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Argentine Air Force

The Argentine Air Force is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. In 2010 it had 6,900 civilian personnel; the Air Force's history begins with the establishment of the Army Aviation Service's Escuela de Aviación Militar on 10 August 1912. Several military officers were amongst the pioneers of Argentine aviation, including Jorge Newbery, a retired Argentine Navy officer; the school began to turn out military pilots who participated in milestone events in Argentine aviation, such as the crossing of the Andes mountains. In 1927 the Dirección General de Aeronáutica was created to coordinate the country's military aviation. In that same year the Fábrica Militar de Aviones, which would become the heart of the country's aviation industry, was founded in Córdoba. By 1938–39 Argentina's air power had about 3,200 staff, maintained about 230 aircraft. About 150 of these were operated by the army and included Dewoitine D.21 and Curtiss P-36 Hawk fighters. About 80 were operated by the navy and included the Supermarine Southampton, Supermarine Walrus, Fairey Seal, Fairey III, Vought O2U Corsair, Consolidated P2Y, Curtiss T-32 Condor II, Douglas Dolphin and Grumman J2F Duck.

By the 1940s there were several air units in the Navy. After the end of World War II, in which the Argentine Air Force took no part, it began a process of modernization, incorporating aircraft such as the Gloster Meteor jet fighter, thus becoming the first air force in Latin America equipped with jet-propelled aircraft. In addition, a number of Avro Lincoln and Avro Lancaster bombers were acquired, creating a powerful strategic force in the region; the Air Force, with former Luftwaffe officers as consultants and German technicians began to develop its own aircraft, such as the Pulqui I and Pulqui II, making Argentina the first country in Latin America and the sixth in the world to develop jet fighter technology on its own. Locally developed aircraft, like the I. Ae. 22 DL trainer and the I. Ae. 24 Calquin tactical bomber, were added to the inventory. In 1952 the Air Force began flight to supply the Antarctic scientific bases using ski-equipped C-47s and establishing Marambio Base on 25 September 1969.

On 11 April 1970 they began landing C-130 Hercules aircraft, when the TC-61 commanded by Commodore Arturo Athos Gandolfi was the first airplane to land in Marambio, the Fokker F-28 Fellowship presidential aircraft T-01 Patagonia is reported to be the first jet to have landed at Marambio, on 28 July 1973. and since the 1970s Twin Otters are deployed. On October 1973 the FAA launched Operation Transantar, achieving the first trans-Antarctic three-continental flight in history when a C-130 flew between Rio Gallegos. In the 1960s new aircraft were incorporated, including the F-86F Sabre jet fighter and the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk used for ground-attack. During the 1970s the Air Force re-equipped itself with modern aircraft, including Mirage III interceptors, IAI Dagger multi-role fighters, C-130 Hercules cargo planes. A counter-insurgency airplane, the Pucará, was used in substantial numbers. Falklands War: The Argentian Air Force would enter combat for the first time in its history against an external enemy.

The Air Force is without preparation for the aeronautical war. Their planes are unsuitable for that kind of war; the British fleet used the most modern weapons of the time but in the war the Argentines were teasing the radars of their ships by flying low. On May 1, 1982, the action began. RAF initiated The Operation Black Buck. A RAF Avro Vulcan XM607 bombers attacked the Malvinas Military Air Base; the Task Force proceeded to send their Harrier planes. The Harrier attacked positions in Goose Green; the first casualties of the Fuerza Aerea Argentina. The Argentian Air Force reacted by sending A-4 Skyhawk attack aircraft. Mirage III interceptors; the Mirage III went into combat with the Harriers on Bourbon Island. A Harrier shoot down a Mirage. On the day of May 21, Battle of San Carlos began, The Air Force attacked a detachment of ships making the landing in the San Carlos; the Dagger and Skyhawk aircraft sunk 3 British Ships. During the march of June 8, the Air Force carried out an operation in Bluff Cove.

The British needed to position Infantry Brigade 5 to complete their lock on Puerto Argentino or Port Stanley. For this they used the RFA ships RFA Sir Tristram. Squadrons of A-4 Skyhawk and Dagger intervened; the planes destroyed both ships. And to the landing craft Foxtrot 4; the A-4 suffered casualties at the hands of the Harrier. On June 13, the A-4 Skyhawk of the Argentian Air Force renewed their attacks, they were in two formations of four planes each. They launched an ataa

Phoenix chicken

The Phoenix is a German breed of long-tailed chicken. It derives from cross-breeding of imported long-tailed Japanese birds similar to the Onagadori with other breeds; the Phoenix breed was created by Hugo du Roi, the first president of the national German poultry association, in the late nineteenth century. A few delicate imported long-tailed Japanese birds were cross-bred with birds of other breeds including Combattant de Bruges, Krüper, Malay, Modern Game, Old English Game and Yokohama; the silver variety of the Phoenix breed was accepted into the American Poultry Association Standard of Perfection in 1965, the gold in 1983. Black-breasted red was recognised in 2018; the Phoenix was first accepted in the Australian Poultry Standard in 2012, with any colour standardised in Old English Game accepted. The Onagadori is thought to have a recessive gene which prevents it from moulting each year in the usual way.:991 This gene was not transferred to the Phoenix, so its tail does not reach the same remarkable lengths as that of the original Japanese stock.

The tail may reach 90 cm or more

Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa

Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa was a Colombian politician and member of the Colombian Communist Party. Jaramillo started working in the Urabá Antioquia region until 1987 when he assumed the presidency of the Patriotic Union Party after the assassination of Jaime Pardo. Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa was born into a poor working family in Manizales, he was the son of Bernardo Jaramillo Ríos. He had Clemencia, he finished his baccalaureate at the Instituto Manizales. Where he performed important works for the improvement of student conditions, he graduated as a lawyer at the University of Caldas in June 1981 but he did graduate with degrees in law and political science.. His parents commented that from his youth, he understood the problems of poverty that several people lived around him, he founded a popular restaurant when he was in high school, a restaurant that has your name. Being a high school student and in the midst of a protest, he met the legendary trade union leader Rubén Darío Castaño whom he considered his political mentor and shortly after, joined the ranks of the Colombian Communist Youth where he reached positions of leadership.

Years Castaño would be killed by paramilitaries in November 1985 at the door of his house. In 1977, she married Ana Lucía Zapata Hincapié, a teacher born in Apía Risaralda with whom they had a daughter, Paula Tatiana, a son, Bernardo Jaramillo Zapata. Jaramillo joined the Patriotic Union Party once it was founded in 1985, in the 1988 election won the seat of Senator of the Republic. Following the murder of Pardo Leal he took the chair as president of the party, he tried to give greater breadth to the UP, accused by its critics of being a political arm of the FARC. Jaramillo Ossa made efforts to link the movement with the Socialist International, which earned him the nickname "perestroika". Jaramillo intended to separate the suspected relationship between his party and the FARC by approaching the Socialist International. Jaramillo ran for the presidency of Colombia, he was planning an alliance with Carlos Pizarro Leongómez, demobilized leader of the 19th of April Movement and a candidate for the Presidency.

Jaramillo had been vocal in denouncing the systematic assassination of members of UP, attributing them to the rise of right-wing paramilitary forces in allegiance with drug trafficking cartels, approved and supported by the military and other political forces. He blamed president Barco of ignoring the evidence of the collaboration between drug cartels and Colombia's military to create and fund the paramilitary forces responsible for the assassinations. Two days before his assassination, Carlos Lemos, the Minister of Government at the time, dismissed Jaramillo's accusations and in turn suggested that UP was the political branch of FARC. Jaramillo responded by saying that such accusation was both unfair and baseless, that it meant a death sentence for him and UP members, which proved true just two days later. Jaramillo was murdered while campaigning in Bogotá on March 22, 1990, he was in Bogotá's Puente Aéreo terminal of El Dorado airport with his wife Mariela Barragan and several bodyguards provided to him by DAS.

Despite having received death threats, he refused to wear a protective vest. Once he was in the terminal, he was waiting for his flight to Santa Marta, where he would go on vacation after the exhausting presidential campaign. A young paramilitary hitman, named Andrés Arturo Gutiérrez Maya, waited for him while he and his wife were in front of a pharmacy pulled out a Mini Ingram 380 machine gun and fired on the candidate. A guard pushed the wife away to prevent her being shot as well, while other bodyguards chased after the murderer, whom they shot and captured. Jaramillo fell wounded in the arms of his wife and uttered three sentences: "Mi amor, no siento las piernas. Estos hijueputas me dieron, me voy a morir. Abrazame y protegeme. " He was put in a car by his wife and few other bodyguards, where he lost consciousness, taken to the hospital of the National Police. He died before he could be put after a delay in the elevator at the clinic. After his assassination more than 3000 members in or related to his party were killed.

Since his murderer, Gutiérrez Maya, was 16 at the time of the assassination, he didn't go to jail, but to a minors facility. He was killed about a year with his father, as he had been allowed to be out of the correction facility temporarily. Gutiérrez Maya was a coworker of Gerardo Gutiérrez Uribe, killer of Carlos Pizarro; the crime was attributed to Pablo Escobar, but the drug lord denied his involvement and argued he had asked against it. An anonymous call to a radio station in Medellin attributed the murder to the paramilitary organization of Fidel Castaño, who had inherited the criminal structure of Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha, killed months before. No one has been condemned by the assassination, but current consensus supports the hypothesis that the paramilitary organization of the Castaño brothers was behind the crime acknowledged by Carlos Castaño. On February 11, 2010, Alberto Romero, an ex director of the DAS, was charged as being linked to the murder, together with Carlos Castaño, the chief of the AUC.

Bernardo Jaramillo is portrayed by the Venezuelan actor Orlando Valenzuela in the Colombian TV series Pablo Escobar: El Patrón del Mal

Varshini Sounderajan

Varshini Sounderajan is an Indian actress and model who appears in Telugu films. She made her acting debut in the National award-winning film Telugu anthology film Chandamama Kathalu in the year 2014. Varshini is born in Hyderabad, she completed her bachelor's degree in Electronics. She started her career as a model and made her film debut in the National award-winning film Chandamama Kathalu after appearing as a cameo in Shambo Shiva Shambo. She's known for her performance in Telugu movies Lovers, Best actors, Kai Raja Kai, Sri Rama Raksha, she is popular for her performance in the web series Pelli Gola presented by Annapurna Studios and directed by Mallik Ram. Following to its overwhelming response, a second season of the web series Pelli Gola 2 is released recently, she is popular as a team leader in the TV show Dhee Ultimate Dance Show. Varshini has been crowned the first Hyderabad Times Most Desirable Woman on Television 2017, she is appeared as an anchor in the TV show Patas 2. Media related to Varshini Sounderajan at Wikimedia Commons Varshini Sounderajan on Facebook Varshini Sounderajan on Instagram Varshini Sounderajan on IMDb

Bogo, Cebu

Bogo the City of Bogo, or known as Bogo City, is a 6th class city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 78,120 people. Bogo City is located on the principal island of Cebu, it is accessible by land and sea. Bogo has an area of 103.5 square kilometres, which constitutes 2.3% of the area of Cebu island and 2.1% of the total land area of Cebu province. Bogo City is bordered on the north by the town of Medellin, to the west by the town of San Remigio, on the east by the Camotes Sea, on the south by the town of Tabogon; the year 1600 saw the founding of a real settlement, subsequently transformed into a barangay with small huts made of cogon grass and bamboo, standing where the Bogo Central Extension now stands. While the barangay was part of another community in the north, the natives enjoyed tacit freedom of self-rule although they continued to pay tributes and taxes to the chieftain of Daanbantayan; this barangay grew in prominence and for this reason, it was separated from Daanbantayan.

In January 1850 the Bishop of Cebu, appointed Spanish friar Fr Jaime Micalot as the first parish priest of Bogo and decreed Saint Vincent Ferrer as the town's patron saint. The first mass was celebrated in the hastily built chapel on 5 April 1850, to coincide with the death anniversary of the patron saint; this chapel was gutted by fire and a new stone church was constructed at the place where the Bogo Town Plaza is now located. About this time, the Spanish authorities in Bogo introduced civil government. Pedro Aballe became the first Cabeza de Barangay or mayor from 1864 to 1869. Senator Pedro L. Rodriguez, popularly known as the "Grand Old Man of Bogo" named one of the oldest streets of the town after him. In those times, a cabeza de barangay took charge of the collection of tributes to support the encomienda system of Spain; the tribute was substituted by the "papelita" which the individual paid in two installments annually. A taxpayer who could not afford to pay the cost of papelita in the amount of ₱1.50 was made to work on local projects at fifty centavos a week.

Because of this, a good number of delinquent taxpayers escaped and hid in the mountain fastness of Bogo. Early historians aver that the town of Bogo derived its name from a lone bogo tree or Garuga floribunda, which stood on the shore where now is Bogo wharf. Here the inhabitants met traders who sailed in loaded with goods to be bartered, thus this spot became a rendezvous for traders and merchants as well as for nature-lovers and leisure-seekers. Some of these traders married locals. A few years before the turn of the 20th century, eventful episodes took place in the town marked by fire and blood; the nationalistic fervor of the Katipuneros in Luzon fanned the flames of the resistant movement in Cebu. In Bogo, the younger kin of the Katipuneros, the so-called "Pulahans", exacted heavy tolls on the forces of the cazadores during fierce encounters near the outskirts of the town. Although the Pulahans were ill-armed and outnumbered at times, they continued to hit back at the enemy. Success seemed within reach when in 1898 an American cavalry unit under Captain Rowan landed at Nailon point and proceeded to the poblacion where his troops assembled in front of the church.

He was met by Pedro L. Rodriguez presidente municipal of the town, they soon sealed an agreement for the protection of the civilian populace of the town. Again in 1941, the Philippines, being a territory of the United States, became a battleground in an undeclared war between the invading Japanese Imperial Forces and the combined Filipino–American troops. After the surrender of the USAFFE many from Bogo refused to swear allegiance to the Japanese, they went into the hills and organized guerrilla warfare headed by disbanded officers of the constabulary and army units in the province. Cognizant of the anti-Japanese sentiment of this armed group who were determined to carry out harassment tactics against the occupation troops in northern Bogo, six Japanese seaplanes bombed the town of Bogo on the early morning of 12 December 1942. Several civilians were killed and many injured. In order to quell the seething rebellion, the Japanese military authorities in Cebu established a garrison in the town in a building now owned by the Northern Cebu Colleges.

As a means to win the loyalty and support of the people of the town, a local puppet administration was established in Bogo under Japanese supervision, with Moises Lepatan appointed town mayor during the occupation. Liberation came in 1944, civilian government soon restored. Former municipal secretary Perfecto Andrino was appointed first mayor of Bogo by President Manuel Roxas in 1945. In the first election held after the war, Severo Verallo was elected with a considerable majority and appointed town mayor; the plebiscite for the cityhood of Bogo was held on 16 June 2007 in which 97.82% of voters of Bogo voted for cityhood. Former representative Clavel Asas-Martinez announced, it became the sixth component city of Cebu province. The new Bogo City Hall was inaugurated on 19 April 2013 by President Benigno Aquino III. On 8 November 2013, a powerful super typhoon Haiyan known as Yolanda, badly hit northern Cebu, where Bogo City is located and not spared the widespread devastation. Typhoon Yolanda destroyed everything from infrastructure to agriculture, 90% left homeless and thirteen died in Bogo, among more than 6,000 fatalities in Central Philippines.

City Hall was one of the structures damaged: its r


Dextrallorphan is an opioid derivative chemical of the morphinan class, used in scientific research. It acts as NMDA receptor antagonist, it has no significant affinity for the σ2, μ-opioid, or δ-opioid receptor, or for the serotonin or norepinephrine transporter. As an NMDA receptor antagonist, in vivo, it is twice as potent as dextromethorphan, five-fold less potent than dextrorphan. Dextrallorphan is used in research to block σ1 receptor sites so that σ2 receptor sites can be studied, it was hypothesized that both of these sigma receptors were opioid receptors, due to their affinity for psychoactive drugs. However, it is now understood that they are non-opioid receptors that bind to certain psychoactive drugs, like dextrallorphan. One example of dextrallorphan being used to mask σ1 receptor sites was seen in a study on the localization of the σ2 receptor in detergent-resistant lipid raft domains, it has been used to mask σ1 receptor sites so that σ2 receptor binding characteristics in the rat liver could be determined, by labeling σ2 receptor sites with l,3-di-o-tolylguanidine in the presence of 1 μM dextrallorphan solution.

Dextrallorphan was used in Spraque-Dawley rats to study cerebellar Purkinje neurons electrophysical responses to the drug when it was applied iontophoretically as a sigma receptor ligand. Dextrallorphan increased the firing rate by 14%, suggesting that sigma ligands alter the spontaneous firing of Purkinje neurons and cause motor effects. In another study, along with other opioid derivatives, was found to be a potent inhibitor of etorphine-inaccessible sites in the guinea-pig brain. Dextrallorphan was of the top three most potent opioid inhibitors of those studied, with a concentration of 67 nM required to show 50% inhibition. In 1955, dextrallorphan has been used to study inhibition of cholinesterase's and to look at the relationship between analgetics and acetylcholine metabolism, it was found that dextrallorphan inhibits 25% of bovine erythrocyte cholinesterase at a dose of 10−3 mole/liter, which corresponds to a concentration of up to 0.2 mg/kg in dog intestine. However, at this dose the drug showed no effect on the gut tone.

Dextrallorphan was classified as a potent inhibitor of the intestinal and red blood cell cholinesterase based on the concentration of the drug needed to inhibit these enzymes in the cholinesterase preparations from the animals systems utilized. Dextrallorphan showed no analgesia and no change in intestinal tone. With these results dextrallorphan helped proved that there is no correlation between the inhibition of cholinesterase systems and analgetic or intestinal effects. In 1979, dextrallorphan was found to have a half maximal inhibitory concentration for binding to the pituitary and brain receptor of 10,000 ± 1000 nM and 10,000 ± 1500 nM, respectively. While its stereoisomer, had a 10,000 times more potent dose, thus proving that binding to these receptors is stereospecific. Morphinan Oxilorphan Dextrorphan Dextromethorphan Levallorphan