The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. It is known as the coldest of all the oceans; the International Hydrographic Organization recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Sea. It is sometimes classified as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, it is seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. Located in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, besides its surrounding waters the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America, it is covered by sea ice throughout the year and completely in winter. The Arctic Ocean's surface temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes; the summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center uses satellite data to provide a daily record of Arctic sea ice cover and the rate of melting compared to an average period and specific past years. Human habitation in the North American polar region goes back at least 50,000–17,000 years ago, during the Wisconsin glaciation.
At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to north west North America, leading to the Settlement of the Americas. Paleo-Eskimo groups included the Pre-Dorset; the Dorset were the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture in the Arctic before the migration east from present-day Alaska of the Thule, the ancestors of the modern Inuit. The Thule Tradition lasted from about 200 BC to AD 1600 around the Bering Strait, the Thule people being the prehistoric ancestors of the Inuit who now live in Northern Labrador. For much of European history, the north polar regions remained unexplored and their geography conjectural. Pytheas of Massilia recorded an account of a journey northward in 325 BC, to a land he called "Eschate Thule", where the Sun only set for three hours each day and the water was replaced by a congealed substance "on which one can neither walk nor sail", he was describing loose sea ice known today as "growlers" or "bergy bits". Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water.
The fervent desire of European merchants for a northern passage, the Northern Sea Route or the Northwest Passage, to "Cathay" caused water to win out, by 1723 mapmakers such as Johann Homann featured an extensive "Oceanus Septentrionalis" at the northern edge of their charts. The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle in this era added only small islands, such as Novaya Zemlya and Spitzbergen, though since these were surrounded by pack-ice, their northern limits were not so clear; the makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank, with only fragments of known coastline sketched in. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. John Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this.
In the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane and Isaac Israel Hayes both claimed to have seen part of this elusive body of water. Quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea; as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896; the first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support. The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes.
In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces. Since 1954 commercial airlines have flown over the Arctic Ocean; the Arctic Ocean occupies a circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2 the size of Antarctica. The coastline is 45,390 km long, it is the only ocean smaller than Russia, which has a land area of 16,377,742 km2. It is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, by several islands, it is taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Se
Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria was an Austro-Hungarian Archduke and the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 17 January 1908 to 2 May 1921, military commander, from 1916 Generaloberst, early advocate of air power. He retired to life as a common citizen of Austria, was imprisoned in Dachau during the Nazi era. Joseph Ferdinand was born in Salzburg to Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, the last Grand Duke of Tuscany, his wife, Alice of Bourbon-Parma; as the fourth child and second son, he assumed the mantle of heir after his elder brother gave up the claim following numerous scandals. He succeeded his father as head of the House of Tuscany on 17 January 1908. Joseph Ferdinand attended the military Oberrealschule at Hranice and the Maria Theresa Military Academy at Wiener Neustadt. Upon graduating from the academy, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Tirol Jäger regiment on 18 August 1892. Following various assignments with Infantrie Regiment No's. 93, 17, 59 and the Tirol Jäger Regiment No.
4, he was attached to IR No. 27 as an Oberstleutnant in 1903. From 1895 until 1897, he attended the Kriegsschule in Vienna. From 1905 until 1908, the Archduke commanded IR No. 93 as an Oberst the Infantry Brigade No. 5. The Archduke Joseph Ferdinand concerned himself with aviation, not taken in military circles at the time, he was fascinated by balloons from an early age. In January 1911, the Archduke received command of the 3rd infantry division in Linz, followed afterwards by his promotion to Feldmarschalleutnant on 1 May 1911. In August 1914, he took the command of the XIV Corps, succeeding General der Kavallerie Viktor Dankl von Krasnik, who had taken command of the First Army, his Corps was part of the Third Army of General Brudermann. In early September 1914, the devastating battles at the Zlota and Gnila Lipas destroyed the Third Army, the Fourth Army under General Auffenberg was decimated following Rawa Russka; the Archduke was chosen to replace Auffenberg on October 1. Meanwhile, the XIV Corps was taken over by Feldmarschalleutnant Josef Roth on 30 September.
Joseph Ferdinand was to remain in command of the Fourth Army until early June 1916. At this time, General Aleksei Brusilov launched the Brusilov Offensive at the juncture of the Fourth and First Armies; the result was that Joseph Ferdinand's trenches were obliterated by the Russian bombardment and his troops surrendered en masse to the advancing Russians. In light of this massive set-back, the German High Command insisted on his removal from command; the Archduke was replaced by General Tersztyanszky. Following the accession of Kaiser Karl in November 1916, Archduke Joseph Ferdinand was offered the post of Inspector General of the Imperial Air Force; the Archduke brought his interest in ballooning to the post, although the Army HQ objected to the appointment. In spite of their reservations, the Archduke was appointed on 8 July 1917 and he remained there until 3 September 1918. Theodore von Kármán an Oberleutnant in the Austro-Hungarian Luftarsenal, found Joseph Ferdinand to be an "ignorant and pompous fellow."
As Inspector General Joseph Ferdinand visited the Austro-Daimler Company where he was shown the company's first six-cylinder airplane engine by Ferdinand Porsche. In his autobiography von Kármán relates an exchange between Joseph Ferdinand and Porsche: "Is this a four cylinder engine?" the Archduke asked. "Yes, Imperial Highness." "Well why are there six cylinders?" he demanded. Porsche with a side wink at me replied: "The last two cylinders are reserves." He was married at Maria Plain on 2 May 1921 to Rosa Kaltenbrunner, not a noble. After this first marriage he resigned as head of the House of Tuscany. In Vienna on 27 January 1929, Joseph Ferdinand married again, this time to Gertrude Tomanek, Edle von Beyerfels-Mondsee, he had two children from this marriage. When the Germans occupied Austria in 1938, Joseph Ferdinand was arrested along with more than 70,000 other Viennese, he was interrogated by the Gestapo and sent to Dachau concentration camp, where he was imprisoned for three months. The conditions in the camp ruined his health permanently.
Joseph Ferdinand was released and lived an isolated existence thereafter, under continual observation by the Gestapo. After his release, he settled in Vienna as a commoner, he died on 28 August 1942 in Vienna. The Austro-Hungarian army
David Guion is a French professional football manager and former player who played as a defender. He is in charge of Ligue 1 side Reims. Born in Le Mans, he began his playing career in the B team at Lille in 1983, he went on to represent the Lille first team, making 51 appearances between 1988 and 1991. Guion spent three seasons with Angers, where he played 88 league matches and scored once, he was a part of the team that won promotion to Ligue 1 in 1993. He returned to Ligue 2 in 1994 with Sedan and went on to play for Mulhouse and Red Star 93, before ending his career with Istres in 2001. Guion was appointed manager of Chambéry in the summer of 2010, led the team to promotion to the Championnat de France amateur in his first season in charge, he was subsequently hired by Cannes in June 2011, but left the club in January 2012 after winning only 5 of his first 13 games as manager. Guion was appointed as assistant manager under Pascal Plancque at Boulogne the following month. Angers Division 2 Group B: 1992–93 Chambéry Championnat de France Amateur 2 Group D: 2010–11Reims Ligue Champagne-Ardenne: 2012–13 Championnat de France Amateur 2: 2015–16 Ligue 2: 2017–18Individual Ligue 2 Manager of the Year: 2017–18 David Guion at FootballDatabase.eu