The Southern Cone is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the south by the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the continental area closest to Antarctica. In terms of social and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile and the Southern and Southeastern of Brazil. In its broadest definition, the Southern Cone includes southern Bolivia and Paraguay. High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America; the climates are temperate, but include humid subtropical, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold and semi-arid temperate regions.
Except for northern regions of Argentina, the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is; the Atacama is the driest place on Earth. One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil and Argentina; the only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law; the prairies region of central Argentina and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas. Central Chile has grading southward into oceanic climate; the Atacama and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border.
In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice. Argentina, Chile and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions; the asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more from the gauchos of Argentina and Southern Brazil and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity.
Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone. In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, with their descendants, have influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries. In a social survey, residents rated their countries as'good places for gay or lesbian people to live. By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia and Peru; the overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects: Castellano Rioplatense, spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is influenced by 19th-20th century Italian immigrants, has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world, it is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Castellano Argentino/Argentinean Spanish" due to the majority of the speakers being Argentinians.
Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region, differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish. Buenos Aires and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid-19th until mid-20th centuries. Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a recent phenomenon, developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration. Castellano Chileno These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words. Other minor languages and dialects include Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese, spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil; some Native American groups in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun, Quechua and Guarani. The first is
Valparaíso is a major city and educational centre in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile. "Greater Valparaíso" is the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Valparaíso is located about 120 kilometres northwest of Santiago by road and is one of the South Pacific's most important seaports. Valparaíso is the capital of Chile's second most populated administrative region and has been the headquarters for the Chilean National Congress since 1990. Valparaíso has seven universities. Valparaíso played an important geopolitical role in the second half of the 19th century, when the city served as a major stopover for ships traveling between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by crossing the Straits of Magellan. Valparaíso mushroomed during its golden age, as a magnet for European immigrants, when the city was known by international sailors as "Little San Francisco" and "The Jewel of the Pacific". In 2003, the historic quarter of Valparaíso was declared a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization World Heritage site.
Notable features include Latin America's oldest stock exchange, the continent's first volunteer fire department, Chile's first public library, the oldest Spanish language newspaper in continuous publication in the world, El Mercurio de Valparaíso. The second half of the twentieth century was unfavorable to Valparaíso, as many wealthy families abandoned the city; the opening of the Panama Canal and reduction in ship traffic dealt a serious blow to Valparaíso's port-based economy. Over the first 15 years of the twenty-first century the city reached a recovery, attracting artists and cultural entrepreneurs who have set up in the city's hillside historic districts. Today, many thousands of tourists visit Valparaíso from around the world to enjoy the city's labyrinth of cobbled alleys and colorful buildings; the port of Valparaíso continues to be a major distribution center for container traffic and fruit exports. Valparaíso receives growing attention from cruise ships that visit during the South American summer.
Most Valparaíso has transformed itself into a major educational center with four large traditional universities and several large vocational colleges. The city exemplifies Chilean culture, with festivals every year, street artists and musicians; the Bay of Valparaíso was first populated by the Picunche natives, known for their agriculture, or the Chango people, who were nomads dedicated to fishing, traveling between modern-day Caldera and Concepcion. Spanish explorers, considered the first European discoverers of Chile, arrived in 1536, aboard the Santiaguillo, a supply ship sent by Diego de Almagro; the Santiaguillo carried men and supplies for Almagro's expedition, under the command of Juan de Saavedra, who named the town after his native village of Valparaíso de Arriba in Cuenca Province, Spain. During Spanish colonial times, Valparaíso remained a small village, with only a few houses and a church. In 1810, a wealthy merchant built the first pier in the history of Chile and the first during the colonial era.
In its place today, stands the building of El Mercurio de Valparaíso. The ocean rose to this point. Reclamation of land from the sea moved the coastline five blocks away. Between 1810 and 1830, he built much of the existing port of the city, including much of the land reclamation work that now provides the city's commercial centre. In 1814, the naval Battle of Valaparaiso was fought offshore of the town, between American and British ships involved in the War of 1812. After Chile's independence from Spain, beginning the Republican Era, Valparaíso became the main harbour for the nascent Chilean navy, opened international trade opportunities, limited to Spain and its other colonies. Valparaíso soon became a desired stopover for ships rounding South America via the Straits of Magellan and Cape Horn, it gained particular importance supplying the California Gold Rush. As a major seaport, Valparaíso received immigrants from many European countries from Britain, France and Italy. German, French and English were spoken among its citizens, who founded and published newspapers in these languages.
International immigration transformed the local culture from Spanish origins and Amerindian origins, in ways that included the construction of the first non-Catholic cemetery of Chile, the Dissidents' Cemetery. Football was introduced to Chile by English immigrants. Immigrants from Scotland and Germany founded the first private secular schools. Immigrants formed the first volunteer fire-fighting units, their buildings reflected a variety of European styles, making Valparaíso more varied than some other Chilean cities. In August 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck Valparaíso; the Chilean doctor, Carlos Van Buren, of U. S. descent, was involved in medical care of earthquake victims. He established a modern hospital Carlos Van Buren Hospital in 1912; the golden age of Valparaíso's commerce ended after the opening of the Panama Canal. Shipping shifted to the canal; the port's use and traffic declined causing a decline in the city's economy. Since the turn of the 21st century, shipping has increased in the last few decades with fruit exports, increasing opening of the Chilean economy to world commerce, larger-s
Chilean ironclad Blanco Encalada
Blanco Encalada was an armored frigate built by Earle's Shipbuilding Co. in England for the Chilean Navy in 1875. She was nicknamed El Blanco, she participated in the War of the Pacific, her most important action being the capture of the Peruvian monitor Huáscar during the Battle of Angamos. Blanco Encalada formed part of the congressional forces that brought down President José Manuel Balmaceda in the Chilean Civil War of 1891, she was sunk during that conflict on 23 April 1891, becoming the first warship to be sunk by a self-propelled torpedo. In 1871 the president of Chile, Federico Errázuriz Zañartu, sent the Congress a bill to authorize the executive to acquire two armored warships; the bill, approved only by a vote of no confidence, stipulated that both vessels would be mid-sized frigates and would not cost more than 2 million pesos. Alberto Blest Gana, the ambassador to the United Kingdom, was put in charge of the project. Blest Gana contracted the ship designer Edward James Reed, an ex-naval architect of the British Admiralty, as the technical advisor.
Blest Gana contracted Earle's Shipbuilding Co. in Yorkshire to carry out the construction. The two ships were named Cochrane and Valparaíso but upon arrival at port on 24 January 1876, Valparaíso was renamed Blanco Encalada by the decree of the Minister of War and Navy on 15 September 1876; this was in honor of the admiral and first president of the Republic of Chile, Manuel Blanco Encalada. The construction of Blanco Encalada started in April 1872 and the ship was launched in 1875. In January 1878, the president Aníbal Pinto ordered the ambassador to Europe, Alberto Blest Gana, to put the ships up for sale as soon as the dispute with Argentina was resolved to help alleviate the economic crises that prevailed in Chile. On behalf of Blest Gana, Reed offered the United Kingdom Cochrane for 220,000 pounds sterling, but the British were not interested, he attempted to sell the ships to Russia with the same result. Being the flagship of the Chilean armada, Blanco Encalada participated in the War of the Pacific.
The frigate's first actions, under the command of Admiral Juan Williams Rebolledo, consisted of taking part in the blockade of Iquique and in the failed expedition to the port of Callao. Afterward, Blanco Encalada tried, unsuccessfully. Williams’ inability to put an end to what became known as the "Huáscar Raids" motivated him to resign his command; the failure of a decisive victory against the monitor is owed to the bad state of the engines and boilers of Blanco Encalada and the skill of the commander of the Peruvian ship. The command of Blanco Encalada fell to the new commander-in-chief of the navy, Comador Galvarino Riveros Cárdenas, whom ordered the Chilean armada to regroup and repair the ships. For this purpose, Blanco Encalada was anchored in Mejillones to make repairs to the engine using the workshops of the Salitres de Antofagasta Company; the hull was cleaned using divers brought from Valparaíso. The success of the repairs, which were finished at the end of September, was limited however.
The ship could only achieve, in a speed of 9 knots. After the repairs, Blanco Enclada participated in the Battle of Angamos where the Chilean fleet captured Huáscar on 8 October 1879; the last action in which Blanco Encalada participated was the capture, in the close quarters of Mollendo, of the gunboat Pilcomayo on 18 November. Blanco Encalada was sunk by a torpedo gunboat in the Battle of Caldera Bay, Chile, on 23 April 1891 during the 1891 Chilean Civil War. Much of this article was translated from Blanco Encalada. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4. Silverstone, Paul H.. Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-979-0. "Some South American Ironclads". Warship International. Toledo, OH: Naval Records Club. VIII: 203–204. 1971
ARA Los Andes
ARA Los Andes was one of two El Plata-class monitors built in Britain in the 1870s for the Argentine Navy. List of ships of the Argentine Navy Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-133-5. Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1922. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-907-3. "Ironclads Vasco da Gama and Andes". Warship International. Toledo, Ohio: Naval Records Club. X: 106–08. 1973. "MONITOR A. R. A. "LOS ANDES"". Histarmar - Historia y Arqueologia Marítima. FUNDACION HISTARMAR. Retrieved 2014-07-03
Cammell Laird is a British shipbuilding company. The company came about following the merger of Laird Brothers of Birkenhead and Johnson Cammell & Co. of Sheffield at the turn of the twentieth century. The company built railway rolling stock until 1929, when that side of the business was separated and became part of the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company; the Laird company was founded by William Laird, who had established the Birkenhead Iron Works in 1824. When he was joined by his son, John Laird in 1828, their first ship was an iron barge. John realised; the company soon became preeminent in the manufacture of iron ships and made major advances in propulsion. In 1860, John Laird was joined in the business by his three sons, renaming it John Sons & Co.. The sons continued the business after their father's death in 1874 as Laird Brothers. Johnson Cammell & Co. was founded by Charles Cammell and Henry and Thomas Johnson: it made, amongst many other metal products, iron wheels and rails for Britain's railways and was based in Sheffield.
In 1903 the businesses of Messrs. Cammell and Laird merged to create a company at the forefront of shipbuilding; the company built a number of vehicles for the London Underground. An order was placed for 20 trailer cars and 20 control trailer cars in 1919, which were known as 1920 Stock, were the first tube cars to be built with doors operated by compressed air, they ran with converted French motor cars built in 1906. The doors were fitted with a sensitive edge, designed to re-open the door if someone became trapped in it, but the mechanism was too sensitive, was removed after an initial trial period; the cars continued in operation until 1938, eight years after the motor cars were withdrawn, but following withdrawal, five cars became a mobile training school. Cammell Laird built a number of Standard Stock vehicles for the Underground, they were one of five builders approached to build a sample car to a general specification, which were put into service in February 1923, three of the builders subsequently built production runs.
The company supplied 41 motor cars and 40 trailer cars in 1923, 25 control trailers in 1924, a further 48 motor cars in 1925. In 1927, they built 160 passenger coaches for use in India. To transport them, Cammell Laird asked Watsons of Gainsborough to build five dumb barges; the coaches were loaded onto the barges at Clifton, near Nottingham on the River Trent, towed in pairs downriver by a twin-screwed tug named Motorman, built by Henry Scarr of Hessle in 1925. They were taken to Hull for export. In 1929, the railway rolling stock business of Cammell Laird was spun off and merged to become Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company Ltd. Between 1829 and 1947, over 1,100 vessels of all kinds were launched from the Cammell Laird slipways into the River Mersey. Among the many famous ships made by the companies were the world's first steel ship, the Ma Roberts, built in 1858 for Dr. Livingstone's Zambezi expedition, CSS Alabama, built in 1862 for the Confederate States of America, HMS Caroline that holds the record fastest build time of any significant warship, the first all-welded ship, the Fullagar built in 1920, Cunard's second RMS Mauretania, the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the largest vessel to have been built for the Royal Navy up to that time, HMS Ark Royal.
In 1898, Cammell provided the half-inch armour plate used to fabricate the four Fowler Armoured Road Trains built during the Second Anglo-Boer War. The armoured road train was the first self-propelled, free-roaming, armoured military land vehicle built, predating the tanks of World War One by nearly two decades; the company was nationalised along with the rest of the British shipbuilding industry as British Shipbuilders in 1977. In 1986, it returned to the private sector as part of Barrow-in-Furness-based Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering. VSEL and Cammell Laird were the only British shipyards capable of producing nuclear submarines. In 1993, it completed HMS Unicorn – now HMCS Windsor. After the end of the Upholder-class submarine building programme in 1993, the owners of Cammell Laird, VSEL, announced the yard's closure; this was opposed by the workforce through trade union campaigners including the GMB, led by communist firebrand official Barry Williams, a point noted in his obituary in the Liverpool Daily Post.
Part of the shipyard site was leased by the Coastline Group as a ship repair facility. Coastline bought part of the shipyard and adopted the Cammell Laird name, before floating on the London stock exchange in 1997 and acquiring dockyards at Teesside and Gibraltar. After experiencing financial difficulties due to the late withdrawal from a £50 million refit contract for the Costa Classica cruise ship by Costa Crociere, the company was forced to enter receivership in April 2001, the Birkenhead and Tyneside shipyards owned by Cammell Laird shiprepair were acquired by the A&P Shiprepair Group in 2001. Cammell Laird Gibraltar, the Royal Dockyard facility in Gibraltar, was disposed of through a local management buyout. A&P Group sold its Birkenhead subsidiary to Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders in 2005. Peel Holdings, owners of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company and 50% owners of Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders, purchased the Cammell Laird shipyard site and surrounding land in January 2007, to facilitate the proposed Wirral Waters development, although Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders continue to maintain a long-term lease on the shipyard facilities, which will form an integral part of t
Argentina–Chile relations refers to international relations between the Republic of Chile and the Argentine Republic. Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 km long and runs from north to the south along the Andes mountains. Although gaining their independence during the South American wars of liberation, during much of the 19th and the 20th century relations between the countries were chilled as a result of disputes over the border in Patagonia, although Chile and Argentina have never engaged in a war. In recent years relations have improved dramatically. Despite increased trade between the two countries and Chile have followed quite different economic policies. Chile has signed free trade agreements with countries such as China, the USA, South Korea and the EU and is an active member of the APEC, while Argentina belongs to the Mercosur regional free trade area. In April 2018, both countries suspended membership of the Union of South American Nations.
The relationship between the two countries can be traced back to an alliance during Spanish colonial times. Both colonies were offshoots of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata being broken off in 1776, Chile not being broken off until independence. Argentina and Chile were colonized by different processes. Chile was conquered as a southward extension of the original conquest of Peru, while Argentina was colonized from Peru and from the Atlantic. Argentina and Chile were close allies during the wars of independence from the Spanish Empire. Chile, like most of the revolting colonies, was defeated at a point by Spanish armies, while Argentina remained independent throughout its war of independence. After the Chilean defeat in the Disaster of Rancagua, the remnants of the Chilean Army led by Bernardo O'Higgins took refuge in Mendoza. Argentine General José de San Martín, by that time governor of the region, included the Chilean exiles in the Army of the Andes, in 1817 led the crossing of the Andes, defeated the Spaniards, confirmed the Chilean Independence.
While he was in Santiago, Chile a cabildo abierto offered San Martín the governorship of Chile, which he declined, in order to continue the liberating campaign in Peru. In 1817 Chile began the buildup of its Navy in order to carry the war to the Viceroyalty of Perú. Chile and Argentina signed a treaty, but Argentina, fallen in a Civil war, was unable to contribute. The naval fleet, after being built, launched a sea campaign to fight the Spanish fleet in the Pacific to liberate Peru. After a successful land and sea campaign, San Martín proclaimed the Independence of Peru in 1821. From 1836 to 1839, Chile and Argentina united in a war against the confederation of Peru and Bolivia; the underlying cause was the apprehension of Chile and Argentina against potential power of Peru-Bolivia block. This resulted from concern over the large territory of Peru-Bolivia as well as the perceived threat that such a rich state would represent to their southern neighbors. Chile declared the war on 11 November 1836 and Argentina on 19 May 1837.
In 1837 Felipe Braun, one of Santa Cruz's most capable generals and decorated veteran of the war of independence, defeated an Argentine army sent to topple Santa Cruz. On 12 November 1838 Argentine representatives signed an agreement with the Bolivian troops. However, on 20 January 1839 the Chilean force obtained a decisive victory against Peru-Bolivia at the Battle of Yungay and the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation came to an end. A series of coastal and high-seas naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile occurred between 1864 and 1866; these actions began with Spain's seizure of the guano-rich Chincha Islands, part of a strategy by Isabel II of Spain to reassert her country's lost influence in Spain's former South American empire. These actions prompted an alliance between Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile against Spain; as a result, all Pacific coast ports of South America situated south of Colombia were closed to the Spanish fleet. Argentina, refused to join the alliance and maintained amicable relations with Spain and delivered coal to the Spanish fleet.
On 6 February 1873, Peru and Bolivia signed a secret Treaty of alliance against Chile. On 24 September, Argentine president Domingo Faustino Sarmiento asked the Argentine Chamber of Deputies to join Argentina with the alliance; the Argentine chamber assented by a vote of 48-18. The treaty made available a credit of six million pesos for military expenditures. However, in 1874, after the delivery of the Chilean ironclad Almirante Cochrane and the ironclad Blanco Encalada, the Argentine Senate postponed the matter until late 1874, Sarmiento was prevented signing the treaty. Argentina remained neutral during the war. Border disputes continued between Chile and Argentina, as Patagonia was a unexplored area; the Border Treaty of 1881 established the line of highest mountains dividing the Atlantic and Pacific watersheds as the border between Argentina and Chile. This principle was applied in northern Andean border region; this led to further disputes over whether the Andean peaks would constitute the frontier or the drainage basins.
Argentina argued that previous documents referring to the boundary always mentioned the Snowy Cordillera as the frontier and not the continental divide. The Argentine explorer Francisco Perito Moreno suggested that many Patagonian lakes draining to the Pacific were in fact part of the Atlantic basin but had been moraine-dammed dur
Japanese cruiser Kasuga
Kasuga was the name ship of the Kasuga-class armored cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy, built in the first decade of the 20th century by Gio. Ansaldo & C. Sestri Ponente, where the type was known as the Giuseppe Garibaldi class; the ship was ordered by the Argentine Navy during the Argentine–Chilean naval arms race, but the lessening of tensions with Chile and financial pressures caused the Argentinians to sell her before delivery. At this time tensions between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire were rising, the ship was offered to both sides before she was purchased by the Japanese. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, Kasuga participated in the Battle of the Yellow Sea and was damaged during the subsequent Battle of Tsushima. In addition she bombarded the defenses of Port Arthur; the ship played a limited role in World War I and was used to escort Allied convoys and search for German commerce raiders in the Indian Ocean and Australasia. Kasuga became a training ship in the late 1920s and was disarmed and hulked in 1942 for use as a barracks ship.
The ship capsized shortly before the end of World War II in 1945 and was salvaged three years and broken up for scrap. Kasuga was the next-to-last of the 10 Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armored cruisers to be built; the first ship had been completed in 1895 and the class had enjoyed considerable export success, had been improved over the years. The last two ships of the class were ordered on 23 December 1901 by the Argentine Navy in response to the order by Chile for two second-class battleships; the possibility of war between Argentina and Chile, abated before the vessel was completed, a combination of financial problems and British pressure forced Argentina to dispose of Bernardino Rivadavia and her sister ship Mariano Moreno. The Argentine government attempted to sell the ships to Russia, but negotiations failed over the price demanded by the Argentinians; the Japanese government stepped in and purchased them due to increasing tensions with Russia despite the high price of ¥14,937,390 for the two sisters.
Planning to attack Russia, the government delayed their surprise attack on Port Arthur that began the Russo-Japanese War until the ships had left Singapore and could not be delayed or interned by any foreign power. Kasuga had an overall length of 111.73 meters, a beam of 18.71 meters, a molded depth of 12.1 meters and a deep draft of 7.31 meters. She displaced 7,700 metric tons at normal load; the ship was powered by two vertical triple-expansion steam engines, each driving one shaft, using steam from 8 coal-fired Scotch marine boilers. Designed for a maximum output of 13,500 indicated horsepower and a speed of 20 knots, Kasuga exceeded this, reaching a speed of 20.05 knots during her sea trials on 20 September 1903 despite 14,944 ihp produced by her engines. She had a cruising range of 5,500 nautical miles at 10 knots, her complement enlisted men. Her main armament consisted of one 40-caliber Armstrong Whitworth 10-inch/40 Type 41 gun in a single turret forward and two 8-inch/45 Type 41 guns, in a twin-gun turret aft.
Ten of the quick-firing 6-inch/40 Type 41 guns that comprised her secondary armament were arranged in casemates amidships on the main deck. Kasuga had ten QF 3-inch/40 Type 41 guns and six QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns to defend herself against torpedo boats, she was fitted with four submerged 457 mm torpedo tubes, two on each side. In 1924 two of her 3 in/40 guns were removed, as were all of her QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns, a single 8 cm/40 3rd Year Type anti-aircraft gun was added. By August 1933, all ten of her casemated 6-inch guns had been removed in addition to four more 3 in/40 guns; the ship's waterline armor belt had a maximum thickness of 150 millimeters amidships and tapered to 70 millimeters towards the ends of the ship. Between the main gun barbettes it covered the entire side of the ship up to the level of the upper deck; the ends of the central armored citadel were enclosed by transverse bulkheads 120 millimeters thick. The forward barbette, the conning tower, gun turrets were protected by 150-millimeter armor while the aft barbette only had 100 millimeters of armor.
Her deck armor ranged from 20 to 40 millimeters thick and the 6-inch guns on the upper deck were protected by gun shields. The ship's keel was laid down on 10 March 1902 with the temporary name of San Mitra and she was launched on 22 October 1902 and renamed Bernardino Rivadavia by the Argentinians; the vessel was sold to Japan on 30 December 1903 and renamed Kasuga, after Kasuga Shrine in Nara prefecture, on 1 January 1904. Kasuga and her newly renamed sister Nisshin were formally turned over to Japan and commissioned on 7 January; the sisters departed Genoa on 9 January under the command of British captains and manned by British seamen and Italian stokers. When they arrived at Port Said, five days they encountered the Russian protected cruiser Aurora and reached Suez on the 16th, accompanied by the British armored cruiser King Alfred; the Japanese ships reached Singapore on 2 February where they were delayed by a coolie strike. Kasuga and Nisshin reached Yokosuka on 16 February just as Japan initiated hostilities with its surprise attack on Port Arthur, began working up with Japanese crews.
The sisters were assigned to reinforce the battleships of the 1st Division of the 1st Fleet under the overall command of Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō on 11 Apri