The Ardhanarishvara is a composite androgynous form of the Hindu deities Shiva and Parvati. Ardhanarishvara is depicted as half-male and half-female split down the middle; the right half is the male Shiva, illustrating his traditional attributes. The earliest Ardhanarishvara images are dated to the Kushan period, starting from the first century CE, its iconography was perfected in the Gupta era. The Puranas and various iconographic treatises write about the mythology and iconography of Ardhanarishvara. Ardhanarishvara remains a popular iconographic form found in most Shiva temples throughout India, though few temples are dedicated to this deity. Ardhanarishvara represents the synthesis of masculine and feminine energies of the universe and illustrates how Shakti, the female principle of God, is inseparable from Shiva, the male principle of God; the union of these principles is exalted as the womb of all creation. Another view is; the name Ardhanarishvara means "the Lord Who is half woman." Ardhanarishvara is known by other names like Ardhanaranari, Ardhanarinateshvara, Naranari and Ardhayuvatishvara.
The Gupta-era writer Pushpadanta in his Mahimnastava refers to this form as dehardhaghatana. Utpala, commenting on the Brihat Samhita, calls this form Ardha-Gaurishvara; the Vishnudharmottara Purana calls this form Gaurishvara. The conception of Ardhanarishvara may have been inspired by Vedic literature's composite figure of Yama-Yami, the Vedic descriptions of the primordial Creator Vishvarupa or Prajapati and the fire-god Agni as "bull, a cow," the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad's Atman in the form of the androgynous cosmic man Purusha and the androgynous myths of the Greek Hermaphroditus and Phrygian Agdistis; the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says that Purusha splits himself into two parts and female, the two halves copulate, producing all life – a theme concurrent in Ardhanarishvara's tales. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad sows the seed of the Puranic Ardhanarishvara, it declares Rudra – the antecedent of the Puranic Shiva – the maker of all and the root of Purusha and Prakriti, adhering to Samkhya philosophy.
It hints at his androgynous nature, describing him both as female. The concept of Ardhanarishvara originated in Greek cultures simultaneously. A mid-first century Kushan era stela in the Mathura Museum has a half-male, half-female image, along with three other figures identified with Vishnu, Gaja Lakshmi and Kubera; the male half with an urdhvalinga and makes an abhaya mudra gesture. This is the earliest representation of Ardhanarishvara, universally recognized. An early Kushan Ardhanarishvara head discovered at Rajghat is displayed at the Mathura Museum; the right male half has matted hair with a crescent moon. The face has a common third eye. A terracotta seal discovered in Vaishali has half-woman features. Early Kushan images show Ardhanarishvara in a simple two-armed form, but texts and sculptures depict a more complex iconography. Ardhanarishvara is referred to by the Greek author Stobaeus while quoting Bardasanes, who learnt from an Indian embassy's visit to Syria during the reign of Elagabalus.
A terracotta androgynous bust, excavated at Taxila and dated to the Saka-Parthian era, pictures a bearded man with female breasts. Ardhanarishvara is interpreted as an attempt to syncretise the two principal Hindu sects and Shaktism, dedicated to Shiva and the Great Goddess. A similar syncretic image is Harihara, a composite form of Shiva and Vishnu, the Supreme deity of the Vaishnava sect; the iconographic 16th century work Shilparatna, the Matsya Purana and Agamic texts like Amshumadbhedagama, Kamikagama and Karanagama – most of them of South Indian origin – describe the iconography of Ardhanarishvara. The right superior side of the body is the male Shiva and the left is the female Parvati; the icon is prescribed to have four, three or two arms, but is depicted with eight arms. In the case of three arms, the Parvati side has only one arm; the male half wears a jata-mukuta on his head, adorned with a crescent moon. Sometimes the jata-mukuta is adorned with serpents and the river goddess Ganga flowing through the hair.
The right ear wears sarpa-kundala or ordinary kundala. Sometimes, the male eye is depicted smaller than the female one and a half-moustache is seen. A half third eye is prescribed on the male side of the forehead in the canons.
Difenoxin is an opioid drug used in combination with atropine, to treat diarrhea. It is the principal metabolite of diphenoxylate. Difenoxin induces some euphoria. At high doses there are strong CNS effects and the atropine at such high doses causes typical anticholinergic side effects, such as anxiety and delirium. Excessive use or overdose causes constipation and can promote development of megacolon as well as classic symptoms of overdose including lethal respiratory depression. In the 1990s its use in children was restricted in many countries due to the CNS side effects, which included anorexia and vomiting, drowsiness, insomnia, restlessness and depression. Difenoxin has a high peripheral/central actions ratio, working on various opioid receptors in the intestines. Although it is capable of producing significant central effects at high doses, doses within the normal therapeutic range do not notably impair cognition or proprioception, resulting in therapeutic activity equatable to that of loperamide.
Increased dosages result in more prominent central opioid effects. It therefor offers limited advantages over more potent anti-diarrheal opioid options when treating intractable cases of diarrhea which fail to respond to normal or moderately increased difenoxin doses, may in fact be harmful in such circumstances if the formulation used contains atropine or hyoscyamine. Difenoxin is a Schedule I drug by itself in the US. Pure difenoxin, in Schedule I, has a quota of 50 grammes, an ACSCN of 9168; the combination of difenoxin and atropine, in Schedule IV, has the DEA ACSCN of 9167 and being in Schedule IV is not assigned an aggregate annual manufacturing quota. The abuse-deterring effects of atropine when used as an adulterant are reasonably effective in reducing the combination's potential for recreational use, it combines the mechanisms of naloxone and paracetamol by increasing the likelihood of the overdose resulting in harmful and/or fatal sequelae, in addition to reliably producing unpleasant side-effects which "spoil" the opioid euphoria and discourage abusers from overdosing again following their initial experience.
This does not deter the use of single doses of difenoxin to potentiate another opiate, the anticholingeric activity of a single tablet is likely to increase the pleasurable effects of opioid use in a manner similar to combining one or more opioids with orphenadrine. It was first approved in the US in 1978 and in 1980 in the former West Germany
This is a list of dams and reservoirs in the U. S. state of Washington, pertinent data. According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, there are 1166 dams in the state. King County has 124 dams twice as much as any other; the largest dam in Washington, in terms of structural volume, reservoir capacity and electricity production, is the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River. The tallest dam is Mossyrock Dam on the Cowlitz River, at 606 feet; the longest dam is O'Sullivan Dam on Crab Creek, at 19,000 feet. Condit Dam, on the White Salmon River in Klickitat County Elwha Dam and Glines Canyon Dam, on the Elwha River in Clallam County List of dams in the Columbia River watershed List of hydroelectric power stations in Washington
ICOFOM, the International Committee for Museology of the International Council of Museums was founded in 1977 at the initiative of Jan Jelínek, in order to promote research and theoretical thinking within the museum world. This committee became one of the most popular in International Council of Museums, it addresses the study of the theoretical foundation that guides museum activities around the world or, more the analysis of the different forms that museums can have. The committee includes several hundred museologists from all over the world, organizes yearly symposia and publishes, among other monographs, the annual journal ICOFOM Study Series, available online; the work of the International Council of Museums, begun in 1946, was based on much older programmes professional symposia, journals of national associations, of course the work of the International Office of Museums, founded in 1926 by the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation, located in Paris. A large part of the research which grew out of these associations, as with international committees, focused on objectives relating to concrete professional concerns.
In 1968 ICOM launched an international committee for the training of museum professionals at a time when museum training courses were gaining popularity, in particular in Brno, Leicester, UK and Paris. On the other hand, the development of specific theories linked to the museum phenomenon – long referred to as "museography", which became "museology" after WWII – was not a research interest for most museum professionals; this field was interesting for some researchers and university professors, in particular in Eastern European countries, first of all Jan Jelínek, director of the Antropos Museum in Brno and president of ICOM. The International Committee for Museology was founded in 1977 at the General Conference of ICOM in Moscow, its first president was Jan Jelínek. Since that date we can say that three generations of museologists have continued to pursue the work of ICOFOM. Museology was developed in Eastern Europe at the time of the cold war. From the start ICOFOM would be a unique international platform that included researchers from both sides of the Iron Curtain, who were trying to set up museology as an autonomous discipline: without this independent status museology could not be taught in universities in Eastern countries, making this task a challenge of singular importance in the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The iconic personalities of museology, such as Georges Henri Rivière, André Desvallées in France, worked at the same time as influential museologists in the Eastern bloc, among whom are Avram Razgon, Klaus Schreiner, Jiří Neustupný, Josef Beneš, Wojciech Gluzinski, Zbyněk Stránský. The stated aim of ICOFOM, under the dynamic leadership of Vinoš Sofka, was to make an inventory of the different trends in museology throughout the world, to develop this discipline in order to endow it with the status of science within the academic structure. At the beginning this theoretical approach disconcerted many museum researchers who were much more pragmatic, for example George Ellis Burcaw, author of an influential manual on museum work in the United States. Additionally, the climate of the cold war, still going on, did not help in creating closer links between the two sides. On the other hand, many researchers from Latin countries, in particular Waldisia Russio, are attracted to this approach. Much enlarged new definitions of museology emerged, whose object of study reaches beyond the museum itself.
The museum institution per se, the concept of museum as opposed to the specific museum, such as the Prado,is recent, what interests museologists is a specific attitude which led to the creation of museums, as well as cabinets of curiosity, or in the future new forms linked to digital technologies: As defined by the Czech museologist Anna Gregorová in 1980 "Museology is a science studying the specific relation of man to reality, consisting in purposeful and systematic collecting and conservation of selected inanimate material and three-dimensional objects documenting the development of nature and society" and "the museum is an institution which applies and carries out the specific relation of man to reality". From this point of view, which allowed for better describing the particular activity of selecting and describing an object in a museum – a phenomenon not too far from a sacred act – more specific concepts were developed, such as musealisation, a term used more in French and Spanish than in English, museality.
Zbyněk Stránský, the Czech museologist, was of major importance in this development, through his involvement in ICOFOM and through the International Summer School of Museology, which he founded in Brno in 1987. Following this first generation of ICOFOM researchers, under the eight year presidency of Vinoš Sofka, came a second, more diverse group of researchers. A leading member of this generation was Peter van Mensch, author of a 1992 doctoral thesis on museology as a scientific discipline: Towards a Methodology of Museology, who followed Sofka as President of ICOFOM. Other outstanding museologists in this generation were Ivo Maroévić, Bernard Deloche and Mathilde Bellaigue, Martin Schaerer, as well as Teresa Scheiner (Brazi
Immanuel Casto is an Italian singer-songwriter. Born in Villa di Serio, near Bergamo, Manuel Cuni moved to Bologna in 2002, to work as an art director. Between 2003 and 2004, with the stage name Immanuel, Cuni produced and released the EPs On the Road and Vento di erezioni; the songs showed an ironic take in a dance/electronic style. According to Casto, his work belongs in the porn groove music genre. In 2005, the song Io la do got to be broadcast nationally on Radio Deejay; the 2008 music video for Anal Beat was Casto's big break. He got to be featured on El País. In the same year Casto signed with Jle Management. In June Casto performed at the National Gay Pride and published his first greatest hits The Hits. In 2009 Casto went on his first national tour and released the single Touché, his first song available on digital stores and produced by his future main collaborator, Keen. In 2010 he began his collaboration with singer-songwriter Romina Falconi, releasing Crash, one of Casto's most successful singles included in Adult Music.
On September 13, 2013 Immanuel Casto published his seventh studio album Freak & Chic, which included the singles Tropicanal and Sexual Navigator. Romina Falconi is featured on the third single, Sognando Cracovia, which became the title for Casto and Falconi's joint tour in 2014-2015. In turn, Casto appeared on the song Eyeliner, included in Falconi's album Certi sogni si fanno attraverso un filo d'odio. In 2015 Casto released Deepthroat Revolution and announced his new studio work, The Pink Album, published on September 25. With Rosico Casto begins his collaboration with Tying Tiffany, while Rosso oro e nero is a cover of Einsturzende Neubaten's Sabrina, performed with Italian post punk band Soviet Soviet, Horror Vacui features once again Romina Falconi; the video for Alphabet Of Love, featuring adult performer Franco Trentalance, has been released in September 2016 on Pornhub. According to a statement released by Casto's production company, it is the first time a European artist gets to release their video on the site.
In 2012 Casto released Squillo, a collectible card game about prostitution, sex trafficking and various criminal activities. On October 9, 2012, senator Emanuela Baio Dossi, urged for the game to be removed from stores due to its controversial and offensive content; the song Da grande sarai fr**io, from The Pink Album, sparked some controversy upon its release, in spite of carrying an "it gets better" message aimed at LGBT youth. However, due to Casto's trademark explicit and politically incorrect style and his use of slurs, it was deemed offensive by part of his LGBT audience, prompting Casto, himself an out gay man and LGBT activist, to make a video addressing his fans and explaining the meaning of the song. 2011 – "Adult Music" 2013 – "Freak & Chic" 2015 – "The Pink Album" 2011 – "Porn Groove 2004/2009" 2018 – "L'età del consenso" 2009 – "Touché" 2010 – "Escort 25" 2010 – "Crash" 2011 – "Revival" 2011 – "Killer Star" 2012 – "Zero carboidrati" 2012 – "Porn to Be Alive" 2012 – "A Pecorina nel Presepe" 2013 – "Tropicanal" 2014 – "Sexual Navigator" 2014 – "Sognando Cracovia" 2015 – "Deepthroat Revolution" 2015 – "Da grande sarai fr**io" 2015 – "DiscoDildo" 2016 – "Alphabet of Love" 2018 - "Piromane" Sito ufficiale Immanuel Casto discography at Discogs
Farris is a brand of mineral water produced in Larvik. It is Norway's oldest and by a distance best-selling bottled water, it has been mentioned in literature as having positive health effects. The product originated as a spin-off from the Spas in Vestfold when Mineral cures became popular in Norway in the second half of the 19th century. In 1875 Dr. J. C. Holm, a doctor and health resort pioneer, discovered a spring rich with minerals close to the river Farriselva; this led to the establishing of Larvik Bad in 1880, a spa resort where one of the treatments offered was drinking mineralized water. Larvik Bad became popular and had a capacity of 300 guests: Among the guests were Norwegian author and Nobel laureate Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson. In cooperation with Larvik Bad the local brewery Vestfold bryggeri started bottling mineral water under the brandname of "Salus". Bottling commenced on August 1907, making it the oldest brand of mineral water in Norway. In 1912 a new factory was initiated, by the architects Christian Arne Eide.
It was expanded in the same year that the production was moved to the new site. The building was expanded again in 1980, is still the bottling facility for Farris. In 1915 the brand name was altered to "Farris". According to Thomson Financial, "Farris has come to symbolise ‘Norwegian sparkling mineral water’, appears to have a virtual stranglehold on this sector with other local brands too small to warrant any promotional activities to try to break this stranglehold." It holds a market percentage of 71% in Norway. Although a common misconception has it that the water comes from lake Farris, the spring and Farris bottling company are located at the bottom of Bøkeskogen. Bøkeskogen is a forested hilltop which separates between the Skagerrak. Farris mineral water originates from rainwater falling on this hill; the water filters through deposited glacial moraine material and reaches the spring some 15–20 years strongly mineralized. In 1988 a new spring, 21 meters deep, was discovered, this new spring is the present source of the mineral water.
Since the first spring was discovered in 1875, it has been indicated to treat gout, among others. J. C. Holm recommended it as a cure for such various diseases as kidney stone and catarrh; the poet Robert Herring claimed that Farris rids the body's arteries of uric acid. Farris have been connected to the Norwegian royal family in several ways; the original spring was, by permission from the royal court, named after king Haakon VII as Kong Haakons kilde and a twin spring from the same source named after queen Maud. The new source discovered in 1988 is named Kong Olav Vs kilde after Olav V of Norway. Farris was one of few brands that held a Royal Warrant while such still existed in Norway. There is still an agreement between Farris and the Royal Court that Farris should be delivered to the king wherever he may be. During the German occupation of Norway in World War II Farris was prohibited from using the name Kong Haakons kilde in marketing as these was seen as propaganda for the exiled king. Ringnes breweries own the rights to the Farris trademark.
The products under the Farris brand are sparkling mineral water which comes with various flavours. The annual production volume is ca 40 million liters; the new blue glass bottle, launched in 2001 won the Norwegian Design Councils "Honours Award for Design Excellence"