Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy and the capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about 80 kilometres southeast of Florence at an elevation of 296 metres above sea level, it is 30 km west of Città di Castello. In 2013 the population was about 99,000. Described by Livy as one of the Capitae Etruriae, Arezzo is believed to have been one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities—the so-called Dodecapolis, part of the Etruscan League. Etruscan remains establish that the acropolis of San Cornelio, a small hill next to that of San Donatus, was occupied and fortified in the Etruscan period. There is other significant Etruscan evidence: parts of walls, an Etruscan necropolis on Poggio del Sole, most famously, the two bronzes, the "Chimera of Arezzo" and the "Minerva" which were discovered in the 16th century and taken to Florence. Increasing trade connections with Greece brought some elite goods to the Etruscan nobles of Arezzo: the krater painted by Euphronios c. 510 BC depicting a battle against Amazons is unsurpassed.
Conquered by the Romans in 311 BC, Arretium became a military station on the via Cassia, the road by which Rome expanded into the basin of the Po. Arretium sided with Marius in the Roman Civil War, the victorious Sulla planted a colony of his veterans in the half-demolished city, as Arretium Fidens; the old Etruscan aristocracy was not extinguished: Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, whose name has become eponymous with "patron of the arts", came of the noble Aretine Etruscan stock. The city continued to flourish as Arretium Vetus, the third-largest city in Italy in the Augustan period, well known in particular for its exported pottery manufactures, the characteristic moulded and glazed Arretine ware, bucchero-ware of dark clay and red-painted vases. Around 261 AD the town council of Arezzo dedicated an inscription to its patron L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus. See that article for discussion of the possible political/military significance of Volusianus's association with the city. In the 3rd to 4th century Arezzo became an episcopal seat: it is one of the few cities whose succession of bishops are known by name without interruption to the present day, in part because the bishops operated as the feudal lords of the city in the Middle Ages.
The Roman city was demolished in the course of the Gothic War and of the late-6th-century invasion of the Lombards dismantled, as elsewhere throughout Europe. The Aretines re-used the stones for fortifications. Only the amphitheater remained; the commune of Arezzo threw off the control of its bishop in 1098 and functioned as an independent city-state until 1384. Ghibelline in tendency, it opposed Guelph Florence. In 1252 the city founded the Studium. After the rout of the Battle of Campaldino, which saw the death of Bishop Guglielmino Ubertini, the fortunes of Ghibelline Arezzo started to ebb, apart from a brief period under the Tarlati family, chief among them Guido Tarlati, who became bishop in 1312 and maintained good relations with the Ghibelline party; the Tarlati sought support in an alliance with Forlì and its overlords, the Ordelaffi, but failed: Arezzo yielded to Florentine domination in 1384. During this period Piero della Francesca worked in the church of San Francesco di Arezzo producing the splendid frescoes restored, which are Arezzo's most famous works.
Afterwards the city began an economical and cultural decay, which ensured the preservation of its medieval centre. In the 18th century the neighbouring marshes of the Val di Chiana, south of Arezzo, were drained and the region became less malarial. At the end of the-century French troops led by Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Arezzo, but the city soon turned into a resistance base against the invaders with the "Viva Maria" movement, winning the city the role of provincial capital. In 1860 Arezzo became part of the Kingdom of Italy. City buildings suffered heavy damage during World War II; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Arezzo War Cemetery, where 1,266 men are buried, is located to the north-west of the city. Pope Benedict XVI visited Arezzo and two other Italian municipalities on May 13, 2012. Arezzo is set on a steep hill rising from the floodplain of the River Arno. In the upper part of the town are the cathedral, the town hall and the Medici Fortress, from which the main streets branch off towards the lower part as far as the gates.
The upper part of the town maintains its medieval appearance despite the addition of structures. Arezzo's city proper is near the high risk areas for earthquakes, but located in a transitional area where the risk for severe earthquakes is much lower than in nearby Umbria and Abruzzo, albeit it is more vulnerable than Florence. Notable earthquakes are still a rare phenomenon in the province, with a 4.6 quake 25 kilometres to its north-east that claimed no lives on 26 November 2001 the exception. Under the Köppen climate classification Arezzo is either a humid subtropical climate or an oceanic climate, having traditionally leaned towards the latter, it has uncharacteristically hot summer days for a maritime climate, with
The Milos executions refer to the mass execution by firing squad of 14 male civilians from the island of Milos in Greece by German forces on 23 February 1943 during World War II. The victims were accused of looting material owned by the German military, washed up after the sinking of the German cargo ship SS Artemis Pitta by Allied aircraft. Milos lies midway between Piraeus and Crete. Due to its large, natural harbor it has been important for maritime shipping. During the tripartite Axis occupation of Greece, Milos was part of the German zone; the Germans had built several air raid shelters. SS Artemis Pitta was a 240 ft, 1,433-gross register ton cargo steamer built in 1906 by Stettiner Oderwerke at Stettin, German Pomerania. At the outbreak of the war, she was owned by G. N. Pittas Bros. During the Battle of Greece, on 6 April 1941, Artemis Pitta was sunk by the Luftwaffe in Piraeus. After being raised and repaired, she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine and manned by a civilian Greek crew. On 21 February 1943, the SS Artemis Pitta was moored at the port of Adamantas.
She was bound for Crete, laden with fuel and other military supplies. The vessel was sighted by three RAF Beaufighters which torpedoed and blew her up, killing 15 of her crew. Pushed by the north wind and cargo from the wreck washed up on Achivadolimni beach across Adamantas. Noticing that items from the wreck, were being washed up, many locals headed to the beach to search for anything that might be useful. Objects from vessels sunk in the Aegean were washed up ashore and it was a common practice among the locals to collect them without any German opposition; this time, the oil barrels from the cargo were valuable to the Germans who did not tolerate their appropriation. A German patrol arrested everyone on the spot. Of the total 25 arrested, 14 were accused of looting German army property. On 23 February they were shot by a firing squad; the execution order was signed by Hans Kawelmacher, the naval commander of Milos who in 1941 had been involved in the mass execution of Jews and other prisoners in the Latvian city of Liepāja.
A memorial service in the memory of victims is held annually. A commemorative plaque with the names of those who perished was installed in 1992. Military history of Greece during World War II Α/Π ΑΡΤΕΜΙΣ ΠΙΤΤΑ - Το πλοίο και η ιστορία του
Missile X – Geheimauftrag Neutronenbombe is a 1978 German/Italian/Spanish international co-production Eurospy adventure film directed by Leslie H. Martinson, it stars Curd Jürgens. The translated title is Missile X: The Neutron Bomb Incident, it is known in the USA as Teheran Incident. It was released on home video in the early 1980s as Cruise Missile. Most of the movie was filmed on location in and around Tehran, Iran in 1978 before the Iranian Revolution overthrew Iran's Shah; the story concerns an experimental nuclear cruise missile, stolen from a Soviet military site in the USSR. An international terrorist group, under the command of a European power-crazed man known only as the Baron is responsible; the Baron plots to use the stolen Soviet missile to destroy an international peace conference in one week located on an island in the Persian Gulf. When the U. S. consul to Iran is murdered by the Baron's henchmen, Alec Franklin, a US intelligence agent, is ordered to travel to Iran to take over as consul as well as investigate the murder.
Upon arrival in Tehran, Alec is followed by two of the Baron's henchmen who attempt to kill him, but Alec manages to escape. Alec travels from Tehran to Abadan where he meets Kronstein, a Soviet KGB intelligence agent, in Iran searching for leads to locate the missing cruise missile, which leads to Alec and Konstantine joining forces along with Galina, another Soviet agent, Leila, an undercover Iranian policewoman, to investigate the Baron in order to find the location to where the cruise missile is being kept before it is used to start World War III. On June 2, 2017, Rifftrax released an edited 84 minute version of the film with comedy commentary by Michael J. Nelson, Kevin Murphy, Bill Corbett as a VOD. Missile X - Geheimauftrag Neutronenbombe on IMDb