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Arden, Warwickshire

Arden is an area, located in Warwickshire and part of Staffordshire and Worcestershire traditionally regarded as extending from the River Avon to the River Tame. It was once wooded, giving rise to the name'Forest of Arden', it does not seem. Believed to be derived from a Brythonic word ardu- "high", by extension "highland", the area was thickly forested and known as the Forest of Arden. Located near the geographical centre of England, the Forest of Arden, through which no Roman roads were built, was bounded by the Roman roads Icknield Street, Watling Street, Fosse Way, a prehistoric salt track leading from Droitwich, it encompassed an area corresponding to the north-western half of the traditional county of Warwick, stretching from Stratford-on-Avon in the south to Tamworth in the north, included what are now the large cities of Birmingham and Coventry, in addition to areas that are still rural with numerous areas of woodland. The most important and largest settlement in the forest was the town Henley-in-Arden, the site of an Iron Age hillfort.

An ancient mark stone known as "Coughton Cross" is still present at the south western corner of the forest, at the junction of Icknield Street and the salt track. It is located at the southern end of the frontage of Coughton Court and is owned by the National Trust. According to local tradition, travellers prayed here for safe passage through the forest. From around 1162, until the suppression of the order in 1312, the Knights Templar owned a preceptory at Temple Balsall in the middle of the Forest of Arden; the property passed to the Knights Hospitaller, who held it until the Reformation during the 16th century. Robert Catesby, leader of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605, was a native of a village in Arden, it is believed that many local families had resisted the Reformation and retained Catholic sympathies including the family of Shakespeare, whose paternal ancestors were from Temple Balsall. Thorkell of Arden, a descendant of the ruling family of Mercia, was one of the few major English landowners who retained extensive properties after the Norman conquest, his progeny, the Arden family, remained prominent in the area for centuries.

Mary Arden, mother of William Shakespeare, was a member. Shakespeare's play As You Like It is set in the Forest of Arden, however it is an imaginary version incorporating elements from the Ardennes forest in Thomas Lodge's prose romance Rosalynde and the real forest. Towns in the area include Hampton-in-Arden, Henley-in-Arden, Tanworth-in-Arden; the Countryside Commission considered creating a new national forest in the area in 1989, but the proposal was not taken up. A national forest has been established in the northern midlands however. Publisher Felix Dennis planted substantial areas of woodland in the area, known as the Heart of England Forest and on his death in 2014 left most of his fortune to be used for this purpose. 3000 acres have been planted in Spernall and Honeybourne. Hampton-in-Arden Henley-in-Arden Tanworth-in-Arden Arden family Shapiro, James. 1599: A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21481-9. Webb, John. "Forest of Arden". Heart-of-England. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011.

Retrieved 3 February 2011. Andrew Watkins. "Landowners and their Estates in the Forest of Arden in the Fifteenth Century". Agricultural History Review. 45: 18–33. JSTOR 40275129. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. About the Forest About Mary Arden

Keokuk (Sauk leader)

Keokuk was a chief of the Sauk tribe in central North America, for decades was one of the most recognized Native American leaders and noted for his accommodation with the U. S. government. Keokuk always acted as an ardent friend of the Americans, his policies were contrary to fellow Sauk chief Black Hawk, who led part of their band to defeat in the Black Hawk War, was returned by U. S. forces to Keokuk's custody, who died a decade before Keokuk. Keokuk was born around 1780 on the Rock River in what soon became Illinois Territory to a Sauk warrior of the Fox clan and his wife of mixed lineage, he lived in a village near what became Peoria, Illinois on the Illinois River, although not of the traditional ruling elite, was elected to the tribal council as a young man. He had a wife, who may be buried in Missouri. During the War of 1812, Keokuk convinced fellow tribal members not to leave their principal village and not to fight for the British and war chief Black Hawk. However, many warriors had left to do so, so Keokuk was elected a war chief and protected his village through oratory.

In 1824, he visited Washington, D. C. with other Native American leaders, including Chief Wapello of the Meskwaki people. Keokuk was noted for his personal bravery as well as oratorical skill. On several occasions, he persuaded tribal assemblies, although before he spoke every member but himself had been determined to the contrary. At one time, in May 1832, Keokuk broke in upon a war dance that his band was holding preparatory to uniting with Black Hawk against the whites, convinced the warriors in the heat of their fury that such would be suicidal and must not be undertaken. Keokuk moved his tribe across the Mississippi River to a site on the Iowa River by 1828, the following year Caleb Atwater met him: Keokuk, the principal warrior of the Sauks, is a shrewd politic man as well as a brave one and he possesses great weight of character in their national councils, he never begs of the whites. While ascending the Mississippi to join us at the head of his brave troops, he met and brought along with him to Fort Crawford two United States soldiers who were deserting from the garrison when he met them.

I informed him that for this act he was entitled to a bounty in money, to which he proudly replied that he acted from motives of friendship towards the United States and would accept no money for it. In July 1830, Keokuk was one of several native leaders who entered into the Fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien with Indian Agent William Clark; this ceded territory including Saukenuk to the United States. When Black Hawk returned from a foray and found white settlers in his ancestral village, he took up arms, solicited general co-operation from his tribe. However, Keokuk succeeded in keeping the majority of the band at peace, he became one of three "money chiefs" who distributed payments under this and other treaties. Keokuk took every opportunity to attempt to persuade Black Hawk to withdraw from his aggressive position before it was too late, but the U. S. Army and Illinois militia soon defeated Black Hawk's warriors. A four hundred square mile strip surrounding Keokuk's village in Iowa was exempted from the 1832 Black Hawk Purchase, a treaty which ended the war and, negotiated at Fort Armstrong, Illinois in September 1832.

In August 1833, U. S. authorities formally delivered Black Hawk, to the custody of Keokuk, recognized as the principal chief of the Sauks and Foxes in that treaty. In 1837, with several of his nation's village chiefs, Keokuk visited Washington, where a peace was arranged between his people and their old-time adversaries, the Sioux, they visited New York City and Cincinnati, where Keokuk's speeches attracted attention. Black Hawk was with the party. Black Hawk died the following year. In August 1842, Keokuk and several tribal members, visited Nauvoo, he soon negotiated the sale of the tribe's land across the river in Iowa. Thus, in 1845, despite the land reservation in the 1832 treaty, Keokuk's band was moved further west into Kansas. Keokuk and his people arrived at their new reservation near Ottawa, Kansas in 1845, Keokuk there died in June 1848. Alternate sources describe the cause of his death as dysentery, alcoholism, or poison administered by a disaffected surviving member of the Black Hawk band, soon executed.

His son Moses Keokuk succeeded him as chief, would move the tribe to Oklahoma Territory. Keokuk County and the town of Keokuk, Iowa are named after him, although chief Keokuk had never visited the town before it was incorporated in 1834. Pursuant to the efforts of Iowa judge Caleb Davis, a collector of Native American relics, Chief Keokuk was reburied in Keokuk in 1883, although modern forensics have determined that the remains thus interred were of a much younger man. Nonetheless, the Chief Keokuk Statue, designed by Nellie Walker and erected in 1913, continues to stand today in Keokuk's Rand Park, as erected by the Keokuk chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Iowa: A Guide to the Hawkeye State and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Iowa, The Viking Press, New York, 1938 "Goodbye My Keokuk Lady" by Raymond E. Garrison, Hamilton, IL: Hamilton Press,1962

Access to public information in Armenia

Access to public information and freedom of information refer to the right to access information held by public bodies known as "right to know". Access to public information is considered of fundamental importance for the effective functioning of democratic systems, as it enhances governments' and public officials' accountability, boosting people participation and allowing their informed participation into public life; the fundamental premise of the right to access public information is that the information held by governmental institutions is in principle public and may be concealed only on the basis of legitimate reasons which should be detailed in the law. Access to public information builds on the principle that in a democratic system people should be in the condition of accessing a wide range of information in order to participate in public life as well as on matters affecting them. In Armenia the right of access to information is guaranteed and defined by the Articles 27 and 27.1 of the Constitution.

Armenia has a specific law on freedom of information providing the basic foundations for the realization of this right. According to the Constitution and the Law, in Armenia everybody, in spite of the fact he/she is a citizen of the country or not, has a right to have access to information; the Law on Freedom of Information was adopted in September 2003 and was considered a progressive document appreciated by international experts. Since the adoption of the law, civil society and the journalists community, have advocated for the need to pass the regulations that would have supported and improved the implementation of the law; such regulations were adopted in October 2015, when the Armenian government approved a procedure for improving the effectiveness of the procedure to access public information by streamlining the classification and provision of information from the government to the public. Prior to the adoption of these regulations, in several cases public officials used to cite the lack of these implementation rules when refusing requests for information.

According to the law, people can obtain information from: central government bodies, self-governing bodies, state institutions, organizations financed from central or local government finances, organizations with public functions, i.e. organisations providing public services Each body has a person, responsible for freedom of information and is in charge of dealing with information requests. To submit a request to access information, applicants have to apply to the information holder with a written or oral inquiry to be addressed to specific departments in the appropriate body or organization. Civil society organizations advocating for access to information suggest to apply with a written inquiry so that a compliant can be done in case of rejection. To be taken into consideration, both written and oral inquiries have to meet the requirements stated by the law; the inquirer is not obliged to justify the enquiry and to state the reason for it or how the information sought is going to be used.

If the body/organizations does not possess all the details concerning the information required, the information holder has to provide the available parts and mention the name and the location of other possible information holders who might be in possess of other details concerning the information sought. Information are provided free of charge. Only technical expenses of information provision can be charged. Freedom of information can be restricted only on grounds well defined by the law. Information holder may refuse to provide information if it contains state, bank or trade secret. In case of rejection, the information holder has to inform the applicant within 5 days in a written form and explain the reasons for the refusal as well as the relevant appealing procedures. Denials can be appealed to the court by administrative procedure. Citizens can apply directly to the concerned bodies without appealing by an administrative procedure, it is possible to apply to non-governmental organizations which provide legal advisory.

In practice, despite the good legal framework and media professionals face some problems in accessing documents, such as incomplete disclosure of the information required, extensions of the time frame for obtaining information prescribed by the law, the refusal of some government bodies and officials to implement the law, so forth. According to the NGO Freedom of Information Center of Armenia and the Transparency International Anticorruption Center, the main challenge is the behaviour of some public officials and public bodies that continue to provide answers that are either irrelevant or incomplete; this has resulted in major difficulties for NGOs being less and less successful in bringing freedom of information cases before the courts than in previous years, as judges rejected their cases on the grounds that public offices had provided the answers, regardless of their content. In Armenia, NGOs have played a significant role in educating the public on how to exercise their "right to know" and have organised trainings for public officials.

By 2012, the NGO Freedom of Information Center Armenia has distributed around 2050 bulletin boards in several urban and rural communities in order to inform the public on the right to access public information and how to realize it. Freedom of information laws by country Transparency of media ownershi

Linden Jones

For the Welsh cricketer see Lyndon Jones. Linden Jones is a Welsh former professional footballer. Jones was born in Monmouthshire, he began his career at Cardiff City joining them as an apprentice at the age of sixteen. He made his début on 24 February 1979 in a 1–0 victory over Leyton Orient at the age of seventeen. Four days on 28 February he became the youngest player to be sent off playing for Cardiff when he was red carded during a 4–1 win over Blackburn Rovers, he became an important player for the club over the next few years during the 1982–83 season when he helped them to promotion. In September 1983, Jones left the club as part of a remarkable exchange deal between Cardiff and Newport County. Nigel Vaughan and Karl Elsey joined the Bluebirds and Jones, along with John Lewis and Tarki Micallef, moved to Somerton Park in return, he was a regular for Newport until the club began suffering financial difficulties and he was allowed to join Reading. He left the club in 1992 and moved into non-league football before retiring in 1996, at the age of 36, due to a severe knee injury.

In March 2002 he joined Swansea City as their football in the community manager. He holds a UEFA A coaching licence and, along with FAW disability officer Jamie Clewer, helped form the Swansea VIPs a team for blind or sighted players. Jones played several times for the Wales U21 squad but never went on to gain a cap at senior level, despite being called up to the squad on occasions

PanAm Post

' The PanAm Post is a libertarian website that specializes in international subjects as well as topics in the Americas from a free market perspective. The website focuses on multilingual and international content in order to follow "the tradition of PanAmericanism", it was founded in 2013 and its headquarters is in Miami, Florida. Following the founding of the PanAm Post in 2013, former editor-in-chief Fergus Hodgson explained how the PanAm Post was devoted to keeping up with social change and would be the "front line of new media". Hodgson said that the "bloated and inefficient organizational structures" of legacy media, along with governmental bureaucracies, were disconnected from the changing times, its current editors-in-Chief are the Venezuelan Journalist, Orlando Avendaño, Colombian economist, Vanessa Vallejo. The majority of visitors to the PanAm Post are from the United States, followed by Venezuela, Guatemala and Colombia, in that order. Most visitors visit the website at home. According to Richard Scheines, dean of the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences of Carnegie Mellon University, PanAm Post is "an rich online site that covers news and offers excellent analyses of all regions in the Americas".

In 2019 The PanAm Post was ranked in a Forbes article as one of the most prominent free-market magazines in the world measured by social media impact. PanAm Post on Facebook PanAm Post on Twitter

Alma Kitchell

Alma Kitchell was an American concert singer who became a pioneer performer in both radio and television. Born Alma Hopkins in Superior, Kitchell planned on a career as a pianist, but instructors at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music persuaded her to pursue singing instead. Kitchell debuted at New York City's Town Hall in 1924, singing a mixture of classical airs and folk songs. An article about her in the June 1948 issue of Radio and Television Mirror reported that Kitchell "became a leading concert singer, appeared as a soloist with important orchestras and choral organizations from coast to coast, she gave recitals at both Carnegie And Town Halls and was praised by the New York Critics." Her obituary in The New York Times reported, "In 1937, she turned down an opportunity to join the Metropolitan Opera in order to stay in broadcasting." Kitchell's obituary in Variety noted that her "voice was transmitted by the Amateur Radio Corps of America from an experimental station off the New York Harbor in 1917 — before most Americans knew what radio was."

She began performing as a singer on radio in 1927, starting a span of two decades that brought her the appellation "Golden Voice of Radio". An item in the March 1930 issue of Radio Revue said, "This charming NBC contralto delights those who tune in on the Sunday Symphonette with her rich renditions of only the best music."Kitchell joined the staff of WJZ in New York City as a singer and over time became the hostess of programs aimed at women, a transition made possible by "her curiosity, warm enthusiasm for new things, friendly personality". Her success in that genre led to speaking engagements for clubs at colleges, women's groups, other organizations. In 1938, she created her own program, Brief Case, answering questions about radio that listeners had submitted and explaining behind-the-scenes activity. In 1938, she interviewed prominent women on Let's Talk It Over, "one of the original radio talkshows". At that time, she had made more than 3,000 broadcasts on NBC. Kitchell began Pin Money Party on NBC-Red on September 30, 1940.

The program advised women about "how to earn money on talents developed in the home". On June 21, 1943, WJZ launched Woman's Exchange, "a clearing house for the interchange of ideas among the housewives of the vast WJZ coverage area... to help them in their wartime food and household problems." Kitchell was the hostess. In the early 1940s, she was host of Meet Your Neighbor on NBC-Blue. Beginning in 1944, Kitchell had a syndicated program and Get It, described as the "first recorded audience participation show". Seventy-eight 15-minute episodes were distributed by NBC Radio-Recording Division; the program was broadcast in Canada, with distribution by All-Canada Radio Facilities, Limited. On June 20, 1939, Kitchell performed in the role of Ruth in an NBC production of The Pirates of Penzance, the first operetta presented on television. Kitchell left radio to become hostess of In the Kelvinator Kitchen, an NBC program, described as "typical of a'homemaker' genre on TV in which a housekeeping skill was demonstrated using the sponsor's products."

Mary Ellen Snodgrass, in her book, Encyclopedia of Kitchen History, cited the program as "the first commercial network series and first televised cooking show on the air."In 1948, Kitchell told an interviewer from Radio and Television Mirror magazine that she valued "The personalized relationship between the performer and the viewer," adding, "You are not just heard in people's homes — you are there." Beginning in 1945, Kitchell served as president of the Association of Women Directors of the National Association of Broadcasters. Kitchell was married to Charles Kitchell, they had two sons, he died in 1956, she married Joseph Yoder in 1965. On November 13, 1996, Kitchell died at her home in Florida, she was survived by two sons, four grandchildren, four great-grandchildren