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Roman emperor

The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history; when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title used was imperator a military honorific. Early Emperors used the title Princeps Civitatis. Emperors amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus and pontifex maximus; the legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate. The first emperors reigned alone; the Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. The first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successors and Nero, could not convincingly make the same claim. Nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, efforts were made to portray the emperors as leaders of a republic.

From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East, until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted. Elements of the republican institutional framework were preserved after the end of the Western Empire; the peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century after multiple invasions of imperial territory by Germanic barbarian tribes. Romulus Augustulus is considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in 480.

Following Nepos' death, the Eastern Emperor Zeno abolished the division of the position and proclaimed himself as the sole Emperor of a reunited Roman Empire. Emperor Heraclius made diplomatic relations with the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, but lost many territories after successful Islamic conquests; the Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire's Mehmed II in 1453; the Muslim rulers claimed the title of Caesar of Rome. The "Byzantine" emperors from Heraclius in 629 and onwards adopted the title of basileus, which had meant king in Greek but became a title reserved for the Roman emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. With the eventual hegemony of Christianity, the emperor came to be seen as God's chosen ruler, as well as a special protector and leader of the Christian Church on Earth, although in practice an emperor's authority on Church matters was subject to challenge.

Due to the cultural rupture of the Turkish conquest, most western historians treat Constantine XI as the last meaningful claimant to the title Roman Emperor. From 1453, one of the titles used by the Ottoman Sultans was "Caesar of Rome", part of their titles until the Ottoman Empire ended in 1922. A Byzantine group of claimant Roman emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461, though they had used a modified title since 1282. Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, by the Papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in 797. Objecting to a woman ruling the Roman Empire in her own right and issues with the eastern clergy, the Papacy would create a rival lineage of Roman emperors in western Europe, the Holy Roman Emperors, which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for most of the period between 800 and 1806.

These Emperors were never recognized as Roman emperors by the court in Constantinople and their coronations resulted in the medieval problem of two emperors. Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch and Cassius Dio. However, the majority of Roman writers, including Josephus, Pliny the Younger and Appian, as well as most of the ordinary people of the Empire, thought of Julius Caesar as the first Emperor. At the end of the Roman Republic no new, no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power. Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator Julius Caesar had been an emperor, like several Roman generals before him. Instead, by the end of the civil wars in which Julius Caesar had led his armies, it became clear t

Kussara

Kussara was a Bronze Age kingdom in Anatolia. The kingdom, though important at one time, is remembered as the origin of the dynasty that would form the Old Hittite Kingdom; the Kussaran king Pithana, with his son Anitta, forerunners of the Hittite kings, conquered Kanesh and its important trade centrum in 1780 BC. The seat of the Kussaran dynasty was moved to Kaneš, though Kussara appears to have retained ceremonial importance. Anitta took the title of ` Great King' when he defeated the polities of Hattum. Pithana and Anitta are the only two recorded kings of Kussara, their exploits are known chiefly from the so-called'Anitta Text,' one of the earliest inscriptions in the Hittite language yet discovered. A further king, Labarna I is accepted as a king of Kussara by most scholars. Hattusili I, recognized as one of the first Hittite kings, referred to himself as'man of Kussara,' but moved his capital from there to Hattusa, it is clear, that after the capital was moved, Kussara retained some importance, as it was there that Hattusili would call a council on his own succession.

Kussara is mentioned in the clay tablets of the old Assyrian trade period of Anatolia and less in the early Hittite Kingdom. The borders of Kussara are unknown and the old city of Kussara has not been found, though several proposals for its placement have been advanced. For instance, Massimo Forlanini, an expert in the geography of ancient Anatolia, has stated that Kussara was situated southeast of Kanesh, but north of Luhuzzadia/Lahuzzandiya, between Hurama and Tegarama on a road, crossing another road to the north in the direction of Samuha. Professor Trevor Bryce, says "he city of Kussara lay to the south-east of the Kizil Irmak basin in the anti-Taurus region, on or near one of the main trade routes from Assyria and in the vicinity of modern Şar."From Old Assyrian trade tablets we know that a palace and an Assyrian trade station, or Karum, existed in the city. The language or dialect of Kussara is neither found nor described in either the Assyrian or Hittite texts; the Kings of Kussara became the Kings of Kanesh in the Karum IB period of Kanesh.

Hattusili I and Hattusili III mentioned the origins of the Kings of the land of Hatti as Hattusili I styled himself: "man of Kussara... Great King Tabarna, Hattusili the Great King, King of the land of Hatti." No other town or land was mentioned by a King of Hattusa as the origin of the Kings of Hattusa. Because the Kings of Kussara and their clan formed the base of the Old Kingdom of the Hittites, the Hittite language was the language of the ruling officials, it is assumed that the language of Kussara was Indo-European, because if it were not, many more non Indo-European elements would be expected in its apparent successor, Hittite. Craigh Melchert concludes in the chapter Prehistory of his book The Luwians: "Hittite core vocabulary remains Indo-European"; the Anitta Text records that when Pithana captured Kanesh, he did no harm to it, but made the inhabitants'his mothers and fathers.' Some scholars have taken this unique statement to mean there were cultural and/or ethnic affinities between Kussara and Kanesh

Ennio Porrino

Ennio Porrino was an Italian composer and teacher. Amongst his compositions were orchestral works, an oratorio and several operas and ballets, his best known work is the symphonic poem Sardegna, a tribute to his native Sardinia, which premiered in Florence in 1933. Porrino was studied at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome, he studied with Ottorino Respighi from 1932 to 1935. According to Alfredo Casella, he became one of Respighi's disciples, championing an Italian national music movement and opposing composers such as Casella and Malipiero for their Modernist music. After Respighi's death in 1936, Porrino and Respighi's widow Elsa completed his unfinished opera Lucrezia for its posthumous premiere at La Scala in 1937. In the course of his career, Porrino taught at the conservatories of Rome and Naples, in 1956 became the director of the Cagliari Conservatory; that same year he married a painter and theatrical designer. She designed the production of Porrino's last work, the opera I Shardana, which premiered on 21 March 1959, six months before his death.

The couple had one daughter, who became a playwright and stage director. Porrino died in Rome in 1959 at the age of 49; the Concorso Internazionale di Pianoforte Ennio Porrino was established in his memory in 1980. Altura Official website Ennio Porrino on IMDb