Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the second largest in South America after Brazil, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times.
The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century. Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776; the declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; the almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency.
She was overthrown in 1976 by a U. S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America.
The description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536. In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of
Clare Victoria Joanne Griffiths, FRHistS, is a historian and academic. Since 2016, she has held the Chair in Modern History at Cardiff University. Clare Victoria Joanne Griffiths read modern history at Merton College, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree, she carried on there to complete her doctoral studies under Ross McKibbin's supervision. Alongside lecturing at the University of Reading, Griffiths spent four years at Wadham College, Oxford, as Pat Thompson Junior Research Fellow. In 1999, she joined the University of Sheffield as a lecturer, secured promotion to a senior lectureship. In 2016, she moved to Cardiff University to take up a chair in modern history. Griffiths's research encompasses aspects of modern British cultural history, she is interested in British left-wing politics in the interwar period, as well as British rural society and political culture between the World Wars, agriculture in interwar Britain, land use and land policy, interwar Englishness and art. As of 2018, Griffiths is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.
Labour and the Countryside: The Politics of Rural Britain, 1918–1939. Classes and Politics: Essays on British History for Ross McKibbin
Steven Lippman is a former competitive surfer and skateboarder turned commercial photographer and director, called "one of the most explosive and diverse photographers around today." Specializing in lifestyle and beach/rock & roll culture, he has shot advertising campaigns for clients such as Harley-Davidson, Patrón, Paul Mitchell, Coors Light, James Perse, Billabong. Since first exploring filmmaking in 1995, Lippman has directed many commercials and groundbreaking viral videos. In 2011, he directed a nearly-seven-minute-long viral video for JVC Mobile Entertainment’s “TURN ME ON 4: Decades” that featured Lita Ford, Puddle of Mudd and Rev Theory, broadcast on the JVC billboard in Times Square and online. In addition to commercial lifestyle photography, Lippman photographs celebrities. Over the years, he has made portraits of Ryan Reynolds, Jeremy Piven, Pierce Brosnan, Jared Leto, Taylor Kitsch, Jordana Brewster, among many others, photographed musical acts such as the All American Rejects, Ben Harper, Incubus.
An avid environmentalist, Lippman is the director of the Blue Project, which works to protect the Earth’s oceans by teaming with other marine-oriented charitable organizations. In 2010, Ron Herman’s men’s store in Malibu, hosted an exhibition of Lippman’s work, titled “Waves,” to raise money for Save the Waves; the event featured eight signature images that Lippman crafted using photos from his archives along with treatments consisting of metal, wood and melted Polaroids. He collaborated with Herman on a limited-edition clothing line, sold at the event benefiting Save the Waves. Lippman, who in 2010 was honored by SurfAid International, a nonprofit humanitarian organization whose aim is to improve the health, well-being, self-reliance of people living in isolated communities he volunteers his time to Surfers Healing, which provides autistic children with the opportunity to experience the thrill of surfing. Lippman lives with two children in Malibu, he is represented by Stockland Martel. JVC Mobile Entertainment Announces “TURN ME ON 4: Decades” Campaign official press release May 17, 2011 Photog Steven Lippman's "New Archives" Exhibition Opens May 10th Surfline.com April 17, 2008 Bio at Maneater Productions August 2010 “Lippman Participates in Surfers Healing,” Sharpe Online June 23, 2010 SurfAid International Honors Steven Lippman and the Malibu Blue Project, YouTube October 20, 2010 “Autism & the Stoke of Surfing,” Steven Lippman’s blog April 5, 2010 Official Site portfolio at Stockland Martel photo agency The Blue Project Steven Lippman on Vimeo