Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory. Such raids can expose enemy defensive weaknesses and achieve a psychological effect on the enemy's morale. Hit-and-run tactics are used in guerrilla warfare, militant resistance movements, terrorism where the enemy overmatches the attacking force to the point where sustained combat is to be avoided. However, the tactics can be used as part of more conventional warfare. Examples of the latter include commando or other special forces attacks or sorties from a besieged castle. Hit-and-run tactics were where the armed and nearly unarmored horse archers typical of the Eurasian steppe peoples excelled; this holds true for such troops that were not part of a large army, but it was not unusual to see them employed in such a way as part of a major force. The Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert was preceded by hit-and-run attacks of Seljuk cavalry which threw the Byzantine army into confusion, which proved fatal once it started to retreat.
The earlier Parthian and Sassanid Persian horse archers paved the way for their cataphracts' attack that achieved the decisive victories at the Battle of Carrhae and Battle of Edessa. The use of hit-and-run tactics dates back earlier to the nomadic Scythians of Central Asia, who employed them against Darius the Great's Persian Achaemenid Empire and against Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire; the Arab general Baibars successfully used hit-and-run during the battle of Ain Jalut, the first defeat of the expanding Mongol Empire. Vastly outnumbered in North America, the French made effective use of hit-and-run raids during the various French and Indian Wars. In the Turkish War of Independence, Turks fought against the Greek Army by hit-and-run tactics before a regular army was set up. In the Vietnam War, Viet Cong forces used hit-and-run tactics to great effectiveness against anti-communist military forces, it has been used in Afghanistan by rebel forces during the Soviet–Afghan War. Various Iraqi insurgent groups have used hit-and-run tactics as part of their tactics against Iraqi security forces and American-led coalition forces in Iraq.
Improvised fighting vehicles called "technicals" are used in such operations. The term "hit-and-run" is used in economics to describe a firm that enters a market to take advantage of abnormal profits and leave; these tactics can be seen in a contestable market. Chevauchée Demoralization Shoot-and-scoot Drive-by shooting Belleten. 65. Türk Tarih Kurumu. 2001. Retrieved 2010-08-18. Haldon, John. Warfare, State And Society In The Byzantine World 565-1204. New York: Routledge
The Oromo people are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia. They represent 34.5 % of Ethiopia's population. Oromos speak the Oromo language as a mother tongue, part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family; the word Oromo appeared in European literature for the first time in 1893 and became common in the second half of the 20th century. The Oromo people used the gadaa system of governance. A leader elected by the gadaa system remains in power only for 8 years, with an election taking place at the end of those 8 years. From the 18th century to the 19th century, Oromos were the dominant influence in northern Ethiopia during the Zemene Mesafint period, they have been one of the parties to historic migrations, wars with northern Christians and with southern and eastern Muslims, in the Horn of Africa. The origins and prehistory of the Oromo people is unclear, in part because the Oromo people did not have a written history and instead passed on stories orally prior to the 16th century.
Older and subsequent colonial era documents mention the Oromo people as Galla, but these documents were written by members of ethnic groups who were hostile towards them. Anthropologists and historians such as Herbert S. Lewis consider these sources to be fraught with biases and misunderstandings. Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people originated around the lakes Shamo and Stephanie, they are a Cushitic people who have inhabited the East and Northeast Africa since at least the early 1st millennium. The aftermath of the sixteenth century Abyssinian–Adal war led to Oromos being able to occupy lands of the Ethiopian Empire and Adal Sultanate; the Harla were assimilated by the Oromo in Ethiopia. The first verifiable record mentioning the Oromo people by a European cartographer is in the map made by the Italian Fra Mauro in 1460, which uses the term "Galla"; the map was drawn after consultations with Tigriyan monks who visited Italy in 1441. Galla was a term for a river and a forest, as well as for the pastoral people established in the highlands of southern Ethiopia.
This historical information, according to Mohammed Hassen, is consistent with the written and oral traditions of the Somalis. The historical evidence therefore suggests that the Oromo people were established in the southern highlands in or before the 15th century, that at least some Oromo people were interacting with other Ethiopian ethnic groups. After Fra Mauro's mention, there is a profusion of literature about the peoples of this region including the Oromo mentioning their wars and resistance to religious conversion by European sea explorers, Christian missionaries as well as regional writers. Fra Mauro's term Galla is the most used term, until the early 20th century; the earliest primary account of Oromo ethnography is the 16th-century "History of Galla" by Christian monk Bahrey who comes from the Sidama country of Gammo, written in the Ge'ez language. He begins his treatise on the Oromo by introducing them in racist terms. According to an 1861 book by D'Abbadie, a French explorer who traveled up to Kaffa in 1843, he was told that the word Galla was derived from a "war cry" and used by the Gallas themselves.
A journal published by International African Institute suggests it is an Oromo word for there is a word galla "wandering" in their language. The first known use of the word Oromo to refer to this ethnic group is traceable to 1893; the historic term for them has been Galla. This term, stated Juxon Barton in 1924, was in use for these people by Arabs; the word Galla has been variously interpreted, such as it means "to go home", or it refers to a river named Galla in early Abyssinian tradition. Scholarship that followed Barton, states that the label Galla for them, in historic documents, is a stereotype and has been translated by other ethnic groups as "pagan, inferior, enemy", "heathen, non-Muslim". In Afar language, states Morin, Galli means "crowd", "foreigners" and carries derogatory connotation "ordinary, commoner" as opposed to moddai or "high descent". Other societies such as the Anuak people refer to all the migrant highlanders consisting of Amharas as Galla people while the Tigreans, in the past, refer to Amharas as "half Galla".
The term Galla was used by Europeans before the 1974 revolution without any derogatory connotations. The Oromo never called themselves Galla, resist its use, they traditionally identified themselves by one of their clans, in contemporary times have used the common umbrella term of Oromo which connotes "free born people". While Oromo people have lived in this region for a long time, the ethnic mixture of peoples who have lived here is unclear. According to Alessandro Triulzi, the interactions and encounters between Oromo people and Nilo-Saharan groups began early. Different groups have attempted to reconstruct a speculative origin theories, wherein either Oromo are presumed "heathen and expansionists who displaced another ethnic group", or the Oromo are presumed to be original people who were "displaced by others". However, persuasive evidence to support various speculations has been missing; the original Oromos increased their numbers through Oromization of conquered people from other ethnic groups, in turn others conquered people from them and converted them to their side.
The native ancient names of the territories were replaced by the name of th
Addis Ababa is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants; as a chartered city, Addis Ababa has the status of a state. It is where the African Union is headquartered and where its predecessor the Organisation of African Unity was based, it hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, as well as various other continental and international organizations. Addis Ababa is therefore referred to as "the political capital of Africa" for its historical and political significance for the continent; the city lies a few miles west of the East African Rift. The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia, it is home to Addis Ababa University. Entoto is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara; this permanent fortified city was established during the early-to-mid 15th century, it served as the main residence of several successive emperors up to the early 16th-century reign of Lebna Dingel.
The city was depicted standing between Mounts Zikwala and Menegasha on a map drawn by the Italian cartographer Fra Mauro in around 1450, it was razed and plundered by Ahmed Gragn while the imperial army was trapped on the south of the Awash River in 1529, an event witnessed and documented two years by the Yemeni writer Arab-Faqih. The suggestion that Barara was located on Mount Entoto is supported by the recent discovery of a large medieval town overlooking Addis Ababa located between rock-hewn Washa Mikael and the more modern church of Entoto Maryam, founded in the late 19th century by Emperor Menelik. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30-hectare site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, along with 520 meters of stone walls measuring up to 5-meter high; the site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II. Menelik, as a King of the Shewa province, had found Mount Entoto a useful base for military operations in the south of his realm, in 1879 he visited the reputed ruins of a medieval town and an unfinished rock church that showed proof of the medieval empire's capital in the area before the campaigns of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim.
His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, Menelik endowed a second church in the area. However, the immediate area did not encourage the founding of a town for lack of firewood and water, so settlement began in the valley south of the mountain in 1886. Taytu built a house for herself near the "Filwoha" hot mineral springs, where she and members of the Showan Royal Court liked to take mineral baths. Other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, Menelik expanded his wife's house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today; the name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopia's capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia. The town grew by bounds. One of Emperor Menelik's contributions that are still visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets. Following all the major engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936.
Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment practiced elsewhere and its railway to Djibouti remained intact. After the occupation the city served as the Duke of Aosta's capital for unified Italian East Africa until 1941, when it was abandoned in favor of Amba Alagi and other redoubts during the Second World War's East African Campaign; the city was liberated by Major Orde Wingate and negus Haile Selassie for Ethiopian Gideon Force and Ethiopian resistance in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassie's return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left. Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963 and invited the new organization to keep its headquarters in Addis Ababa; the OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union, headquartered in the city. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has its headquarters in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa was the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965.
Ethiopia has been called the original home of mankind because of various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy. Northeastern Africa, the Afar region in particular, was the central focus of these claims until recent DNA evidence suggested origins in south central Ethiopian regions like present-day Addis Ababa. After analysing the DNA of 1,000 people around the world and other scientists claimed people spread from what is now Addis Ababa 100,000 years ago; the research indicated that genetic diversity decreases the farther one's ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Addis Ababa lies at an elevation of 2,200 metres and is a grassland biome, located at 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E; the city forms part of the watershed for the Awash. From its lowest point, around Bole International Airport, at 2,326 metres above sea level in the southern periphery, Addis Ababa rises to over 3,000 metres in the Entoto Mountains to the north; the city is divided into 10 boroughs, called subcities, 99 wards.
The 10 subc
Ras Abebe Aregai was an Ethiopian military commander who, during the Italian occupation, led a group of resistance fighters that operated in Menz and Shewa. He served as Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 27 November 1957 until his death, he was a victim of the unsuccessful 1960 Ethiopian coup. Abebe was born on 18 August 1903 in the village of Abdella in northern Shewa, his father was Aregay and his mother was Askale Gobena, daughter of Ras Gobena Dacche. He served in the Kebur Zabagna, rising to the rank of Major before transferring to the police, by 1935 had been granted the title of Balambaras, he was the chief of police of Addis Ababa when the Italians invaded Ethiopia in 1936. Balambaras Abebe remained in the capital after the departure of Emperor Haile Selassie but departing for the northeast with ten men before the Italians occupied the capital, he took part in the unsuccessful attempt to retake the capital in July of that year, his soldiers reached the Imperial Palace before being beaten back by two Italian battalions.
After this action, Abebe's activities are hard to follow due to contradictory evidence. This is due in large part to the reticence of the survivors in their memoirs about individuals and events: when Emperor Haile Selassie proclaimed a general amnesty upon his restoration, as Thomas L. Kane explains, "many of those who served the Italians loyally right up to the last minute took advantage of this proclamation to escape punishment, and... positions of power.... In order to avoid offending one of these figures, or the loyal relatives of some collaborator, the name of a principal in some incident will be deliberately omitted, though some reason such as'this would be a humiliation for Ethiopia' may be given."According to Anthony Mockler, by the spring of 1937 year Abebe was left with only 40 men, forcing him to limit his activities to the mountainous region of Menz. However, Thomas Kane writes that after Lij Haile Maryam Mammo's victory at Morit on 21 April 1937, Abebe and Fitawrari Zawdu Abba Koran took control of Morat and Geru on 25 July the three joined with Blatta Tekle Walde-Hawaryat and Major Masfon Selassie for an attack on Addis Alem.
Returning to Mockler's narrative, in May 1937 Abebe ventured out of Menz to proclaim Meleke Tsahai, the 16-year-old son of the late Lij Iyasu emperor at the Three Ambas, alarming the Italian occupiers. On 1 June, General Ugo Cavallero moved north to surround Abebe, keep him from returning to Menz, although Abebe made three unsuccessful attempts to break through the Italian lines before the rainy season, after the rains his Arbegnoch were able to return to the comparative safety of Menz. Although Meleke Tsahai died not long afterwards of illness, Abebe remained at large, following the death of Olana Dingili, became the leading rebel leader – although one not trusted by the exiled Emperor Haile Selassie. Abebe presented himself to the Italians as ambivalent about his role as an Arbegna, always seeming to be at the point of submitting to the occupiers in return for money, honors or power, yet always changing his mind at the last moment. "In negotiations he conducted with General Nasi deputy viceroy and governor of Shewa, Abebe gave intimations of his readiness to surrender.
He wrote to other patriotic leaders explaining the actual reason for engaging in the talks: to buy time. After he had made sure that his forces had sufficiently recovered from the reverses they had suffered in the preceding months, he broke off negotiations, using as a pretext the killing by the Italians of patriots in another locality." The Italians continued these talks, obsessed with the hope of recruiting the best-known resistance fighter to their side, until 15 March 1940, when General Nasi learned that Abebe Aregai, who had promised to take the oath of allegiance if the General would make a visit to his location in person, was laying an ambush for him with 20,000 men. It was not until Emperor Haile Selassie returned to Ethiopia; as the Emperor entered Addis Ababa with his entourage, the streets were lined with Abebe's men, cheering their returning Emperor. Abebe presented himself and his son to the Emperor, Mockler reports that the Arbegna told Emperor Haile Selassie, bowing low before him, "I am your loyal subject.
I never submitted to the enemy. I never hoped to see you alive again and I am grateful to God for this day, when I have seen the sun shine." Now Ras, Abebe Aregai proved to be a valuable retainer to the Emperor. One of the few Arbegnoch to receive a major government post, Ras Abebe was appointed governor of Addis Ababa and Minister of War in 1941 soon after Haile Selassie's return, he was subsequently made governor of Sidamo province from 1941 to 1942. When the Woyane rebellion broke out in Tigray in 1942, with the rebels under Fitawrari Yeebio Weldai of Enderta known popularly as "Wedi Weldai" at one point capturing Mek'ele, Ras Abebe marched north to suppress the violence with the help of British air power, captured the rebel headquarters at Wukro on 17 October 1943; the Emperor subsequently made him governor of Tigray, Ras Abebe brutally pacified the province. After serving as governor, Ras Abebe once again served as Minister of War, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Defence before becoming Prime Minister.
By the late 1950s, he had become the leader of one of the major factions that vied for the Empero
An ammunition dump, ammunition supply point, ammunition handling area or ammunition depot is a military storage facility for live ammunition and explosives. The storage of live ammunition and explosives is inherently hazardous. There is the potential for accidents in the unloading and transfer of ammunition. Great care is taken in handling these dangerous explosives so as not to harm personnel or nearby ammunition. Despite the intensive preventive measures they get, ammunition depots around the world suffer from non-combat fires and explosions. Although this is a rare occurrence, there are devastating consequences. An ammunition depot experiencing minor explosions in one of its sites/buildings is evacuated together with surrounding civilian areas. Thus, all of the stored ammunition is left to detonate itself for days or weeks, with limited attempts at firefighting from a safe distance. If the ammunitions are artillery shells and other heavy types, the whole depot site affected is leveled; the typical ammo dump will have several of the following elements: A buffer zone or cleared area of at least several hundred feet surrounding the facility, in the event of an explosion Perimeter security, such as a fence, to avoid casual access by unauthorized persons Guards equipped and in numbers relative to the potential threat from enemy forces Bunkers where ammunition is stored under lock and key Blast barriers, such as an earth berm or buried pit, to divert the force of the blast in case the ammunition detonates Safety Distances are calculated between storage sites and outside infrastructure to limit damage and set maximum holdings of net explosive content per site.
A loading area for transferring stored ammunition to and from trucks, railway wagons, etc. A flooding system in large facilities to put out a fire or prevent an explosion in a magazine. An Ammunition Repair Facility or workshop will be found in many ammunition facilities; this facility is used for the repair, breakdown and manufacture of ammunition held within or brought to the Depot. A Destruction Area used for the disposal by burning or detonation of defective, surplus, or obsolete ammunition and explosives. A Missile shop Specialised inspection and repair of Missiles, Pre-assembly of missile type weapons before being sent to the front line. Ammunition dump as a term is more ascribed to sites that store munitions "in the field" for imminent or immediate use; these are targets for enemy artillery attack or air attack. Armory Central Ammunition Depot Emergency management Powder tower Royal Air Force munitions storage during World War II Royal Naval Armaments Depot Supply depot Weapon storage area International Ammunition Technical Guidelines UN Office of Safe Disarmament Rapport OSPAR sur les munitions immergées – Overview of Past Dumping at Sea of Chemical Weapons and Munitions in the OSPAR Maritime Area, 2005 / OSPAR Rapport OSPAR / Évaluation 1998 – 2006
Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu, was an Ethiopian government official. He served as Imperial Fitawrari, Commander of the Mahel Sefari of the Ethiopian Army during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Mulugeta fought as a young warrior in the Battle of Adwa during the First Italo-Abyssinian War, he served as Minister of Finance during the last years of Emperor Menelik II's reign and again under Empress Zewditu. From 1916 to 1917, he was Ethiopia's Minister of Foreign Affairs. While governor of Illubabor, Mulugeta escorted Ras Tafari on his tour of Europe in 1924. In 1926, he was appointed as Minister of War, a few years commanded the loyalist troops to victory at the Battle of Anchem. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Mulugeta was appointed Imperial Commander of the Vanguard to replace the disgraced Birru Wolde Gabriel. Along with his son, Tadessa Mulugeta, he was killed during the retreat of his defeated army from Amba Aradam. First Italo-Ethiopian War Battle of Adwa Gugsa Welle's Rebellion Battle of Anchem Second Italo-Ethiopian War Ethiopian Christmas Offensive Battle of Amba Aradam Photo of Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu 1930
See Debre Libanos for another monastery of the same name. Debre Libanos is a monastery in Ethiopia, lying northwest of Addis Ababa in the Semien Shewa Zone of the Oromia Region. Founded in the 13th century by Saint Tekle Haymanot, according to myth, he meditated in a cave for 29 years; the monastery's chief abbot, called the Ichege, was the second most powerful official in the Ethiopian Church after the Abuna. The monastery complex sits on a terrace between a cliff and the gorge of one of the tributaries of the Abbay River. None of the original buildings of Debre Libanos survive, although David Buxton suspected "there are interesting things still to be found among the neighbouring cliffs." Current buildings include the church over Tekle Haymanot's tomb, which Emperor Haile Selassie ordered constructed in 1961. The cave where the saint lived is in the nearby cliffs, which one travel guide describes as a five-minute walk away; this cave is the object of pilgrimages. According to David Buxton, the original route to Debre Libanos was through a cleft in the cliffs that line the eastern side of the Abay.
In the 20th century a road was laid from the main Addis Ababa – Debre Marqos highway to the monastery. Debre Libanos suffered great destruction during the invasion of Ahmad Gragn when one of his followers, Ura'i Abu Bakr, set it on fire 21 July 1531, despite the attempts of its community to ransom the church. Although the Ichege intervened to protect the Gambos during the reign of Sarsa Dengel, the buildings were not rebuilt until after the visit of Emperor Iyasu the Great in 1699. In the reign of Emperor Fasilides, after invading Oromos had ravaged the monastery's lands in Shewa the Emperor granted the Ichege his palace at Azazo, where the various Ichege lived. From the 17th century until the matter was resolved in a synod convened by Emperor Yohannes II, the Ichege and the monks of Debre Libanos were the most important supporters of the Sost Lidet doctrine, in opposition to the House of Ewostatewos. Emperor Haile Selassie's interest in Debre Libanos dates to when he was governor of the district of Selale.
The Emperor notes in his autobiography that during the reconstruction of the church at Debre Libanos, an inscribed gold ring was found in the excavations, which he delivered to Emperor Menelik II. Following the attempted assassination on his life on 19 February 1937, governor Rodolfo Graziani believed the monastery's monks and novices were involved in this attack, unwilling to wait for the results of the official investigation, ordered Italian colonialists to massacre the inhabitants of this monastery. On 21 May of that year, 297 monks and 23 laymen were killed. Although when Buxton visited Debre Libanos in the mid-1940s, he found the remains of these victims were plainly visible. Mosaics and stained-glass for the monastery were made and exhibited in London at the Festival Hall by E. O. Hevezi and G. J. Bajo. Abuna Basilios