Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The term implies a decimal number written using these digits, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today, is called Hindu–Arabic numerals; however the term can mean the digits themselves, such as in the statement "octal numbers are written using Arabic numerals." Although the Hindu–Arabic numeral system was developed by Indian mathematicians around AD 500, they were modified into Arabic numerals in North Africa. It was in the North African city of Bejaia that the Italian scholar Fibonacci first encountered the numerals. European trade and colonialism helped popularize the adoption of Arabic numerals around the world; the numerals have found worldwide use beyond the contemporary spread of the Latin alphabet, intruding into the writing systems in regions where other variants of the Hindu–Arabic numerals had been in use, such as Chinese and Japanese writing. The term Arabic numerals may be intended to mean the numerals used by Arabs, such as the Eastern Arabic numerals.

The Oxford English Dictionary uses lowercase Arabic numerals to refer to these digits, capitalized Arabic Numerals to refer to the Eastern digits.. Other alternative names are Western Arabic numerals, Western numerals, Hindu numerals, Unicode calls them digits; the decimal Hindu–Arabic numeral system with zero was developed in India by around 700. The development was gradual, spanning several centuries, but the decisive step was provided by Brahmagupta's formulation of zero as a number in 628. Prior to Brahmagupta, zero was in use various forms but was regarded as a'blank spot' in a positional number, it was only used by mathematicians. After 700, the decimal numbers with zero replaced the Brahmi numerals; the system was revolutionary by limiting the number of individual digits to ten. It is considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics; the numeral system came to be known to the court of Baghdad, where mathematicians such as the Persian Al-Khwarizmi, whose book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals was written about 825 in Arabic, the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes, On the Use of the Indian Numerals about 830, propagated it in the Arab world.

Their work was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle East and the West. In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the decimal numeral system to include fractions, as recorded in a treatise by Syrian mathematician Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi in 952–953; the decimal point notation was introduced by Sind ibn Ali, who wrote the earliest treatise on Arabic numerals. According to Al-Beruni, there were multiple forms of numerals in use in India, "Arabs chose among them what appeared to them most useful". Al-Nasawi wrote in the early eleventh century that the mathematicians had not agreed on the form of numerals, but most of them had agreed to train themselves with the forms now known as Eastern Arabic numerals; the oldest specimens of the written numerals available from Egypt in 873–874 show three forms of the numeral "2" and two forms of the numeral "3", these variations indicate the divergence between what became known as the Eastern Arabic numerals and the Arabic numerals.

Calculations were performed using a dust board which involved writing symbols with a stylus and erasing them as part of calculations. Al-Uqlidisi invented a system of calculations with ink and paper "without board and erasing"; the use of the dust board appears to have introduced a divergence in terminology as well: whereas the Hindu reckoning was called ḥisāb al-hindī in the east, it was called ḥisāb al-ghubār in the west. The numerals themselves were referred to in the west as ashkāl qalam al-ghubår; the western Arabic variants of the symbols came to be used in Maghreb and Al-Andalus, which are the direct ancestor of the modern "Arabic numerals" used throughout the world. The divergence in the terminology has led some scholars to propose that the Western Arabic numerals had a separate origin in the so-called "ghubār numerals" but the available evidence indicates no separate origin. Woepecke has proposed that the Western Arabic numerals were in use in Spain before the arrival of the Moors, purportedly received via Alexandria, but this theory is not accepted by scholars.

Some popular myths have argued that the original forms of these symbols indicated their numeric value through the number of angles they contained, but no evidence exists of any such origin. The reason the digits are more known as "Arabic numerals" in Europe and the Americas is that they were introduced to Europe in the 10th century by Arabic-speakers of North Africa, who were using the digits from Libya to Morocco. Arabs were using the Eastern Arabic numerals in other areas. In 825 Al-Khwārizmī wrote a treatise in Arabic, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, which survives only as the 12th-century Latin translation, Algoritmi de numero Indorum. Algoritmi, the translator's rendition of the author's name, gave rise to the word algorithm; the first mentions of the numerals in the West are found in the Codex Vigilanus of 976. From the 980s, Gerbert of Aurillac used his position to spread knowledge of the numerals in E

James Cunniffe

James "Killer" Cunniffe was an American armed robber who planned and carried out the 1926 New Jersey mail robbery, one of the most well-publicized thefts during the 1920s. On October 14, 1926, he and seven others armed with submachine guns hijacked a U. S. mail truck in Elizabeth, New Jersey and escaped with $161,000. During the gunbattle with the guards, the driver was killed while his assistant and a local police officer were wounded, he was born on June 1895 in Manhattan, New York City. The robbery received considerable coverage at the time and is regarded as one of the most high-profile robberies prior to the "Public Enemy"-era of the 1930s. Three days after the robbery, after a two-day discussion with his cabinet President Calvin Coolidge assigned 2,250 U. S. Marines to escort all mail shipments in the Eastern United States. A further announcement on October 27 authorized the use of 250 Thompson machine guns to be used for guard duty. A long-favored weapon in the underworld, the Marine Corps was the first branch of the U.

S. military to purchase "Tommy guns". Weeks after the robbery, Cunniffe was killed in a fight with fellow gang member William "Ice Wagon" Crowley when Crowley shot and killed both Cunniffe and his girlfriend at the Highland Court Apartments in Highland Park, Michigan on October 31, 1926. Crowley was still in the apartment. Officers Ernest Jones and Ephraim Rancour arrived and a shootout occurred. Jones was shot and killed when Crowley opened the door and Rancour was shot in the shoulder. Enraged that his partner had been killed in front of him and wounded himself, Rancour shot Crowley dead

Lillian Forrester

Lillian Forrester born Lillian Williamson was a British suffragette who led an attack on the Manchester Art Gallery. She was born Lillian Williamson in 1879. At one point she said. In 1911 Forrester was invited to Eagle House near Bath by Emily Blathwayt; the Blathwayts invited leading suffragettes to visit their house. They created over 40 memorial trees to celebrate these visits in what was known as'Annie's Arbour'. Forrester led an attack on the Manchester Art Gallery on 3 April 1913. She, Evelyn Manesta and Annie Briggs waited until the gallery was closing and proceeded to break the glass on many of the most valuable paintings; the three attacked the glass of thirteen paintings including two by John Everett Millais and two by George Frederick Watts. Staff were alerted by the sound of broken glass and the three were apprehended. Four of the paintings had been damaged by the broken glass, they were bailed to appear before magistrates the next day. Briggs had not been involved. Evelyn Manesta was given a sentence of a month and Forrester's sentence was three months for malicious damage.

While she was imprisoned she and Manesta were secretly photographed and pictures of them were circulated with pictures of other militant suffragettes to police and art gallery staff. Manesta's photograph was modified to hide that she was being held around the neck whilst the photograph was taken; the Last Watch of Hero and Captive Andromache by Lord Frederic Leighton The Last of the Garrison by Briton Riviere Birnam Woods by John Everett Millais The Prayer and Portrait of The Hon J L Motley by George Frederick Watts A Flood by John Everett Millais When Apples were Golden by John Melhuish Strudwick The Shadow of Death by William Holman Hunt Astarte Syriaca by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Sybilla Delphica by Edward Burne-Jones Paola and Francesca by George Frederick Watts The Syrinx by Arthur Hacker