An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of architecture, and are commonly divided into the architrave, the frieze. The Greek and Roman temples are believed to be based on wooden structures, the structure of the entablature varies with the three classical orders, Doric and Corinthian. In each, the proportions of the subdivisions are defined by the proportions of the column in the order, in Roman and Renaissance interpretations, it is usually approximately a quarter of the height of the column. Variants of entablature that do not fit these models are derived from them. Pure classical Doric entablature is simple, the architrave, the lowest band, is split, from bottom to top, into the guttae, the regulae, and the taenia. The frieze is dominated by the triglyphs, vertically channelled tablets, separated by metopes, which may or may not be decorated. The triglyphs sit on top of the taenia, a flat, horizontal protrusion, and are finished at the bottom by decoration of drops, called guttae, the top of the triglyphs meet the protrusion of the cornice from the entablature.
The underside of this protrusion is decorated with mutules, tablets that are finished with guttae. The cornice is split into the soffit, the corona, the soffit is simply the exposed underside. The corona and the cymatium are the parts of the cornice. The Ionic order of entablature adds the fascia in the architrave, which are flat horizontal protrusions, and the dentils under the cornice, which are tooth-like rectangular block moldings. The Corinthian order adds a far more ornate cornice, from bottom to top, into the cyma reversa, the dentils, the ovulo, the modillions, the fascia, and the cyma recta. The modillions are ornate brackets, similar in use to dentils, the frieze is sometimes omitted—for example, on the portico of the caryatides of the Erechtheum—and probably did not exist as a structure in the temple of Diana at Ephesus. Neither is it found in the Lycian tombs, which are reproductions in the rock of timber based on early lonian work. The entablature is essentially an evolution of the lintel, which spans two posts, supporting the ends of the roof rafters.
The entablature together with the system of columns is rarely found outside of classical architecture. It is often used to complete the upper portion of a wall where columns are not present, the use of the entablature, irrespective of columns, appeared after the Renaissance
A miter joint, sometimes shortened to miter, is a joint made by beveling each of two parts to be joined, usually at a 45° angle, to form a corner, usually a 90° angle. For woodworking, a disadvantage of a joint is its weakness. There are two variations of a splined miter joint, one where the spline is long and runs the length of the mating surfaces. Common applications include picture frames and molding, for miter joints occurring at angles other than 90°, for materials of the same cross-section the proper cut angle must be determined so that the two pieces to be joined meet flush. To find the cut angle divide the angle at which the two meet by two. When a piece is beveled at both ends, such that the two attached pieces do not lie in the plane, a three-dimensional structure is obtained. In that case, it is necessary to either rotate the piece in its longitudinal axis or to tilt the saw blade before beveling the second end. It is always possible to close a structure constructed with pieces having non-circular cross section into a loop through properly matched miter joints, however, a three-dimensional loop from pieces with non-circular cross section need not close properly when attempting to miter it all the way round.
In general, a twist occurs, causing the edges at the last joint to be misaligned
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
An archivolt is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch. It is composed of bands of ornamental moldings surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening, the word is sometimes used to refer to the under-side or inner curve of the arch itself. The word originates in the Italian equivalents of the English words arch, university of Pittsburgh, Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture
Shilpa Shastras literally means the Science of Shilpa. It is an ancient umbrella term for numerous Hindu texts that describe arts, besides sixty-four abhyantara-kalā or secret arts which include mostly erotic arts such as kissing, etc. Vastu Shastras deal with building architecture - building houses, temples, apartments and town layout, Shilpa refers to any art or craft in ancient Indian texts, while Shastra means science. Together, Shilpa Shastra means the science of art and crafts, the ancient Sanskrit texts use the term Shilpin and Shilpini for artists and crafts person, while Shilpani refers to works of arts of man. The meaning of Shilpa, according to Stella Karmrisch, is complex and she writes that it consists of art, craft, ingenuity and ritual, form and creation. Ancient Indian texts assert that the number of the arts is unlimited, they deploy sixty four kala’’, Shilpa is discussed in Agamas and Vastu Shastra where it is linked to the mythology of Vishvakarma. Shilpa Shastras include chapters on paintings, both miniature and large, for example, Narad Shilpa Shastra dedicates chapters 66 and 71 to painting, while Saraswati Shilpa Shastra describes various types of chitra, chitrabhasa, varna samskara.
Other ancient Shilpa Shastra on painting include Vishnudharmottara Purana and Chitralakshana and these Sanskrit treatises discuss the following aspects of a painting, proportions, perspective of the viewer, mudra and rasa. Such an approach of Indian paintings, states Isabella Nardi, make Shilpa Shastra not only canonical textual sources but a means to transmit knowledge, the first chapter of Shilpa Shastra Manasara discusses the measurement principles for carpentry. One of the earliest mentions of carpentry arts is in Book 9, carpentry was an essential Shilpa Shastra during the construction of a Hindu temple. The Vedas, in particular Atharva veda and Sthapatya veda, describe many kinds of arts and crafts in their discussion of Shilpa Shastra and Yantra Sarvasva, the Rig veda, states Ravi, mentions equipment used in casting, such as dhamatri, gharma aranmaya and bhastri. These discussions are in the context of making idols, and describe rules to achieve best talmana, Sanskrit texts such as Shilparatna and Manasara describe in detail the process and principles for art work with metals, particularly for alloys such as pancha dhatu and ashta dhatu.
Madhuchista Vidhana casting process is the most discussed process in these ancient shilpa shastras with metals, kirk suggests that these Shastras diffused from India to other ancient cultures in Asia. While there is evidence of high purity metallurgy and art works with other metals. Birth was no barrier All arts were the domain of all classes, the ancient texts of Parashara states that all crafts were practised by anyone irrespective of family’s occupation. Suttavibhanga describes builders and wheelwrights born to Shudra father and Brahmin mother, the goldsmiths of Maharashtra included children born in cattle herding families. Apprenticeship Apprentices joined and trained under masters, the best were adopted and recognised as members of various art guilds. The training began from childhood, and included studies about dharma, reading, mathematics, colors, guilds Shilpins had formed Śreni in ancient India
A façade is generally one exterior side of a building, but not always, the front. It is a loan word from the French façade, which means frontage or face. In architecture, the façade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, from the engineering perspective of a building, the façade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical façades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or even forbid their alteration. The word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face, the earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656. It was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new façade, in modern highrise building, the exterior walls are often suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include curtain walls and precast concrete walls, the façade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are very close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another.
In general, the systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration. The melting point of aluminium,660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls. Some building codes limit the percentage of area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, on a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only façades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, and not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind.
Within theme parks, they are usually decoration for the interior ride/attraction/restaurant, by Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Poole, the article outlines the development of the façade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beams axis. Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending, the loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beams support points. The total effect of all the acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of support, length, historically beams were squared timbers but are metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal such as a flitch beam. Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can be used to carry horizontal loads, the loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members. In light frame construction joists may rest on beams, in carpentry a beam is called a plate as in a sill plate or wall plate, beam as in a summer beam or dragon beam. In engineering, beams are of types, Simply supported - a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance.
Fixed - a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation, over hanging - a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end. Double overhanging - a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both ends, continuous - a beam extending over more than two supports. Cantilever - a projecting beam fixed only at one end, trussed - a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss. In the beam equation I is used to represent the moment of area. It is commonly known as the moment of inertia, and is the sum, about the axis, of dA*r^2, where r is the distance from the neutral axis. Therefore, it not just how much area the beam section has overall. The greater I is, the stiffer the beam in bending, beams experience compressive and shear stresses as a result of the loads applied to them. Above the supports, the beam is exposed to shear stress, there are some reinforced concrete beams in which the concrete is entirely in compression with tensile forces taken by steel tendons.
These beams are known as prestressed concrete beams, and are fabricated to produce a more than the expected tension under loading conditions. High strength steel tendons are stretched while the beam is cast over them, when the concrete has cured, the tendons are slowly released and the beam is immediately under eccentric axial loads. This eccentric loading creates a moment, and, in turn
Post and lintel
In architecture and lintel is a building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them. This is usually used to hold up a roof, creating an open space beneath. The horizontal elements are called by a variety of names including lintel, architrave or beam, the use of wider elements at the top of the post, called capitals, to help spread the load, is common to many traditions. The trabeated system is a principle of Neolithic architecture, Ancient Indian architecture, Ancient Greek architecture. Other trabeated styles are the Persian, Japanese, traditional Chinese, and ancient Chinese architecture, especially in northern China, the traditions are represented in North and Central America by Mayan architecture, and in South America by Inca architecture. In all or most of these traditions, certainly in Greece and India, the earliest versions developed using wood, timber framing, using trusses, remains common for smaller buildings such as houses to the modern day.
The biggest disadvantage to a post and lintel construction is the weight that can be held up. Ancient Roman architectures development of the allowed for much larger structures to be constructed. As with the Roman temple portico front and its descendents in classical architecture, the classical orders of Greek origin were in particular retained in buildings designed to impress, even though they usually had little or no structural role. In architecture, a post-and-lintel or trabeated system refers to the use of horizontal beams or lintels which are borne up by columns or posts, the name is from the Latin trabs, influenced by trabeatus, clothed in the trabea, a ritual garment. In India the style was used originally for wooden construction, but the technique was adopted for stone structures for decorated load-bearing and lintel construction is one of four ancient structural methods of building, the others being the corbel, arch-and-vault, and truss. The two posts are under compression from the weight of the lintel above, the lintel will deform by sagging in the middle because the underside is under tension and the topside is under compression
Elements and tags are terms that are widely confused, HTML documents contain tags, but do not contain the elements. The elements are generated after the parsing step, from these tags. As is generally understood, the position of an element is indicated as spanning from a tag, possibly including some child content. This is the case for many, but not all, elements within an HTML document, as HTML is based on SGML, its parsing depends on the use of a DTD, specifically an HTML DTD such as that for HTML4.01. The DTD specifies which element types are possible and it specifies the valid combinations in which they may appear in a document. It is part of general SGML behaviour that where only one structure is possible. As a simple example, the <p> start tag indicating the start of a paragraph element should be closed by an end tag. Also the DTD states that paragraph elements cannot be nested, SGML is complex, which has limited its widespread adoption and understanding
An Order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform. The three orders of architecture—the Doric and Corinthian—originated in Greece, to these the Romans added, in practice if not in name, the Tuscan, which they made simpler than Doric, and the Composite, which was more ornamental than the Corinthian. The Architectural Order of a building is akin to the mode or key of classical music. It is established by certain modules like the intervals of music, Columns shrank into half-columns emerging from walls or turned into pilasters. This treatment continued after the conscious and correct use of the orders, initially following exclusively Roman models, Greek Revival architecture, inspired by increasing knowledge of Greek originals, returned to more authentic models, including ones from relatively early periods. Each style has distinctive capitals at the top of columns and horizontal entablatures which it supports, the column shaft and base varies with the order, and is sometimes articulated with vertical hollow grooves known as fluting.
The capital rests on the shaft and it has a load-bearing function, which concentrates the weight of the entablature on the supportive column, but it primarily serves an aesthetic purpose. The necking is the continuation of the shaft, but is separated by one or many grooves. The echinus lies atop the necking and it is a circular block that bulges outwards towards the top to support the abacus, which is a square or shaped block that in turn supports the entablature. The entablature consists of three layers, all of which are visually separated from each other using moldings or bands. There are names for all the parts of the orders. The height of columns are calculated in terms of a ratio between the diameter of the shaft at its base and the height of the column, sometimes this is phrased as lower diameters high, to establish which part of the shaft has been measured. There are three orders in Ancient Greek architecture, Doric and Corinthian. These three were adopted by the Romans, who modified their capitals, the Roman adoption of the Greek orders took place in the 1st century BC.
The three Ancient Greek orders have since been used in neo-classical European architecture. Sometimes the Doric order is considered the earliest order, but there is no evidence to support this, the Doric and Ionic orders seem to have appeared at around the same time, the Ionic in eastern Greece and the Doric in the west and mainland. Both the Doric and the Ionic order appear to have originated in wood, the Temple of Hera in Olympia is the oldest well-preserved temple of Doric architecture. It was built just after 600 BC, the Doric order spread across Greece and into Sicily where it was the chief order for monumental architecture for 800 years
In architecture the frieze /ˈfriːz/ is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on a wall it lies upon the architrave and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous and this style is typical for the Persians. In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail, by extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels, the material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium. In an example of a frieze on the façade of a building. A pulvinated frieze is convex in section, such friezes were features of 17th-century Northern Mannerism, especially in subsidiary friezes, and much employed in interior architecture and in furniture.
The concept of a frieze has been generalized in the construction of frieze patterns. Media related to Friezes at Wikimedia Commons Frieze
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period