to reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels; the effect depends upon the source of pectin. The mechanism appears to be an increase of viscosity in the intestinal tract, leading to a reduced absorption of cholesterol from bile or food. In the large intestine and colon, microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty acids that have positive influence on health. Pectins known as pectic polysaccharides, are rich in galacturonic acid. Several distinct polysaccharides have been characterised within the pectic group. Homogalacturonans are linear chains of α--linked D-galacturonic acid. Substituted galacturonans are characterized by the presence of saccharide appendant residues branching from a backbone of D-galacturonic acid residues.
Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins contain a backbone of the repeating disaccharide: 4)-α-D-galacturonic acid--α-L-rhamnose-(1. From many of the rhamnose residues, sidechains of various neutral sugars branch off; the neutral sugars are D-galactose, L-arabinose and D-xylose, with the types and proportions of neutral sugars varying with the origin of pectin. Another structural type of pectin is rhamnogalacturonan II, a less frequent, complex branched polysaccharide. Rhamnogalacturonan II is classified by some authors within the group of substituted galacturonans since the rhamnogalacturonan II backbone is made of D-galacturonic acid units. Isolated pectin has a molecular weight of 60,000–130,000 g/mol, varying with origin and extraction conditions. In nature, around 80 percent of carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol; this proportion is decreased to a varying degree during pectin extraction. The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behavior of pectin in food applications.
This is why pectins are classified as high- vs. low-ester pectins, with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified. The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids or salts with sodium, potassium, or calcium; the salts of esterified pectins are called pectinates, if the degree of esterification is below 5 percent the salts are called pectates, the insoluble acid form, pectic acid. Some plants, such as sugar beet and pears, contain pectins with acetylated galacturonic acid in addition to methyl esters. Acetylation increases the stabilising and emulsifying effects of pectin. Amidated pectin is a modified form of pectin. Here, some of the galacturonic acid is converted with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide; these pectins are more tolerant of varying calcium concentrations. To prepare a pectin-gel, the ingredients are heated. Upon cooling below gelling temperature, a gel starts to form. If gel formation is too strong, syneresis or a granular texture are the result, while weak gelling leads to excessively soft gels.
Pectins gel according to specific parameters, such as pH and bivalent salts. In hi
The Baldwin apple is a bright red winter apple good in quality, shipped. It was for many years the most popular apple in New England, New York, for export from the United States of America, it has been known as'Calville Butter','Felch','Late Baldwin','Pecker','Red Baldwin's Pippin','Steele's Red Winter', and'Woodpecker'. The Baldwin was one of four apples honored by the United States Postal Service in a 2013 set of four 33¢ stamps commemorating historic strains, joined by Northern Spy, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith. According to local tradition, the apple was found near Wood Hill by William Butters, grandson of Will Butter, first white settler in what is now Wilmington, Massachusetts. William Butters raised the tree near the present Baldwin Apple Monument. According to S. A. Beach's Apples of New York, the Baldwin originated soon after 1740 as a chance seedling on the farm of Mr. John Ball of Wilmington and for about 40 years thereafter its cultivation was confined to that immediate neighborhood.
The farm came into the possession of a Mr. Butters, who gave the name Woodpecker to the apple because the tree was frequented by woodpeckers. Deacon Samuel Thompson, a surveyor of Woburn, brought it to the attention of Col. Loammi Baldwin, who propagated it and more introduced it in eastern Massachusetts. From Col. Baldwin's interest in the variety it came to be called the Baldwin. A monument to the Baldwin apple now stands on today's Chestnut street in Wilmington; the monument's inscription reads: This monument marks the site of the first Baldwin Apple Tree found growing wild near here. It fell in the gale of 1815; the apple first known as the Butters, Woodpecker or Pecker apple was named after Col. Loammi Baldwin of Woburn. Erected in 1895 by the Rumford Historical Association. A harsh winter in 1934 wiped out many of the Baldwin apple orchards in New England, its popularity as an eating apple waned, but some orchards were preserved for many years because of its desirability as a mixing apple for cider.
However, the orchards have not been replaced. Baldwin Apples, unlike many apples, have long been prized for the making of hard cider. "West County Cider" makes Baldwin Cider from trees planted in the early 1900s. It is their most popular cider; the apple is noted for its small to medium size, when compared to other apples like the Macintosh. It is an exceptionally hard apple and would remain remarkably free from blemishes and other blights with few pesticides being needed; because of its hardness it shipped well without bruising and for a time was prized for this quality. Aside from cider making it was known as an exceptionally good pie apple and due to its inherent hardness would maintain more crispness through the baking process than other apples would. Essex County, New Jersey, in the time of the Dutch, was well known for its apple groves and cider, connected with the Bauldwin family. Baldwins were once the most popular apples in the United States but have fallen out of existence with the introduction of the Red Delicious.
While not extinct, they are difficult to find in stores. Some trees can still be found wild in abandoned orchards in New England, notably in Vermont. "Baldwin", National Fruit Collection, retrieved 28 October 2015
Pork chops and applesauce
Pork chops and applesauce is a traditional dish in Spain and the United Kingdom, consisting of cooked pork chops and apple sauce. The pork chops can be pan-fried, baked or broiled, the meat is sometimes breaded prior to cooking; some people consider the dish to be a comfort food. Pork chops and applesauce has been consumed in the United States since at least the 1890s. In episode #55 of The Brady Bunch titled "The Personality Kid" that aired in 1971, the phrase "pork chops and applesauce" is stated by Peter Brady using an impression of the voice of Humphrey Bogart, it has been described as a famous catchphrase of the television show. List of pork dishes Spanish cuisine
Boudinnt-m are various kinds of sausage in French, Belgian, Quebec, Aostan, Surinamese Creole and Cajun cuisine. The Anglo-Norman word boudin meant ` blood sausage' or ` entrails' in general, its origin is unclear. It has been traced both to Romance and to Germanic roots; the English word "pudding" comes from boudin. Boudin ball: A Cajun variation on boudin blanc. Instead of the fillings being stuffed into pork casings, it is rolled into a ball and deep-fried. Boudin blanc: A white sausage made of pork without the blood. Pork liver and heart meat are included. In Cajun versions, the sausage is made from a pork rice dressing, stuffed into pork casings. Rice is always used in Cajun cuisine, whereas the French/Belgian version uses milk, is therefore more delicate than the Cajun variety. In French/Belgian cuisine, the sausage is grilled; the Louisiana version is simmered or braised, although coating with oil and slow grilling for tailgating is becoming a popular option in Lafayette, New Orleans, Lake Charles, Baton Rouge.
Boudin blanc de Rethel (pronounced: a traditional French boudin, which may only contain pork meat, fresh whole eggs and milk, cannot contain any breadcrumbs or flours/starches. It is protected under EU law with a PGI status. Boudin noir: A dark-hued blood sausage, containing pork, pig blood, other ingredients. Variants of the boudin noir occur in French, Belgian and Catalan cuisine; the Catalan version of the boudin noir is called botifarra negra. In the French Caribbean, it is known as boudin Créole. In Britain a similar sausage is called "black pudding", the word "pudding" being an anglicized pronunciation of boudin, introduced after the Norman invasion. Boudin rouge: In Louisiana cuisine, a sausage similar to boudin blanc, but with pork blood added to it; this originated from the French boudin noir. Boudin valdôtain: with beetroot, spices and beef or pork blood, in the French-speaking Aosta Valley of Italy. Crawfish boudin: Popular in Cajun cuisine, crawfish boudin is made with the meat of crawfish tails added to rice.
It is served with cracklins and saltine crackers, hot sauce, ice-cold beer. Gator boudin: Made from alligator, gator boudin can be found sporadically in Louisiana and the Mississippi gulf coast. Shrimp Boudin: Similar to crawfish boudin, shrimp boudin is made by adding the shrimp to rice, it is great for appetizers or party food served in thin slices. Bloedworst: In Surinamese Creole culture, bloedworst is made with pig blood, onions and breadcrumbs. Though spices and herbs may vary, the texture is smooth and soft of a melted-like consistency. After filling the pork casing, it is put into a large cooking pot and cooked in water with spices and herbs like onions and Chinese celery, it is served with vleesworst and fladder, all cooked in the herbed and spiced broth. If the customer so wishes, it is eaten with a puréed pepper mixture. Most the Madame Jeanette is used. Boudin gave rise to "Le Boudin", the official march of the French Foreign Legion. "Blood sausage" is a colloquial reference to the gear that used to top the backpacks of Legionnaires.
The song makes repeated reference to the fact that the Belgians don't get any "blood sausage", since the King of the Belgians at one time forbade his subjects from joining the Legion. Black pudding Blood sausage White pudding
Potato pancakes, deruny, raggmunk or boxties are shallow-fried pancakes of grated or ground potato, matza meal or flour and a binding ingredient such as egg or applesauce flavored with grated garlic or onion and seasoning. They may be topped with a variety of condiments, ranging from the savory, to the sweet, or they may be served plain; the dish is sometimes made from mashed potatoes to make pancake-shaped croquettes. Some variations may be made with sweet potatoes. Potato pancakes are associated with the cuisines of many European traditions including German and Austrian, Belarusian, Czech, Jewish, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Slovak and any cuisine that has adopted similar dishes, it is the national dish of Slovakia. In Germany, potato pancakes are eaten either salty or sweet with apple sauce, or blueberries and cinnamon. In Swiss cuisine, Rösti is a variation that never contains flour. Potato pancake is a traditional favorite in the southern parts of Indiana during holiday festivities. Potato cakes are common in the United Kingdom.
In the North-East of England, there is a dish known as tattie fish, because the pancake resembles a deep fried piece of fish. The pancake consists of flour, shredded potatoes and onions; some people add tomato or cheese depending on taste. The British brought the potato pancake to former colonies such as Zimbabwe, they are still eaten today. A form of potato pancake known as boxty is a popular traditional dish in most of Ireland north Connacht and southern Ulster, it is made to the British type, with more starch and with buttermilk and baking soda. It has a grained consistency. Latkas or latkas are potato pancakes that Ashkenazi Jews have prepared as part of the Hanukkah festival since the mid-1800s, based on an older variant of the dish that goes back to at least the Middle Ages. Latkas need not be made from potatoes. Prior to the introduction of the potato to the Old World, latkas were and in some places still are, made from a variety of other vegetables, legumes, or starches, depending on the available local ingredients and foods of the various places where Jews lived.
Numerous modern recipes call for the addition of ingredients such as carrots. Daily variations on a simple potato latka might include zucchini, sweet onion and gruyere and some variations made with sweet potatoes; the word latka itself is derived from the East Slavic word ladka, oladka, a diminutive from oladya, "small pancake". The word leviva, the Hebrew name for latka, refers in the Book of Samuel to a dumpling made from kneaded dough, as part of the story of Amnon and Tamar; some interpreters have noted that the homonym levav means "heart," and the verbal form of l-v-v occurs in the Song of Songs as well. In the lexicon of Ashkenazi Jews from Udmurtia and Tatarstan there are recorded versions of the kosher-style appellation of latkas during the eight-day Hanukkah holiday. Gamja-jeon is a Korean pancake made by pan-frying in oil the mixture of grated potato and potato starch, it can be made without additional ingredients, but is sometimes mixed with onion and perilla leaf. It is seasoned with a small amount of salt and served with soy sauce.
There are four Swedish version of potato pancakes. Raggmunkar are prepared with a pancake batter of wheat flour and egg, into which shredded raw potatoes are added, they are fried in look like crêpes. Potatisplättar are made of pancake batter and shredded potatoes, but the potatoes are cooked before they are shredded. Rårakor are a variant more akin to hash browns and rösti, i.e. shredded raw potatoes formed as thin pancakes, but without any batter, which are fried in butter. Potatisbullar are rather thick pancake-like patties of mashed potatoes and eggs, which are turned in breadcrumbs and fried in butter. Can be bought ready-made in Sweden. All four variants are traditionally served with lingonberry jam. Potato pancakes translated in Polish as placki ziemniaczane, are served in Poland topped with meat sauce, pork crisps or goulash, as well as sour cream, apple sauce, mushroom sauce, cottage or sheep's cheese or fruit syrup. Placki ziemniaczane was a food staple at the 17th-century Polish monasteries according to written recipe from Stoczek Warmiński with one onion, two eggs and a spoonful of wheat flour per each kilogram of potatoes, served only with salt and pepper.
In the 19th century in times of economic difficulty during the foreign partitions, potato pancakes replaced missing bread among the peasants. The lower-quality crops given to field laborers were sometimes turned by them into pancakes to improve taste and prolong freshness, their popularity is associated with the historic pre
The BRAT diet is a diet, recommended for people with vomiting, diarrhea or gastroenteritis. Evidence, does not support a benefit, it is no longer recommended as it is unnecessarily restrictive. An acronym, BRAT is a mnemonic for bananas, apple sauce, toast, the staples of the diet, it is recommended that all people, regardless of age, drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, along with oral rehydration solutions to replace the depleted electrolytes to avoid salt imbalance. Severe, untreated salt imbalance can result in "extreme weakness, coma, or death." The diet was first discussed in 1926. The BRAT diet is no longer recommended; the American Academy of Pediatrics states that most children should continue a normal, age appropriate diet. The foods from the BRAT diet should not replace normal, tolerated foods. Sugary drinks and carbonated beverages should be avoided; the BRAT diet is no longer recommended to those who have had stem cell transplants and have diarrhea due to graft-versus-host disease as long-term use can lead to nutritional deficiencies.
Adding rice, bananas, or pectin to the diet during diarrhea may be beneficial, but Duro and Duggan point out that the BRAT diet is not nutritionally complete and may be deficient in energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B12, calcium. Duro and Duggan say that food restriction does not benefit diarrhea and causes individuals to have diarrhea for longer periods of time, based on randomized clinical trials. Medical attention is required when on the BRAT diet if there is any blood or mucus present in the diarrhea, if the diarrhea is severe or if it lasts longer than 3 days. Additionally, other medical professionals advise first aid treatment for gastroenteritis by limiting the diet to bland, easy-to-digest foods and plenty of liquids
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee