Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, monarch of many other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, he was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein. In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister President Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary; this allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne. Considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains; the Austrian Empire was forced to cede its influence over Tuscany and most of its claim to Lombardy–Venetia to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, following the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859 and the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866.
Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague settled the German Question in favour of Prussia, which prevented the Unification of Germany from occurring under the House of Habsburg. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign, he concluded the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary and transformed the Austrian Empire into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. He ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, but suffered the tragedies of the execution of his brother, the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico in 1867, the suicide of his only son and heir, Crown Prince Rudolf, in 1889, the assassination of his wife, Empress Elisabeth, in 1898. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, a hotspot of international tension because of conflicting interests with the Russian Empire; the Bosnian Crisis was a result of Franz Joseph's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia, Russia's ally. That activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for 68 years as one of the longest-reigning monarchs in modern history, he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria; because his uncle, from 1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke "Franzl" was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the former's fifth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army.
From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he wore the uniform of a military officer. Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian. Following the resignation of the Chancellor Prince Metternich during the Revolutions of 1848, the young Archduke, who it was expected would soon succeed his uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia on 6 April, but never took up the post. Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, receiving his baptism of fire on 5 May at Santa Lucia. By all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the calmer setting of Innsbruck, in Tyrol. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June, it was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his future bride a girl of ten, but the meeting made little impression.
Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt it safe to return to Vienna, Franz Joseph travelled with them. But within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, in September the court left once more, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, an influential military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne, it was thought that a new ruler would not be bound by the oaths to respect constitutional government to which Ferdinand had been forced to agree, that it was necessary to find a young, energetic emperor to replace the kindly, but mentally unfit Ferdinand. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, the mild-mannered Franz Karl, Franz Joseph succeeded as Emperor of Austria at Olomouc on 2 December. At this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name; the name "Franz Joseph" was chosen to bring back memories of the new Emperor's great-granduncle, Emperor Joseph II, remembered as a modernising reformer.
Under the guidance of the new prime mini
Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Charles Louis John Joseph Laurentius of Austria, Duke of Teschen was an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain. He was the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army, he was considered one of Napoleon's more formidable opponents. He began his career fighting the revolutionary armies of France. Early in the wars of the First Coalition, he saw victory at Neerwinden in 1793, before being defeated at Wattignies 1793 and Fleurus 1794. In 1796, as chief of all Austrian forces on the Rhine, Charles defeated Jean-Baptiste Jourdan at Amberg and Würzburg, won a victory at Emmendingen that forced Jean Victor Marie Moreau to withdraw across the Rhine, he defeated opponents at Zürich, Ostrach and Messkirch in 1799. He reformed Austria's armies to adopt the nation-at-arms principle. In 1809, he entered the War of the Fifth Coalition and inflicted Napoleon's first major setback at Aspern-Essling, before suffering a defeat at the bloody Battle of Wagram.
After Wagram, Charles saw no more significant action in the Napoleonic Wars. As a military strategist, Charles was able to execute complex and risky maneuvers of troops. However, his contemporary Carl von Clausewitz criticize his rigidity and adherence to "geographic" strategy. Austrians remember Charles as a hero of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Charles was born in Tuscany, his father Grand Duke of Tuscany, generously permitted Charles's childless aunt Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria and her husband Albert of Saxe-Teschen to adopt and raise the boy in Vienna. Charles spent his youth in Tuscany, at Vienna and in the Austrian Netherlands, where he began his career of military service in the wars of the French Revolution, he commanded a brigade at the Battle of Jemappes, in the campaign of 1793 distinguished himself at the Action of Aldenhoven and the Battle of Neerwinden. In this year he became Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, an office he lost with the occupation of the Low Countries by the French revolutionaries in 1794.
The year he became Governor he received the army rank of Lieutenant Field Marshal. Shortly thereafter another promotion saw. In the remainder of the war in the Low Countries he held high commands, was present at the Battle of Fleurus. In 1795 he served on the Rhine, in the following year, he was entrusted with chief control of all the Austrian forces on that river, his conduct of the operations against Jourdan and Moreau in 1796 marked him out at once as one of the greatest generals in Europe. At first falling back and avoiding a decision, he marched away, leaving a mere screen in front of Moreau. Falling upon Jourdan, he beat him in the battles of Amberg and Würzburg, drove him over the Rhine with great loss, he turned upon Moreau's army, which he defeated and forced out of Germany. In 1797 he was sent to arrest the victorious march of General Bonaparte in Italy, he conducted the retreat of the over-matched Austrians with the highest skill. In the campaign of 1799 he once more opposed Jourdan, whom he defeated in the battles of Ostrach and Stockach, following up his success by invading Switzerland and defeating Masséna in the First Battle of Zurich, after which he re-entered Germany and drove the French once more over the Rhine.
Ill-health, forced him to retire to Bohemia, but he was soon recalled to undertake the task of checking Moreau's advance on Vienna. The result of the Battle of Hohenlinden had, foredoomed the attempt, the archduke had to make the armistice of Steyr, his popularity was now such that the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg, which met in 1802, resolved to erect a statue in his honor and to give him the title of savior of his country, but Charles refused both distinctions. In the short and disastrous war of 1805 Archduke Charles commanded what was intended to be the main army in Italy, but events made Germany the decisive theatre of operations. With the conclusion of peace he began his active work of army reorganization, first tested on the field in 1809. In 1806 Francis II named the Archduke Charles a field marshal, as Commander in Chief of the Austrian army and Head of the Council of War. Supported by the prestige of being the only general who had proved capable of defeating the French, he promptly initiated a far-reaching scheme of reform, which replaced the obsolete methods of the 18th century.
The chief characteristics of the new order were the adoption of the nation in arms principle and the adoption of French war organization and tactics. The army reforms were not yet completed by the war of 1809, in which Charles acted as commander in chief, yet so it proved a far more formidable opponent than the old and was only defeated after a desperate struggle involving Austrian victories and large loss of life on both sides, its initial successes were neutralized by the reverses of Abensberg and Eckmühl but, after the evacuation of Vienna, the archduke won a strong victory at the Battle of Aspern-Essling but soon afterwards lost at the Battle of Wagram. At the end of the campaign the archduke gave up all his military offices; when Austria joined the ranks of the allies during the War of the Sixth Coalition, Charles was not given a command and the post of commander-in-chie
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740; the house produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations and intermarried; the House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title.
The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph became King of Germany in 1273, the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs and their descendants ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Bohemia and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty; the House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon; the remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria.
It was succeeded by the Vaudémont branch of the House of Lorraine, descendants of Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, because it was confusingly still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the unofficial appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918; the Lorraine branch continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, its industrial base was thin, its naval resources were so minimal. It typified by Metternich. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.
Their principal roles were as follows: Holy Roman Emperors, kings of Germany, kings of the Romans) Rulers of Austria Kings of Bohemia Kings of Hungary and Croatia Kings of Spain Kings of Portugal Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand princes of Transylvania Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above. The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives, his grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby; the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges countship rights in Zürichgau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Swabia, they were able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosg
Moravia is a historical region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire a crown land of the Austrian Empire and also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928. Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2 and about 3 million inhabitants, 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic; the statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2. The people are named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs; the land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno.
Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital. Though abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia; the region and former margraviate of Moravia, Morava in Czech, is named after its principal river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori: "waters", or indeed any word denoting water or a marsh; the German name for Moravia is Mähren, again from the river's German name March. Interestingly, this might hint at a different etymology, as march is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier. Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west and in the east, where all the rivers rise.
Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Outer Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians, provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started. Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south, Slovakia in the southeast, Poland shortly in the north, Czech Silesia in the northeast, its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west.
The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs along the Moravice and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia. Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region, the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian and South Bohemian regions. Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians, between the Danube basin and the North European Plain, its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley, the Upper Morava Valley and the Lower Morava Valley. The first two form the westernmost part of the Outer Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin; the valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians.
The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd. Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the east, with Smrk, south from here Javorníky; the White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at Javořice; the fluvial system of Moravia is cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, thus the entire area is drained by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya from Bečva. Morav
Archduchess Eleonora of Austria
Archduchess Eleonora of Austria was a daughter of Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria and a first cousin of King Alphonso XIII of Spain. She was member of the Teschen branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Bohemia and Tuscany by birth, she renounced to her titles upon her morganatic marriage to Alfons Kloss, the captain of her father's yacht. During World War II her sons served in the German army. Archduchess Eleonora was the eldest daughter of Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria and his wife, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany. Both of her parents were related to Emperor Franz Joseph, her father, a grandson of archduke Karl of Austria who had led the Austrian army against Napoleon Bonaparte, was a brother of Queen Maria Christina of Spain. Eleonora’s mother, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany, was a granddaughter of Leopold II, the last reigning Grand Duke of Tuscany. On her maternal side, she was a granddaughter of King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies.
Archduchess Eleonora was born in Pula, Austria–Hungary, now Croatia, where her father was stationed as a naval officer. She was educated with an educational emphasis on languages, she learned German, English French and from 1895 Polish. Her father followed a career in the Austrian Navy and Eleanore spent her formative years in Istria in the Austrian port of Pula in the Adriatic, her father was wealthy and the family had a summer villa in the island of Losinj in the Adriatic, a palace in Vienna and maintain a luxurious yacht for summer cruises. In 1895 her father inherited from Archduke Albert vast properties in Galicia. From 1907 the family main residence was in Zywiec castle in western Galicia today Poland, but still they spent the winters in Istria. At age fifteen, Archduchess Eleanore fell in love with Alfons von Kloss, a sailor who worked as the captain of her father's yacht, their relationship grew during many family's Mediterranean cruises. Archduke Charles Stephen had wished to marry his eldest daughter to a Polish aristocrat, but he was touched by the couple's true love and persistence.
He contacted the emperor. Emperor Franz Joseph was inflexible on family matters, but he was a good friend of Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria and gave his permission; the wedding, a modest ceremony, took place on 9 January 1913 at Saybusch, two days before the wedding of her sister Archduchess Mechthildis of Austria. Archduchess Eleanore renounced to her titles upon her marriage becoming Mrs von Kloss; the couple settled in Istria. Alfons von Kloss worked as Corvette Captain in the Imperial navy, served with distinction during World War I. Eleanore and her husband stayed in Austria after the fall of the monarchy and lived in Baden near Vienna, in a large villa Eleanore had inherited from her childless uncle Archduke Rainer of Austria. One of her sons, was military Attache at the Austrian Embassy in Washington, DC. Most of her many descendants still live in Austria. Archduchess Eleonora and Alfons von Kloss had eight children: Albrecht von Kloss, they had two daughters. Karl von Kloss Rainer von Kloss.
Ernest von Kloss. Alfons von Kloss. Frederich von Kloss Maria Theresia von Kloss. Stephan von Kloss. McIntosh David, The Unknown Habsburgs, Rovall Royal Books, 2000. ISBN 91-973978-0-6 Snyder, The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of A Habsburg Archduke. Basic Books, 2008. ISBN 978-0-465-00237-5
Maria Christina of Austria
Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria of Austria known as Maria Christina Henrietta Désirée Félicité Rénière was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the vacancy of the throne between her husband's death and her son's birth, during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, between 1885 and 1902. Known to her family as Christa, she was born at Židlochovice Castle, near Brünn, in Moravia, a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, her paternal grandparents were Archduke Charles of Austria and Princess Henriette Alexandrine of Nassau-Weilburg. Various sources attributed good traits to Maria Christina before her marriage. One states she was "tall, fair and well educated", she was Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Imperial Ladies Chapter of the Castle of Prague. Maria Christina married King Alfonso XII of Spain on 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, became the mother of his only three legitimate children: Infanta María de las Mercedes of Spain.
She lived a discreet life as queen. She was the first Germanic queen consort in half-a-century since Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony, the third wife of Ferdinand VII and the last one to date; when the King died, Maria Christina was pregnant, so the throne was vacant, depending on whether Maria Christina's unborn child was a male or a female. During this period, Maria Christina ruled as regent until her child, a son, was born, Alfonso XIII of Spain from birth. Maria Christina continued as regent until Alfonso XIII attained his majority in 1902, her chief adviser and head of government was Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. Her rule is described as well-balanced and in accordance with respect for constitutional rights, many political reforms were instated during her regency to prevent political conflicts and chaos, her role was ceremonial, her purpose was to preserve the crown for her son until he became an adult. After her son's marriage in 1906, she lost her position as first lady at court. Alfonso XIII continued to look to her on many occasions for advice.
She was the 805th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa. In February 1929, after some weeks of heart disease, she died at the Royal Palace in Madrid and is buried at El Escorial. Sir Charles Petrie, Alfonso XIII's biographer, maintained that the Queen dowager's death had a disastrous effect on her son, that the latter never recovered politically from the blow. Within little more than two years the monarchy had collapsed. ===References=== Campos y Fernández de Sevilla, Francisco-Javier. María Cristina de Habsburgo y la Regencia, 1885–1902. San Lorenzo de El Escorial: Estudios Superiores del Escorial, Real Colegio Universitario "María Cristina", 1994. Cancio R. Capote, Rita Maria; the Function of Maria Christina of Austria's Regency, 1885–1902, in Preserving the Spanish Monarchy. México: Ediciones Botas, 1957. Figueroa y Torres, Alvaro de, Conde de Romanones. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo Lorena, la discreta regente de España. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1934. Martín Alonso, Aurelio. Diez y seis años de regencia, María Cristina de Hapsburgo-Lorena, 1885–1902.
Barcelona: L. Tasso, 1914. Thoma, Helga. Habsburgs letzte Herrscherin: Maria Christine, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Königin-Regentin von Spanien. Wien-Klosterneuburg: Edition Va Bene, 2003. Wormeley Latimer, Elizabeth. Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. Newspaper clippings about Maria Christina of Austria in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. It is abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"; the rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis or admiratus, although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U. S. a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has today come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this wasn't always the case.
The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; the generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a important history in Spain.
Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905