La Plata is the capital city of the Province of Buenos Aires, and of the partido La Plata. According to the 2001 census, it has a population of 765,378, La Plata was planned and developed to serve as the provincial capital after the city of Buenos Aires was federalized in 1880. It was officially founded by Governor Dardo Rocha on 19 November 1882 and its construction is fully documented in photographs by Tomás Bradley Sutton. La Plata was renamed Eva Perón City between 1952 and 1955, the city is home to two important first division football teams, Estudiantes de La Plata and Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata. Rocha decided to erect a new city to host the provincial government institutions, urban planner Pedro Benoit designed a city layout based on a rationalist conception of urban centers. The city has the shape of a square with a central park, in addition, there are numerous other shorter diagonal streets. This design is copied in a manner in small blocks of six by six blocks in length. For every six blocks, there is a park or square.
Other than the streets, all streets are on a rectangular grid and are numbered consecutively. Thus, La Plata is nicknamed la ciudad de las diagonales and it is called la ciudad de los tilos, because of the large number of linden trees lining the many streets and squares. Palms and subtropical evergreen trees thrive, but are comparatively infrequent. The city design and its buildings are noted to possess a strong Freemason symbolism and this is said to be a consequence of both Rocha and Benoit being Freemasons. The designs for the government buildings were chosen in an architectural competition. Thus, the Governor Palace was designed by Italians, the City Hall by Germans, electric street lighting was installed in 1884, and was the first of its kind in Latin America. The neo-Gothic cathedral of La Plata is the largest church in Argentina, the Curutchet House is one of the two buildings by Le Corbusier built in the Americas. The Teatro Argentino de La Plata is one of the most important opera houses in Argentina, the theatre was built on the square block between 9th and 10th Street and 51st and 53rd Avenue.
It was opened on November 19,1890 and it was designed by Leopoldo Rochi in Renaissance style. The work was funded by the first inhabitants of La Plata, in the foyer, entering through the majestic doors, there was a beautiful white Carrara marble staircase
Beechcraft Model 18
The Beechcraft Model 18 is a 6- to 11-seat, twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. Continuously produced from 1937 to November 1969, over 9,000 were produced, sold worldwide as a civilian executive, cargo aircraft, and passenger airliner on tailwheels, skis or floats, it was used as a military aircraft. In World War II, over 90% of USAAF bombardiers and navigators trained in these aircraft, in the early postwar era, the Beech 18 was the pre-eminent business aircraft and feeder airliner. Many are now owned, around the world, with over 300 in the U. S. still on the FAA Aircraft Registry in December 2014. The design was conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semimonocoque construction with fabric-covered control surfaces. Less conventional was the twin-tailfin configuration, the Model 18 can be mistaken for the larger Lockheed Electra series of airliners which closely resemble it. Early production aircraft were powered either by two 330-hp Jacobs L-6s or 350-hp Wright R-760Es, the 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 became the definitive engine from the prewar C18S onwards.
The Beech 18 prototype first flew on January 15,1937, prior to the Pearl Harbor attack, the Beech 18 was outsold by the Lockheed 12 by two-to-one. However, war priorities forced Lockheed to concentrate on its heavier aircraft, the aircraft has used a variety of engines and has had a number of airframe modifications to increase gross weight and speed. At least one aircraft was modified to a 600-hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340 powerplant configuration, nearly every airframe component has been modified. In 1955, deliveries of the Model E18S commenced, the E18S featured a fuselage that was extended 6 in higher for more headroom in the passenger cabin, all Beech 18s featured this taller fuselage, and some earlier models have been modified to this larger fuselage. The Model H18, introduced in 1963, featured optional tricycle undercarriage, the undercarriage was developed for earlier-model aircraft under an STC by Volpar, and installed in H18s at the factory during manufacture. A total of 109 H18s were built with tricycle undercarriage, construction of the Beechcraft Model 18 ended in 1970 with a final Model H18 going to Japan Airlines.
Through the years,32 variations of the design had flown, over 200 improvement modification kits were developed. In one case, the aircraft was modified to a tail, humpbacked configuration. Another distinctive conversion was carried out by PacAero as the Tradewind and this featured a lengthened nose to accommodate the tricycle nosewheel, and the Model 18s twin tailfins were replaced by a single fin. Work began in earnest on a variant specifically for training pilots, bombardiers. The effort resulted in the Army AT-7 and Navy SNB, further development led to the AT-11 and SNB-2 navigation trainers and the C-45 military transport
The Aermacchi MB-339 is an Italian military trainer and light attack aircraft. It was developed as a replacement for the earlier MB-326, the MB-339 is of conventional configuration and all-metal construction, and shares much of the 326s airframe. It has a low, un-swept wing with tip tanks and jet intakes in the roots, tricycle undercarriage, the most significant revision was a redesign of the forward fuselage to raise the instructors seat to allow visibility over and past the student pilots head. The aircraft was fitted with a fin and powerplant for the initial versions was the same Rolls-Royce Viper 632-43, producing 4,000 lbf. The first flight took place on 12 August 1976 and deliveries to the Italian Air Force commenced in 1979 and it was still in production in 2004 in an enhanced version with a much-modernised cockpit. Over 200 MB-339s have been built, with half of them going to the Italian Air Force. The Lockheed-Aermacchi MB-339 T-Bird II was a contender in the USAs Joint Primary Aircraft Training System aircraft selection.
Among the seven to enter, the Raytheon/Pilatus entry won, which became the T-6 Texan II, according to an article posted on the Italian website Il Porto Franci, called Armi e finanziamenti nel corno dAfrica, Eritrea paid about $US50 million for six MB-339 CEs in 1997. This is the original MB-339 with more advanced avionics for the attack role, RWR, uprated Viper 680-43 engine. It is capable of carrying Sidewinder AAMs, AGM-65 Maverick AGMs, unit price of the MB-339C would have to be somewhere around $US8.3 million dollars in 1997. The Argentine Naval Aviation was the first foreign user of the forerunner MB-326GB, in 1980, the COAN ordered ten MB-339As advanced trainer and light attack aircraft. These were delivered in 1981 and were operated by the III Escuadra Naval s 1 Escuadrilla de Ataque, during the Falklands War, late in April 1982, six of them were located at Port Stanley Airport, renamed Base Aérea Militar Malvinas. Other Aermacchis operated from three bases, at Almirante Zar, Bahía Blanca and Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego naval air station.
On 3 May 1982 Lt Benitez crashed into high ground with approaching the airport at Port Stanley, on 21 May during a routine reconnaissance flight and flown by Lieutenant Owen Crippa, a MB-339A was the first one to attack the Royal Navy amphibious force. The Aermacchi hit the frigate HMS Argonaut, causing light damage, on 27 May, a MB-339A was shot down by a Blowpipe missile during the Battle for Goose Green, while attempting to attack British ships and landed troops. The Pilot, Teniente Miguel, was killed, three MB-339 airframes were captured by the British. One of these airframes is preserved at the South Yorkshire Aircraft Museum, in 1996, the Eritreans ordered six Aermacchi MB-339CEs, with which the first combat unit of the ERAF was founded in 1997. They have proved their worth as training aircraft and even during the fighting in 1998
Consolidated PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina, known as the Canso in Canadian service, was an American flying boat, and an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of World War II, Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. During World War II, PBYs were used in warfare, patrol bombing, convoy escorts and rescue missions. The PBY was the most numerous aircraft of its kind and the last active military PBYs were not retired from service until the 1980s. In 2014, nearly 80 years after its first flight, the continues to fly as a waterbomber in aerial firefighting operations all over the world. In accordance with contemporary British naming practice of naming seaplanes after coastal towns, Royal Canadian Air Force examples were named Canso. The Royal Air Force used the name Catalina and the US Navy adopted this name in 1942, the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force used the designation OA-10.
US Navy Catalinas used in the Pacific against the Japanese for night operations were painted black overall, and as a result were sometimes referred to locally as Black Cats. The PBY was originally designed to be a bomber, an aircraft with a long operational range intended to locate. Flying boats had the advantage of not requiring runways, in effect having the entire ocean available, several different flying boats were adopted by the Navy, but the PBY was the most widely used and produced. Although slow and ungainly, Catalinas distinguished themselves in World War II, Allied forces used them successfully in a wide variety of roles for which the aircraft was never intended. They are remembered for their role, in which they saved the lives of thousands of aircrew downed over water. Catalina airmen called their aircraft the Cat on combat missions and Dumbo in air-sea rescue service, Naval doctrine of the 1930s and 1940s used flying boats in a wide variety of roles that today are handled by multiple special-purpose aircraft.
The U. S. Navy had adopted the Consolidated P2Y and Martin P3M models for this role in 1931, Consolidated and Douglas both delivered single prototypes of their new designs, the XP3Y-1 and XP3D-1, respectively. Although the Douglas aircraft was a design, the Navy opted for Consolidateds because the projected cost was only $90,000 per aircraft. Consolidateds XP3Y-1 design had a wing with external bracing struts. Wingtip stabilizing floats were retractable in flight to form streamlined wingtips and had licensed from the Saunders-Roe company. The two-step hull design was similar to that of the P2Y, cleaner aerodynamics gave the Model 28 better performance than earlier designs
North American T-6 Texan
Designed by North American Aviation, the T-6 is known by a variety of designations depending on the model and operating air force. Starting in 1948, the new United States Air Force designated it the T-6 and it remains a popular warbird aircraft used for airshow demonstrations and static displays. It has used many times to simulate various Japanese aircraft. The Texan originated from the North American NA-16 prototype which, modified as the NA-26, was submitted as an entry for a USAAC Basic Combat aircraft competition in March,1937. The first model went into production and 180 were supplied to the USAAC as the BC-1 and 400 to the RAF as the Harvard I, the US Navy received 16 modified aircraft, designated the SNJ-1, and a further 61 as the SNJ-2 with a different engine. Three BC-2 aircraft were built before the shift to the advanced trainer designation, AT-6, the differences between the AT-6 and the BC-1 were new outer wing panels with a swept-forward trailing edge, squared-off wingtips, and a triangular rudder, producing the canonical Texan silhouette.
Next came the AT-6A which was based on the NA-77 design and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49 Wasp radial engine, the USAAF received 1,549 and the US Navy 270. The AT-6B was built for training and could mount a.30 in machine gun on the forward fuselage. It used the R-1340-AN-1 engine, which was to become the standard for the remaining T-6 production, in late 1937, Mitsubushi purchased two NA-16s as technology demonstrators and possibly a licence to build more. However, the aircraft developed by Watanabe/Kyushu as the K10W1 bore no more than a superficial resemblance to the North American design and it was used in very small numbers by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1942 onwards. After the war, the Japanese Air Self Defense Force operated Texans, the NA-88 design resulted in 2,970 AT-6C Texans and 2,400 as the SNJ-4. The RAF received 726 of the AT-6C as the Harvard IIA, modifications to the electrical system produced the AT-6D and SNJ-5. The AT-6D, redesignated the Harvard III, was supplied to the RAF, the AT-6G involved major advancements including a full-time hydraulic system and a steerable tailwheel and persisted into the 1950s as the USAF advanced trainer.
Subsequently, the NA-121 design with a completely clear rearmost section on the canopy, gave rise to 25 AT-6F Texans for the USAAF and 931, as the SNJ-6 for the US Navy. The ultimate version, the Harvard 4, was produced by Canada Car and Foundry during the 1950s, a total of 15,495 T-6s of all variants were built. They engaged in combat on a number of occasions. The Israeli Air Force bought 17 Harvards, and operated nine of them in the stages of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, against the Egyptian ground forces. In the Sinai Campaign, IAF Harvards attacked Egyptian ground forces in Sinai Peninsula with two losses, communist guerillas called these aircraft O Galatas, because they saw them flying very early in the morning
The Aermacchi or Macchi MB-326 is a light military jet aircraft designed in Italy. Originally conceived as a trainer, there have been single. It is one of the most commercially successful aircraft of its type, being bought by more than 10 countries and produced under licence in Australia, Brazil and it set many category records, including an altitude record of 56,807 ft on 18 March 1966. In the 1950s, a number of countries were operating small jet trainers with a performance to their operational aircraft. At this time, several nations commenced development of aircraft for the role, such as the Fouga Magister, the T-37, the Jet Provost. The MB-326 was designed by Ermanno Bazzocchi at Macchi, Bazzocchi considered many configurations before it was chosen to proceed with a single-engined design. The airframe was a robust and light structure, all-metal and cheap, powered by an efficient engine and this engine was designed as a short-life unit originally destined for target drones, but showed itself to be far more reliable.
This airframe and engine combination led, in 1953, to the MB-326 project, the Italian Air Force was quite interested, and so the MB-326 took part in the contest. There were several modifications to the MB-326 project, the tail surfaces lost their negative dihedral angle. In 1956 the AMI approved the project and requested two prototypes and one airframe for static tests, No weaponry or pressurization was needed, but Bazzocchi introduced them. The first prototype made its flight on 10 December 1957, flown by Chief Test Pilot Guido Carestiato. The plane showed very good characteristics, but the affected the weight. The original Viper 8 engine produced 7.8 kN of thrust, so the Viper 9 was adopted, I-MAKI, the prototype, was first demonstrated in France. The second prototype first flew on 22 September 1958 and it had a new Viper engine, the 11 model, updated to produce 11.1 kN thrust. On 15 December 1958, the AMI placed an order for 15 pre-series examples, in 1960, an order for 100 aircraft was placed, establishing Aermacchis supremacy in jet trainers.
Direct competition came from the Fiat G.80, being powerful and the first real Italian jet, having flown five years earlier. It lost the contest, remaining without a market, the MB-326 was a low-wing monoplane with an all-metal structure. Powered by a Rolls-Royce Viper non-afterburning turbojet with low air-intakes in the wing roots, each wing had 22 ribs and two spars
The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies only operational jet aircraft during the Second World War. The Meteors development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, development of the aircraft began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No.616 Squadron RAF, nicknamed the Meatbox, the Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter. Glosters 1946 civil Meteor F.4 demonstrator G-AIDC was the first civilian-registered jet aircraft in the world, several major variants of the Meteor incorporated technological advances during the 1940s and 1950s. Thousands of Meteors were built to fly with the RAF and other air forces, the Meteor saw limited action in the Second World War. Meteors of the Royal Australian Air Force fought in the Korean War, several other operators such as Argentina and Israel flew Meteors in regional conflicts.
Specialised variants of the Meteor were developed for use in aerial reconnaissance. The Meteor was used for research and development purposes and to several aviation records. On 7 November 1945, the first official air speed record by a jet aircraft was set by a Meteor F.3 of 606 miles per hour, in 1946, this record was broken when a Meteor F.4 reached a speed of 616 mph. Other performance-related records were broken in categories including flight time endurance, rate of climb, on 20 September 1945, a heavily modified Meteor I, powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent turbine engines driving propellers, became the first turboprop aircraft to fly. On 10 February 1954, a specially adapted Meteor F.8, the Meteor Prone Pilot, as of 2013, two Meteors, WL419 and WA638, remain in active service with the Martin-Baker company as ejection seat testbeds. Two further aircraft in the UK remain airworthy, as another in Australia. Securing funding was a persistently worrying issue throughout the development of the engine.
On 28 April 1939, Whittle made a visit to the premises of the Gloster Aircraft Company, Power Jets and Gloster quickly formed a mutual understanding around mid-1939. The success of the smaller E. 28/39 proved the viability of jet propulsion, due to the limited thrust available from early jet engines, it was decided that subsequent production aircraft would be powered by a pair of turbojet engines.2 and axial engine designs. In August 1940, Carter presented Glosters initial proposals for a jet fighter with a nosewheel undercarriage. On 7 February 1941, Gloster received an order for twelve prototypes under Specification F9/40, test locations and other key project information was similarly obscured. Gloster continued development work on the Meteor and the order was overturned in favour of the construction of six F9/40 prototypes alongside three E. 1/44 prototypes
Vought F4U Corsair
The Vought F4U Corsair is an American fighter aircraft that saw service primarily in World War II and the Korean War. The Corsair thus came to and retained prominence in its area of greatest deployment, the Corsair served to a lesser degree in the U. S. Navy. In addition to its use by the U. S. and British, the Corsair was used by the Royal New Zealand Air Force, the French Navy Aéronavale and other, air forces until the 1960s. Some Japanese pilots regarded it as the most formidable American fighter of World War II, after the carrier landing issues had been tackled, it quickly became the most capable carrier-based fighter-bomber of World War II. The Corsair served almost exclusively as a fighter-bomber throughout the Korean War and during the French colonial wars in Indochina, in February 1938 the U. S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics published two requests for proposal for twin-engined and single-engined fighters. For the single-engined fighter the Navy requested the maximum speed. A range of 1,000 miles was specified, the fighter had to carry four guns, or three with increased ammunition.
Provision had to be made for anti-aircraft bombs to be carried in the wing and these small bombs would, according to thinking in the 1930s, be dropped on enemy aircraft formations. In June 1938, the U. S. Navy signed a contract with Vought for a prototype bearing the factory designation V-166B, the Corsair design team was headed up by Rex Beisel. When the prototype was completed it had the biggest and most powerful engine, largest propeller, the first flight of the XF4U-1 was made on 29 May 1940, with Lyman A. Bullard, Jr. at the controls. The maiden flight proceeded normally until a landing was made when the elevator trim tabs failed because of flutter. The USAACs twin-engine Lockheed P-38 Lightning had flown over 400 mph in January–February 1939, the XF4U-1 had an excellent rate of climb but testing revealed that some requirements would have to be rewritten. In full-power dive tests, speeds of up to 550 miles per hour were achieved but not without damage to the surfaces and access panels and, in one case.
The spin recovery standards had to be relaxed as recovery from the required two-turn spin proved impossible without resorting to an anti-spin chute, the problems clearly meant delays in getting the design into production. Reports coming back from the war in Europe indicated that an armament of two.30 in synchronized engine cowling-mount machine guns, and two.50 in machine guns was insufficient, the U. S. Navys November 1940 production proposals specified heavier armament. The increased armament consisted of three.50 caliber machine guns mounted in each wing panel and this improvement greatly increased the ability of the Corsair to effectively shoot down enemy aircraft. Formal U. S. Navy acceptance trials for the XF4U-1 began in February 1941, the first production F4U-1 performed its initial flight a year later, on 24 June 1942. It was an achievement for Vought, compared to land-based counterparts, carrier aircraft are overbuilt and heavier
Beechcraft T-34 Mentor
The Beechcraft T-34 Mentor is an American propeller-driven, single-engined, military trainer aircraft derived from the Beechcraft Model 35 Bonanza. The earlier versions of the T-34, dating from around the late 1940s to the 1950s, were piston-engined and these were eventually succeeded by the upgraded T-34C Turbo-Mentor, powered by a turboprop engine. The T-34 remains in more than six decades after it was first designed. The T-34 was the brainchild of Walter Beech, who developed it as the Beechcraft Model 45 private venture at a time there was no defense budget for a new trainer model. Beech hoped to sell it as an alternative to the North American T-6/SNJ Texan. Production did not begin until 1953, when Beechcraft began delivering T-34As to the United States Air Force, production of the T-34B for the United States Navy began in 1955, this version featuring a number of changes reflecting the different requirements of the two services. T-34A production was completed in 1956, with T-34Bs being built until October 1957 and licensed B45 versions built in Canada, Beechcraft delivered the last Model B45s in 1959.
Total production of the Continental-engined versions in the US and abroad was 1,904 aircraft, in 1955 Beechcraft developed a jet-engined derivative, again as a private venture, and again in the hope of winning a contract from the US military. The first flight of the Model 73, registered N134B, was on 18 December 1955, the Model 73 was evaluated by the USAF, which ordered the Cessna T-37, and the USN, which decided upon the Temco TT Pinto. The Beechcraft Model 73 was not put into production and the prototype is displayed at the Kansas Aviation Museum. After a production hiatus of almost 15 years, the T-34C Turbo-Mentor powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25 turboprop engine was developed in 1973, development proceeded at the behest of the USN, which supplied two T-34Bs for conversion. After re-engining with the PT6, the two aircraft were redesignated as YT-34Cs, the first of these flying with turboprop power for the first time on 21 September 1973. Mentor production restarted in 1975 for deliveries of T-34Cs to the USN and of the T-34C-1 armed version for export customers in 1977, the last Turbo-Mentor rolled off the production line in 1990.
With over 35 years of service, the T-34C has been replaced by the T-6 Texan II. The first flight of the Model 45 was on 2 December 1948, in 1950, the USAF ordered three Model A45T test aircraft, which were given the military designation YT-34. A long competition followed to determine a new trainer, and in 1953 the Air Force put the Model 45 into service as the T-34A Mentor, after extensive testing, the USAF ordered the Mentor into production as the T-34A in early 1953. The first production T-34A was delivered to Edwards Air Force Base, California, in October 1953 for evaluation, the T-34A commenced service as USAFs initial primary flight trainer at contract pilot training air bases across the southern United States, replacing extant North American AT-6 Texan trainers. Following training in the T-34A, USAF pilot trainees would advance to the North American T-28A Trojan for intermediate training, the T-34A Mentor remained the standard USAF primary trainer until the introduction of the Cessna T-37 Tweet jet trainer in the late 1950s, replacing both the T-34A and T-28A
HMS Warrior (R31)
In the effort to get bigger, the RCN returned the escort carriers currently on loan and Nabob in exchange for the loan of two light fleet carriers. The acquisition of two ships and Magnificent, was completed in January 1945 with the option to purchase them outright at a date, negotiations were completed in May, however the war ended before the ships were completed. Construction and serviceWarrior was launched on 20 May 1944 and completed on 24 January 1946 and she was loaned to the RCN, commissioned as HMCS Warrior and placed under the command of Captain Frank Houghton. She entered Halifax harbour on 31 March 1946, a week after leaving Portsmouth and she was escorted by the destroyer HMCS Micmac and the minesweeper HMCS Middlesex. Initially, Warrior was equipped with Seafires of 803 Squadron and Fireflies of 825 Squadron, the RCN experienced problems with the unheated equipment during operations in cold North Atlantic waters off eastern Canada during 1947. The ship was transferred west to Esquimalt in November 1947, the RCN deemed her unfit for service and, rather than retrofit her with equipment heaters and with reduced defence spending, the RCN could not afford two aircraft carriers.
Warrior was returned to the Royal Navy in exchange for Magnificent in February 1948, HMCS Warrior returned to the United Kingdom and was recommissioned as HMS Warrior on 23 March 1948. She went into reserve in September 1949, and was recommissioned in June 1950 as a transport for troops, the ship underwent refit during most of 1952 and 1953 at Devonport Dockyard. During 1954 Warrior was deployed to the Far East, patrolling off the coast of recently pacified Korea, after returning to England another refit was carried out in 1955. This time Warrior received a slightly angled flight deck for trials. After the operation was completed the Avengers were catapulted into the sea as they were contaminated with radioactivity, considered surplus to requirements by the late 1950s, the Royal Navy decommissioned Warrior in February 1958 and offered her for sale. The return voyage from the Grapple tests was via Argentina, with visits and demonstrations to the Argentine Navy. The anti-aircraft armament was reduced to twelve 40 mm guns.
In May 1962 the ship was provided with one quadruple. They were only embarked during their voyage from the United States to Argentina. The ship used the North American T-28 Trojan trainer, in the armed version Fennec built in France, after the carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo entered service in 1969, Independencia moved to the reserves. List of aircraft carriers List of ships of the Argentine Navy Arbuckle, the Illustrated Guide to Aircraft Carriers of the World. A History Canadian Naval Aviation, 1918-1962, Naval Historical Section of the Canadian Forces Headquarters, Department of National Defence
Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola, The Cradle of Naval Aviation, is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits. Because of contamination by metals and other hazardous materials during this history. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard, the NATTC facility at NAS Pensacola is home to the USAF Detachment 1, a GSU whose home unit is the 359th TRS located at Eglin AFB. Detachment 1 trains over 800 Airmen annually in three structural maintenance disciplines, Low Observable, Non-Destructive Inspection, and Aircraft Structural Maintenance. TRAWING SIX consists of the Training Squadron 4 Warbucks, Training Squadron 10 Wildcats and Training Squadron 86 Sabrehawks, flying the T-45C Goshawk, the 479 FTG is a tenant activity at NAS Pensacola and a geographically separated unit of the 12th Flying Training Wing at Randolph AFB, Texas. The 479 FTG operates USAF T-6A Texan II and T-1A Jayhawk aircraft, a total of 131 aircraft operate out of Sherman Field, generating 110,000 flight operations each year.
The site now occupied by NAS Pensacola has been controlled by varying nations, in 1559, Spanish explorer Don Tristan de Luna founded a colony on Santa Rosa Island, considered the first European settlement of the Pensacola area. The Spanish built the wooden Fort San Carlos de Austria on this bluff in 1697-1698, although besieged by Indians in 1707, the fort was not taken. Spain was competing in North America with the French, who settled lower Louisiana, the French destroyed this fort when they captured Pensacola in 1719. After Great Britain defeated the French in the Seven Years War and exchanging some territory with Spain, British colonists took over this site, in 1781, as an ally of the American rebels during the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish captured Pensacola. Britain ceded West Florida to Spain following the war, the Spanish completed the fort San Carlos de Barrancas in 1797. Barranca is a Spanish word for bluff, the natural feature that makes this location ideal for the fortress.
Pensacola was taken by General Andrew Jackson in November 1814 during the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States, British forces destroyed Fort San Carlos as they swept through the area. The Spanish remained in control of the region until 1821, when the Adams-Onís Treaty confirmed the purchase of Spanish Florida by the United States, in 1825, the US designated this area for the Pensacola Navy Yard was designated and Congress appropriated $6,000 for a lighthouse. Operational that year, it is said to be haunted by a light keeper murdered by his wife, Fort Barrancas was rebuilt, 1839-1844, the U. S. Army deactivating it on 15 April 1947. Designated a National Historic Site in 1960, control of the site was transferred to the National Park Service in 1971, after extensive restoration during 1971-1980, Fort Barrancas was opened to the public. Navy captains William Bainbridge, Lewis Warrington, and James Biddle selected the site on Pensacola Bay, Construction began in April 1826, and the Pensacola Navy Yard, known as the Warrington Navy Yard, became one of the best equipped naval stations in the country.
Pensacola Navy Yard was built with enslaved labor, Captain Lewis Warrington The first Commandant of the Pensacola Navy Yard complained to the Board of Navy Commissioners “neither laborers nor mechanics are to be obtained here
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases. In contrast, maritime aviation is the operation of aircraft in a maritime role, an exception to this is the United States Coast Guard, which is considered part of U. S. naval aviation. S. Naval aviation, whether based afloat or ashore, Naval aviation is typically projected to a position nearer the target by way of an aircraft carrier. Carrier-based aircraft must be enough to withstand demanding carrier operations. Early experiments on the use of kites for naval reconnaissance took place in 1903 at Woolwich Common for the Admiralty, in 1908 Prime Minister H. H. Asquith approved the formation of an Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence to investigate the potential for naval aviation. This resulted in the construction of Mayfly in 1909, the first air component of the navy to become operational, and the genesis of modern naval aviation. Two hundred applications were received, and four were accepted, Lieutenant C R Samson, Lieutenant A M Longmore, Lieutenant A Gregory and Captain E L Gerrard, RMLI.
The French established an aviation capability in 1910 with the establishment of the Service Aeronautique. U. S. naval aviation began with pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss who contracted with the Navy to demonstrate that airplanes could take off from, one of his pilots, Eugene Ely, took off from the USS Birmingham anchored off the Virginia coast in November 1910. Two months Ely landed aboard another cruiser, USS Pennsylvania, in San Francisco Bay, the platforms erected on those vessels were temporary measures. The U. S. Navy and Glenn Curtiss experienced two firsts during January 1911, $25,000 was appropriated for the Bureau of Navigation to purchase three airplanes and in the spring of 1911 four additional officers were trained as pilots by the Wright brothers and Curtiss. A camp with a landing field was established on the Severn River at Greenbury Point, near Annapolis. Mustin successfully tested the concept of the launch in August 1912. The first permanent naval air station was established at Pensacola, Florida, in January 1912, the British battleship HMS Africa took part in aircraft experiments at Sheerness.
Africa transferred her flight equipment to her sister ship Hibernia, in May 1912, with Commander Samson again flying the S.38, the first ever instance of an aircraft to take off from a ship which was underway occurred. Hibernia steamed at 10.5 knots at the Royal Fleet Review in Weymouth Bay, Hibernia transferred her aviation equipment to battleship London. The first aircraft participation in naval manoeuvres took place in 1913 with the cruiser Hermes converted into a seaplane carrier, in 1914, naval aviation was split again, and became the Royal Naval Air Service. However, shipboard naval aviation had begun in the Royal Navy, other early operators of seaplanes were Germany, within its Marine-Fliegerabteiling naval aviation units within the Kaiserliche Marine, and Russia