Arab world

The Arab world known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries which are members of the Arab League. These countries are located in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, while the southernmost member, the Comoros, is an island country off the coast of East Africa; the region stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Indian Ocean in the southeast. Arabic is used as the lingua franca throughout the Arab world. Malta, an island country in Southern Europe whose national language derives from Arabic, is not included in the region. Chad and Israel recognize Arabic as one of their official or working languages but are not included in the region because they are not members of the Arab League; the Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants and a gross domestic product of $2.782 trillion. The eastern part of the Arab world is known as the Mashriq, the western part as the Maghreb.

In post-classical history, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates. Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire; the Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of Arab people and to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries. The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term Arab is dominant over genealogical considerations. In Arab states, Modern Standard Arabic is the only language used by the government; the language of an individual nation is called Darija, which means "everyday/colloquial language." Darija shares the majority of its vocabulary with standard Arabic, but it significantly borrows from Berber substrates, as well as extensively from French, the language of the historical colonial occupier of the Maghreb. Darija is spoken and, to various extents, mutually understood in the Maghreb countries Morocco and Tunisia, but it is unintelligible to speakers of other Arabic dialects for those in Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula.

Although no globally accepted definition of the Arab world exists, all countries that are members of the Arab League are acknowledged as being part of the Arab world. The Arab League is a regional organisation that aims to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries and sets out the following definition of an Arab: An Arab is a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic country, and, in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic people; this standard territorial definition is sometimes seen to be inappropriate or problematic, may be supplemented with certain additional elements. As an alternative to, or in combination with, the standard territorial definition, the Arab world may be defined as consisting of peoples and states united to at least some degree by Arabic language, culture or geographic contiguity, or those states or territories in which the majority of the population speaks Arabic, thus may include populations of the Arab diaspora; when an ancillary linguistic definition is used in combination with the standard territorial definition, various parameters may be applied to determine whether a state or territory should be included in this alternative definition of the Arab world.

These parameters may be applied to the states and territories of the Arab League and to other states and territories. Typical parameters that may be applied include: whether Arabic is spoken. While Arabic dialects are spoken in a number of Arab League states, Literary Arabic is official in all of them. Several states have declared Arabic to be an official or national language, although Arabic is not as spoken there; as members of the Arab League, they are considered part of the Arab world under the standard territorial definition. Somalia has two official languages and Somali, both of which belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic language family. Although Arabic is spoken by many people in the north and urban areas in the south, Somali is the most used language, contains many Arabic loan words. Djibouti has two official languages and French, it has several formally recognized national languages. The majority of the population speaks Somali and Afar, although Arabic is widely used for trade and other activities.

The Comoros has three official languages: Arabic and French. Comorian is the most spoken language, with Arabic having a religious significance, French being associated with the educational system. Chad and Israel all recognize Arabic as an official or working language, but none of them is a member-state of the Arab League, although both Chad and Eritrea are observer states of the League and have large populations of Arabic speakers. Israel is not part of the Arab world. By some definitions, Arab citizens of Israel may concurrently be considered a constituent part of the Arab world. Iran has about 1.5 million Arabic speakers. Iranian Arabs are found in Ahvaz, a south

Critical précis

A critical précis is an expository style of writing, analogous in structure to an essay but which contains a summary of another piece of text. In essence, the entire content summarizes all the main ideas and abstractions within the text into a shorter passage a fraction of its original length, in order to provide insight into the original author's thesis; the writer of the précis is careful to avoid copying any direct wording from the original text in order to avoid academic plagiarism, except in short passage quotations where necessary. The précis is a common assignment in the humanities and liberal arts streams in higher education. Typical lengths are less than 500 to 1500 words; the majority of higher education students find the précis to be tool. Its use extends to interdisciplinary formats, is sometimes identified as a rhetorical précis. Introduction Cites the main text of work being analyzed, similar to a typical essay lead paragraphBody Explanation of key ideas and phrases, demonstrating the implied significance and purpose of the text using direct examples of how the author supports the thesis relating or contrasting to the reader's assumptions Conclusion Summarizes the main idea and importance of the original author's thesis, the author's connections to the intended audienceThe précis is written from an impartial third-person point of view, although personal analysis of a text can be considered précis format.

The analysis of ideas is in chronological order. The opening paragraph follows a certain structure:...the author... asserts, believes, conveys the thought, demonstrates, expounds the idea, identifies the fact, implies, points out, proposes, reveals, suggests...that... followed by a clause explaining the thesis. This clause is similar in scope to the concluding sentence of the final paragraph; these words exemplify the use of rhetorically accurate verbs. Abstract Axiom Critical thinking Microblogging Rhetorical criticism Syllogism Précis - University Writing Center, Texas A&M University The Critical Précis - Troy University Critical précis adaptation of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality, Allen Porter Mendenhall Rhetorical Précis Examples - Gloria Dumler, Bakersfield College Sample rhetorical precis - Oregon State University Woodworth, Margaret K. "The Rhetorical Precis." Rhetoric Review 7: 156-164. Print

R759 road (Ireland)

The R759 road is a regional road in Ireland running south-east to north-west through the Sally Gap in the Wicklow Mountains, from the R755 near Roundwood in East Wicklow to the N81 in West Wicklow. The other route through the Wicklow Mountains from east to west is the Wicklow Gap, crossed by the R756; the highest point on the road is at the Sally Gap where it crosses 503m. The road passes through some spectacular scenery, including the corrie lake of Lough Tay below Luggala mountain, in the Guinness Estate; the moorlands of the Sally Gap plateau, the Liffey Head Bog on the slopes of Tonduff, form the source of the River Liffey. The road is 27 km in length, in winter can be dangerous or impassable as it is not treated by the Local Authority. Roads in Ireland National primary road National secondary road Rathfarnham and the Military Road Ireland's first ski rescue Roads Act 1993 Order 2006 – Department of Transport