In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis. The term referred to the bishop of the chief city of a historical Roman province, whose authority in relation to the other bishops of the province was recognized by the First Council of Nicaea; the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province called suffragan bishops. The term is applied in a similar sense to the bishop of the chief episcopal see of an ecclesiastical province; the head of such a metropolitan see has the rank of archbishop and is therefore called the metropolitan archbishop of the ecclesiastical province. Metropolitan bishops preside over synods of the bishops of their ecclesiastical province, are granted special privileges by canon law and tradition. In some churches, such as the Church of Greece, a metropolis is a rank granted to all episcopal sees, their bishops are all called the title of archbishop being reserved for the primate.
See also: Catholic Church hierarchy and Diocesan bishop In the Latin Church, an ecclesiastical province, composed of several neighbouring dioceses, is headed by a metropolitan, the archbishop of the diocese designated by the Pope. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops; the metropolitan's powers over dioceses other than his own are limited to supervising observance of faith and ecclesiastical discipline and notifying the Supreme Pontiff of any abuses. The metropolitan has the liturgical privilege of celebrating sacred functions throughout the province, as if he were a bishop in his own diocese, provided only that, if he celebrates in a cathedral church, the diocesan bishop has been informed beforehand; the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see, it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops, to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, determine the agenda.
It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council. No provincial council can be called. All Latin Rite metropolitans are archbishops. Titular archbishops are never metropolitans; as of April 2006, 508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops, 27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, there were 89 titular archbishops. See Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, metropolitans in charge of ecclesiastical provinces hold a position similar to that of metropolitans in the Latin Church. Among the differences is that Eastern Catholic metropolitans within the territory of the patriarchate are to be ordained and enthroned by the patriarch, who may ordain and enthrone metropolitans of sees outside that territory that are part of his Church. A metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province; the metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province.
A major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only from that regarding a patriarchal Church. Within major archiepiscopal churches, there may be ecclesiastical provinces headed by metropolitan bishops. There are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. Metropolitans of this kind are to obtain the pallium from the Pope as a sign of his metropolitan authority and of his Church's full communion with the Pope, only after his investment with it can he convoke the Council of Hierarchs and ordain the bishops of his autonomous Church. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops and his name is to be mentioned after that of the Pope in the liturgy. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, while in others that order is reversed.
Primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are designated as archbishops. In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence; the reverse is true for some Slavic Orthodox Churches and for Romanian Orthodox Church, where metropolitans rank above archbishops and the title can be used for important regional or historical sees. In terms of jurisdiction, there are two basic types of metropolitans in Eastern Orthodox Church: real metropolitans, with actual jurisdiction over their ecclesiastical provinces, honorary metropolitans who
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Kingdom of Strathclyde
Strathclyde Cumbric: Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England. The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period, it is known as Alt Clut, a Brittonic term for Dumbarton Castle, the medieval capital of the region. It may have had its origins with the Brythonic Damnonii people of Ptolemy's Geography; the language of Strathclyde, that of the Britons in surrounding areas under non-native rulership, is known as Cumbric, a dialect or language related to Old Welsh, in modern terms to Welsh and Breton. Scottish toponymy and archaeology points to some settlement by Vikings or Norse–Gaels, although to a lesser degree than in neighbouring Galloway. A small number of Anglian place-names show some limited settlement by Anglo-Saxon incomers from Northumbria prior to the Norse settlement. Owing to the series of language changes in the area, it is not possible to say whether any Goidelic settlement took place before Gaelic was introduced in the High Middle Ages during the 11th century.
After the sack of Dumbarton Rock by a Viking army from Dublin in 870, the name Strathclyde comes into use reflecting a move of the centre of the kingdom to Govan. In the same period, it was referred to as Cumbria, its inhabitants as Cumbrians. During the High Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Goidelic-speaking Kingdom of Alba in the 11th century, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Scotland. However, it remained a distinctive Brythonic area into the 13th centuries. Ptolemy's Geographia – a sailors' chart, not an ethnographical survey – lists a number of tribes, or groups of tribes, in southern Scotland at around the time of the Roman invasion and the establishment of Roman Britain in the 1st century AD; as well as the Damnonii, Ptolemy lists the Otalini. In addition, a group known as the Maeatae in the area around Stirling, appear in Roman records; the capital of the Damnonii is believed to have been at Carman, near Dumbarton, but around five miles inland from the River Clyde. Although the northern frontier appears to have been Hadrian's Wall for most of the history of Roman Britain, the extent of Roman influence north of the Wall is obscure.
Roman forts existed north of the wall, forts as far north as Cramond may have been in long-term occupation. Moreover, the formal frontier was three times moved further north. Twice it was advanced to the line of the Antonine Wall, at about the time when Hadrian's Wall was built and again under Septimius Severus, once further north, beyond the river Tay, during Agricola's campaigns, each time, it was soon withdrawn. In addition to these contacts, Roman armies undertook punitive expeditions north of the frontiers. Northern natives travelled south of the wall, to trade, to raid and to serve in the Roman army. Roman traders may have travelled north, Roman subsidies, or bribes, were sent to useful tribes and leaders; the extent to which Roman Britain was romanised is debated, if there are doubts about the areas under close Roman control there must be more doubts over the degree to which the Damnonii were romanised. The final period of Roman Britain saw an apparent increase in attacks by land and sea, the raiders including the Picts and the mysterious Attacotti whose origins are not certain.
These raids will have targeted the tribes of southern Scotland. The supposed final withdrawal of Roman forces around 410 is unlikely to have been of military impact on the Damnonii, although the withdrawal of pay from the residual Wall garrison will have had a considerable economic effect. No historical source gives any firm information on the boundaries of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, but suggestions have been offered on the basis of place-names and topography. Near the north end of Loch Lomond, which can be reached by boat from the Clyde, lies Clach nam Breatann, the Rock of the Britains, thought to have gained its name as a marker at the northern limit of Alt Clut; the Campsie Fells and the marshes between Loch Lomond and Stirling may have represented another boundary. To the south, the kingdom extended some distance up the strath of the Clyde, along the coast extended south towards Ayr. Although referred to as the Dark Ages, the period after the end of Roman rule in southern Scotland, while poorly understood, is less dark than the Roman period.
Archaeologists and historians have offered varying accounts of the period over the last century and a half. The written sources available for the period are Irish and Welsh, few indeed are contemporary with the period between 400 and 600. Irish sources report events in the kingdom of Dumbarton. Excepting the 6th-century jeremiad by Gildas and the poetry attributed to Taliesin and Aneirin—in particular y Gododdin, thought to have been composed in Scotland in the 6th century—Welsh sources date from a much period; some are informed by the political attitudes prevalent in Wales after. Bede, whose prejudice is apparent mentions Britons, usually in uncomplimentary terms. Two kings are known from near contemporary sources in this early period; the first is Coroticus or Ceretic Guletic, known as the recipient of a letter from Saint Patrick, stated by a 7th-century biographer to have been king of the Height of the Clyde, Dumbarton Rock, placing h
William de Lauder
William de Lauder was bishop of Glasgow and Lord Chancellor of Scotland. Sometimes given as a son of Alan Lauder of Haltoun, he was in fact the son of Sir Robert de Lawedre of Edrington, The Bass, by his spouse Annabella. William was brother-german to Bishop of Dunkeld. William Lauder was educated at the University of Paris where he took a great interest in its affairs and became Rector, he graduated with a Doctorate in Canon Law In 1392, while still at university, he was given the parish church of St. Eligius, a benefice in the gift of the Bishop and chapter of St. Malo, he appears on the Roll of the University of Angers where he spent some time studying and lecturing. Before 1404, William Lauder had the Archdeaconry of Lothian conferred on him by Bishop Wardlaw of St. Andrews, as well as holding a canonry and prebend in Moray. In 1405 Lauder unsuccessfully sued in the Curia for the Precentorship of Glasgow. "Willielmus de Lawadir, Archdeacon of Lothian, accompanied by Alanus de Lawedir de Scotia" had a safe-conduct from King Henry IV dated 18 September 1404 with another the following year.
He was'preferred' and appointed to the bishopric of Glasgow by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII on 9 July 1408, not by election of the Chapter. The Chapter did not challenge his selection and Bishop Dowden suggests that he went to Avignon to receive consecration, returning after Martinmas the same year; this seems to be supported by an indult dated 11 July 1408 for him to be consecrated elsewhere, it is that occurred in France. On 24 October, King Henry IV of England granted "William de Lawedre, Bishop of Glasgow" safe conduct to pass through the Kingdom of England to the Kingdom of France. Bishop William was involved in the affairs of the kingdom. In 1406 he was one of the commissioners sent to Charles, King of France, in order to renew the alliance with France against the English, he attended the General Council at Perth in 1415, from September 1420 until his death four years William was Lord Chancellor of Scotland. On 9 August 1423 he was named First Commissioner to treat with England for the ransom of James I, accomplished the following year.
Another of the Commissioners was Sir Robert Lauder of the Bishop's brother. Bishop Lauder spent a great deal of his time continuing to build Glasgow or St Mungo's Cathedral building several portions of it, notably the crypt under the chapter house where the Lauder Arms were carved in several places, he added the stone steeple and battlement to the built tower and placed his arms, with a cherub for a crest, on the centre panel of the western parapet. He was interred in the ancient parish church of St. Mary, at Lauder and succeeded by John Cameron. Stewart-Smith, J; the Grange of St Giles, Edinburgh, 1898. Dowden, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, the Rev. & Hon. E. R. Lindsay, MA. and Cameron, A. I. MA. PhD, D. Litt. Calendar of Scottish Supplications to Rome 1418 – 1422,Scottish History Society, Edinburgh, 1934, p. 233. Fotheringham, James Gainsborough. "Lauder, William". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co
William de Malveisin
Guillaume or William de Malveisin was Chancellor of Scotland, Bishop of Glasgow and Bishop of St. Andrews. William Malveisin was born in France, it is possible that he was the son of the nephew of the Count of Brittany, however it is much more that he came from a family of the name based on the lower Seine valley. William was the nephew of Samson de Malveisin, Archbishop of Rheims from 1140 to 1161. In this context, William's career can come as no surprise. William appears in Scottish records for the first time in the 1180s. In 1193, the royal patronage he had earned brought him his first known ecclesiastical post, as Archdeacon of Lothian, he was made the king's Chancellor on 8 September 1199, was elected to the Bishopric of Glasgow in October the same year. He was consecrated at Lyon by Reginald de Forez, Archbishop of Lyon, in September 1200. However, two years in the same month, he was translated to the higher ranking Bishopric of St. Andrews. William got into a little trouble for exercising his episcopal powers before his episcopate had been confirmed by the Pope Innocent III.
The charge was heard by the Papal legate, John of Salerno, who held a council at Perth in December 1201, before leaving for business in Ireland. Legate John once again visited Scotland on his way back from Ireland, staying for more than fifty days at Melrose. However, nothing came of the charge. Walter Bower relates that William received the permission of King William to visit his relatives in France; this was between May 1212 and Spring 1213, when Bishop William disappears from the records. When not visiting home, Bishop William, like most other Bishops of St. Andrews, was keen to expand the power of the bishopric. In one instance, when Gille Ísu, the hereditary priest of Wedale died, he took the opportunity to absorb the church into his diocese. Bishop William enjoyed good relations with the native Scottish clerical order of his diocese, the people "qui Keledei vulgariter appellantur". At some point between 1206 and 1216, again in 1220, he managed to obtain absolution from the sentence of excommunication bestowed on the Céli Dé by the Pope.
According to the arguments of D. D. R. Owen, William was not only a bishop, but an author of Arthurian romance; the author of the romance known to us as the Roman de Fergus identifies himself as Guillaume le Clerc, or William the Clerk. In the words of Owen, "it is most reasonable to keep our eyes open for any French clerk by the name of William" in the period concerned, Owen uses textual and contextual evidence to show that William de Malveisin is one of the most known candidates. Bishop William died at a place called "Inchemordauch", one of the Bishopric's manors, in 1238 on 9 July; the next consecrated Bishop of St. Andrews was David de Bernham. Barrow, G. W. S. "The Anglo-Scottish Border", in Barrow The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed. Barrow, G. W. S. "The Clergy at St Andrews", in Barrow The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed. Corner, David J. Scott, A. B. Scott, William W. & Watt, D. E. R. Scotichronicon by Walter Bower in Latin and English, Vol. 4, John, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, Owen, D.
D. R. Fergus of Galloway, Owen, D. D. R; the Reign of William the Lion: Kingship and Culture, 1143-1214
Cynesige was a medieval English Archbishop of York between 1051 and 1060. Prior to his appointment to York, he was a royal clerk and a monk at Peterborough; as archbishop, he built and adorned his cathedral as well as other churches, was active in consecrating bishops. After his death in 1060, the bequests he had made to a monastery were confiscated by the queen. Cynesige came from Rutland, as he owned the manor of Tinwell there in life; the Liber Eliensis claimed that he had been born by Caesarian section, but this is most a accretion to his lifestory, added after his death because of efforts to have him declared a saint. The belief was that for an infant to survive a caesarian section was a miracle, thus a fitting beginning for a future saint. Cynesige had been a royal clerk prior to his appointment to York in 1051, although the monks of Peterborough Abbey maintained that he had been a monk in their house, it is possible he was both a royal clerk. He delayed his visit to Rome to receive his pallium until 1055, when he was given it by Pope Victor II.
During his time as archbishop he was claimed to have consecrated both John and Magsuen as Bishops of Glasgow, although the two bishops never lived in their diocese. John may have ended up as the Bishop of Mecklenburg in Germany. Cynesige dedicated the church of the Abbey of Waltham Holy Cross in the presence of King Edward the Confessor around 3 May 1060; this was at the invitation of Earl Harold Godwinson of Wessex. The chronicle of Waltham Abbey states that Cynesige did the consecration because the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant. However, there was an occupant of Canterbury, but his election to Canterbury was not considered canonical by the papacy, Harold may have excluded him because of concerns about Stigand's canonical status. Cynesige expanded and embellished York Minster and other churches in his archdiocese, built the tower at Beverley, as well as giving books and other items to the church there, he consecrated Herewald as Bishop of Llandaff at a council held at London in 1056, although this information is only attested in the Book of Llandaff, a sometimes unreliable source.
In 1059 he, along with Earl Tostig and Æthelwine Bishop of Durham, escorted King Malcolm III of Scotland to King Edward's court at Gloucester when Malcolm came south to thank Edward for his help in restoring Malcolm to the Scottish throne, to acknowledge the English king as Malcolm's lord. Cynesige died on 22 December 1060 and was buried at Peterborough, in what is now Peterborough Cathedral. After his death, he was honoured as a saint by the monks at Peterborough, although the cult does not seem to have spread far, his bones, along with those of his predecessor Ælfric Puttoc, were found in 1643. His reputation for sanctity and poverty was based on his actions, as he traveled on foot, spent much time preaching and giving alms; the Northumbrian Priests' Law, attributed to Wulfstan II, Archbishop of York, might have been authored instead by Cynesige, or Cynesige's predecessor Ælfric Puttoc. He gave gifts to Peterborough in his will. Cynesige 10 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
The Cistercians the Order of Cistercians, are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are known as Bernardines, after the influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux; the term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more the Rule of Saint Benedict; the best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy and Eastern Europe; the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict.
Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life as it had been in Saint Benedict's time. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life; the Cistercians made major contributions to culture and technology in medieval Europe: Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking a simpler lifestyle began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, became known as the Trappists; the Trappists were consolidated in 1892 into a new order called the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, abbreviated as OCSO.
The Cistercians who did not observe these reforms and remained within the Order of Cistercians and are sometimes called the Cistercians of the Common Observance when distinguishing them from the Trappists. In 1098, a Benedictine abbot, Robert of Molesme, left his monastery in Burgundy with around 20 supporters, who felt that the Cluniac communities had abandoned the rigours and simplicity of the Rule of St. Benedict; the monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James; the massive endowments and responsibilities of the Cluniac abbots had drawn them into the affairs of the secular world, their monks had abandoned manual labour to serfs to serve as scholars and "choir monks". On March 21, 1098, Robert's small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, given to them expressly for the purpose of founding their Novum Monasterium. Robert's followers included Alberic, a former hermit from the nearby forest of Colan, Stephen Harding, a member of an Anglo-Saxon noble family, ruined as a result of the Norman conquest of England.
During the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Robert's absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, Pope Urban II, a former Cluniac monk, ordered him to return; the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding. Robert had been the idealist of the order, Alberic was their builder. Upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and clothed the monks in white habits of undyed wool, he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo I of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church.
The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16, 1106, by the Bishop of Chalon sur Saône. On January 26, 1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase; the order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, he framed the original version of the Cistercian "Constitution" or regulations: the Carta Caritatis. Although this was revised on several occasions to meet contemporary needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, love and self-denial; the Cistercians regarded themselves as regular Benedictines, albeit the "perfect", reformed ones, but they soon came to distinguish themselves from the monks of unreformed Benedictin