SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Arcadius

Arcadius was Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408. He was the eldest son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, brother of the Western Emperor Honorius. A weak ruler, his reign was dominated by a series of powerful ministers and by his wife, Aelia Eudoxia. Arcadius was born in 377 in Hispania, the eldest son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, brother of Honorius, who would become the Western Roman Emperor. In January 383, at the age of 5, his father declared him an Augustus and co-ruler for the eastern half of the Empire, his younger brother was declared Augustus in 393, for the Western half. During these early years, Arcadius was under the tutelage of the rhetorician Themistius and Arsenius Zonaras, a monk; as emperors, both of Theodosius' sons revealed themselves to have weak characters and therefore were able to be dominated by ambitious subordinates. Although left as regent in Constantinople by his father in 394 when Theodosius went west to fight Arbogastes and Eugenius, at Theodosius’s death in January 395, the ten year old Honorius was placed under the guardianship of the magister militum Flavius Stilicho, while the seventeen year old Arcadius fell under the influence of the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Rufinus.

Ambitious and unprincipled, Rufinus attempted to have Arcadius marry his daughter and become Arcadius’s father-in-law. However, during an absence in Antioch, Arcadius was shown a painting of Aelia Eudoxia, the daughter of the deceased Frankish Magister Militum per Orientem, Bauto. Introduced to Arcadius by the eunuch Eutropius, the Praepositus sacri cubiculi, the young emperor swiftly fell in love, the marriage was arranged, with the ceremony performed on 27 April 395. According to Zosimus, Rufinus was under the impression right until the last minute, when the nuptial procession went to Eudoxia's residence rather than his own, that it was his daughter, to be married to Arcadius; that Eudoxia was raised after her father’s death by a general, an enemy of Rufinus demonstrates the shifting of the centres of power in the eastern court. This jostling for power in the eastern court from one individual to another would be a recurring feature of Arcadius’s reign; the first crisis facing the young emperor was the rebellion of the Visigoths in 395, under the command of Alaric I, who sought to take advantage of the accession of two inexperienced Roman Emperors.

As Alaric marched towards Constantinople, plundering Macedonia and Thrace, the eastern court was unable to deal with them, as Theodosius had taken the majority of the eastern regiments with him to Italy, were now in the hands of Stilicho. Sensing an opportunity to consolidate his power of the eastern half of the empire as well, Stilicho declared that Theodosius had made him guardian over both his sons. Declaring he was marching to deal with Alaric, he set off to the east, reaching Thessaly, leading both his own forces as well as the Gothic mercenaries whom Theodosius had taken west in the civil war with Eugenius. Arcadius and Rufinus were more concerned by the threat of Stilicho they were of Alaric. Stilicho complied, falling back to Salona, while the Gothic mercenaries under the command of Gainas marched onwards to Constantinople; when Arcadius and Rufinus greeted Gainas with his army in the Campus Martius outside of Constantinople on 27 November 395, Rufinus was assassinated on the parade ground by the Goths, on the orders of Stilicho and with the support of Eutropius.

With Rufinus’s death, it would be Eutropius and Arcadius' wife, would assume Rufinus' place as advisors, or guardians, of the emperor. While Eutropius consolidated his hold on power in the capital, the distracted government continued to turn a blind eye to the presence of Alaric in Greece. Although at first Eutropius may have coordinated with Stilicho around the defence of Illyricum, by 397, when Stilicho had returned and proceeded to blockade Alaric, who retreated into Epirus, the feelings of the eastern court had changed; as neither Arcadius nor Eutropius was keen to have Stilicho intervening in the affairs of the eastern empire, they provided no further military aid to Stilicho, who abandoned the blockade of the Visigoths. At Eutropius’s urging, Arcadius declared Stilicho to be a hostis publicus, came to an arrangement with Alaric, making him magister militum per Illyricum. At around the same time, the eastern court persuaded Gildo, the Magister utriusque militiae per Africam to transfer his allegiance from Honorius to Arcadius, causing relations between the two imperial courts to deteriorate further.

Eutropius' influence lasted four years, during which time he sought to marginalise the military and promote the civilian offices within the bureaucracy. He brought to trial two prominent military officers and Abundantius, he had Arcadius introduce two administrative innovations: the running of the Cursus publicus and the office responsible for the manufacturing of military equipment was transferred from the praetorian prefects to the Magister officiorum. Secondly, the role that Eutropius held, the Praepositus sacri cubiculi was given the rank of illustris, therefore equal in rank to the praetorian prefects. In the autumn of 397 he issued a law in Arcadius’s name, targeting the Roman military, where any conspiracy involving soldiers or the barbarian regiments against persons holding the rank of illustris was considered to be treason, with the conspirators

Sam Seaborn

Samuel Norman Seaborn is a fictional character portrayed by Rob Lowe on the television serial drama The West Wing. He is Deputy White House Communications Director in the Josiah Bartlet administration throughout the first four seasons of the series; the show was designed with Sam as the main character, as such he is the protagonist of the pilot episode and remains a focal point and lens for the show through at least the first season. However, by the time of his departure, his significance in the plot had decreased as the show started to focus more on the President's ability to govern despite obstacles such as his undisclosed multiple sclerosis, his campaign for re-election, an increased focus on foreign policy and terrorism; the role of Sam Seaborn was offered to actor Bradley Whitford, who had auditioned for the part of Josh Lyman. However, Whitford wanted and was given the role of Josh, the part of Sam went to Rob Lowe, whose audition, said show creator Aaron Sorkin, "left our jaws on the floor".

Sam's inept performance as a White House tour guide in the pilot episode may have been inspired by former Clinton press secretary Joe Lockhart, who told the Chicago Tribune that despite having to give tours on a regular basis, he did not know whether the Roosevelt Room was named after Franklin or Teddy Roosevelt, saying, "I haven't gotten caught yet, but I've made up a few things." When the show premiered, Seaborn was considered the lead, the pilot centered on the character. But the acclaimed cast of the show—including Allison Janney, Richard Schiff, Dulé Hill, John Spencer and Sheen and Stockard Channing — were all strong actors and Lowe's character was no longer the lead. Lowe and series creator Aaron Sorkin soon found themselves at odds over the network's meddling with the show, most notably the network demanding changes in the Sam Seaborn character. Lowe left the series. Sam grew up in California, he makes a reference to going to Dungeons and Dragons camp when he was younger in the episode "The Two Bartlets".

Sam graduated magna cum laude from Duke University School of Law. He makes repeated references to his alma mater in the earlier seasons, indicating a certain pride in his attendance there. "Princeton" is his Secret Service code name, he mentions being the recording secretary of the Princeton Gilbert and Sullivan Society. He can speak Spanish, as seen in Season 3 episode "Ways and Means". Sam was the editor of the Duke Law Review. Sam was a staffer for the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, he was a practicing lawyer, working at the law firm of Dewey Ballantine in New York City before joining the fictional Gage Whitney Pace, reputedly the second biggest law firm in New York City. Sam worked there for seven years and was concentrating on helping an oil company with a deal that would protect them from litigation in the event of an oil spill when his old friend Josh Lyman comes to visit him. Josh is running John Hoynes' presidential campaign and comes to try to recruit Sam as a speechwriter.

Sam is getting married soon. Sam returns to work but, feeling guilty about the deal he is making, begins trying to convince the oil company to buy newer, better tankers than the ones they want, unleashing the wrath of his boss and jeopardizing his promotion to partner. In the midst of this, Josh returns from a trip to New Hampshire during which he has seen Hoynes' dark-horse challenger, Jed Bartlet, speak to a small audience of voters. Josh has been sufficiently inspired to abandon Hoynes' campaign and go work for Bartlet, which in turn convinces Sam to do the same. Sam becomes part of the talented team of staffers who help Bartlet to a unlikely victory in 1998. Sam's tragically flawed romantic relationships are something of a theme of the series with Josh once describing Sam's love life as "a moveable feast". After joining the campaign, Sam broke up with his fiancée, Lisa Sherborne, whom he was planning to marry in September of that year. Sam's other romantic relationships include a high-priced call girl named Laurie, played by Lisa Edelstein, Leo McGarry's daughter, Mallory O'Brien, a fourth-grade teacher — a relationship Leo jokingly tries to sabotage, telling Sam, "I don't mind you dating my'only' daughter, but you can't expect me not to have some fun along the way."

Sam's trademark — both his greatest strength and greatest flaw — is his unflinching idealism. His unwavering faith in and love for the American political process and the positive impact that government can have in its citizens' lives define his character. Sam believes in doing the right thing because it is right when the consequences might be politically disastrous; this causes him to clash with the other members of the senior staff, who tend to be more practical when approaching political problems. Sam's idealism and faith in people are disappointed, to which he reacts strongly. In the second-season episode "Somebody's Going to Emergency, Somebody's Going to Jail", Sam finds out that his father has been having a 28-year affair while married to his mother, a revelation that shakes his sense of what he can and cannot count on; this feeling is reinforced by his discovery that a White House staf

Nancy Kiprop

Nancy Jepkosgei Kiprop is a Kenyan long-distance runner. She won the Vienna City Marathon in 2017, 2018 and in 2019. In 2019 she set a new course record of 2:22:12. In 2005 she won the Almond Blossom Cross Country, a distance of 8,000 metres, with a time of 19:35. In 2008 she won the Parelloop held in Brunssum, Netherlands with a time of 32:43. In 2014 she won the women's 10 kilometres event at the Lidingöloppet with a time of 34:24. In 2016 she won the Granollers Half Marathon with a time of 1:11:30. In 2018 she finished in 2nd place in the Ústí nad Labem Half Marathon with a time of 1:07:32. In the 2019 New York City Marathon she finished in 4th place. Nancy Kiprop at World Athletics