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Argonauts

The Argonauts were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts" means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe in the area. After the death of King Cretheus, the Aeolian Pelias usurped the throne from his half-brother Aeson and became king of Iolcus in Thessaly; because of this unlawful act, an oracle warned him. Pelias put to death every prominent descendant of Aeolus he could, but spared Aeson because of the pleas of their mother Tyro. Instead, Pelias forced him to renounce his inheritance. Aeson married Alcimede. Pelias intended to kill the baby at once, but Alcimede summoned her kinswomen to weep over him as if he were stillborn, she smuggled the baby to Mount Pelion. He was raised by the trainer of heroes; when Jason was 20 years old, an oracle ordered him to dress as a Magnesian and head to the Iolcan court.

While traveling Jason lost his sandal crossing the muddy Anavros river while helping an old woman. The goddess was angry with King Pelias for killing his stepmother Sidero after she had sought refuge in Hera's temple. Another oracle warned Pelias to be on his guard against a man with one shoe. Pelias was presiding over a sacrifice to Poseidon with several neighboring kings in attendance. Among the crowd stood a tall youth in leopard skin with only one sandal. Pelias recognized, he could not kill him. Instead, he asked Jason: "What would you do if an oracle announced that one of your fellow-citizens were destined to kill you?" Jason replied that he would send him to go and fetch the Golden Fleece, not knowing that Hera had put those words in his mouth. Jason learned that Pelias was being haunted by the ghost of Phrixus. Phrixus had fled from Orchomenus riding on a divine ram to avoid being sacrificed and took refuge in Colchis where he was denied proper burial. According to an oracle, Iolcus would never prosper unless his ghost was taken back in a ship, together with the golden ram's fleece.

This fleece now hung from a tree in the grove of the Colchian Ares, guarded night and day by a dragon that never slept. Pelias swore before Zeus that he would give up the throne at Jason's return while expecting that Jason's attempt to steal the Golden Fleece would be a fatal enterprise. However, Hera acted in Jason's favour during the perilous journey. There is no definite list of the Argonauts. H. J. Rose explains this was because "an Argonautic ancestor was an addition to the proudest of pedigrees." The following list is collated from several lists given in ancient sources. Several more names are discoverable from other sources: Amyrus, eponym of a Thessalian city, is given by Stephanus of Byzantium as "one of the Argonauts". Philammon, son of Apollo was reported one of the Argonauts. Jason, along with his other 49 crew-mates, sailed off from Iolcus to Colchis to fetch the golden fleece; the Argonauts first stopped at Lemnos. The reason of, as follows: for several years, the women did not honor and make offerings to Aphrodite and because of her anger, she visited them with a noisome smell.

Therefore, their spouses took captive women from the neighboring country of Thrace and bedded with them. Dishonored, all the Lemnian women, except Hypsipyle, were instigated by the same goddess in conspiring to kill their fathers and husbands, they deposed King Thoas, who should have died along with the whole tribe of men, but was secretly spared by his daughter Hypsipyle. She put Thoas on board a ship. In the meantime, the Argonauts sailing along, the guardian of the harbour Iphinoe saw them and announced their coming to Hypsipyle, the new queen. Polyxo who by virtue of her middle age, gave advice that she should put them under obligation to the gods of hospitality and invite them to a friendly reception. Hypsipyle bedded with him, she bore him sons and Nebrophonus or Deipylus. The other Argonauts consorted with the Lemnian women, their descendants were called Minyans, since some among them had emigrated from Minyan Orchomenus to Iolcus.. The Lemnian women gave the names of the Argonauts to the children.

Delayed many days there, they were chided by Hercules, departed. But when the other women learned that Hypsipyle had spared her father, they tried to kill her, she fled from them, but pirates captured and took her to Thebes, where they sold her as a slave to King Lycus. Her son Euneus became king of Lemnos. In order to purify the island from blood guilt, he ordered that all Lemnian hearth-fires be put off for nine days and a new fire be brought on a ship from Apollo's altar in Delos. After Lemnos, the Argonauts made their second stop at Bear Mountain, an island of the Propontis shaped like a bear; the locals, called the Doliones, were all descended from Poseidon. Their king Cyzicus, son of Eusorus, who had just got married received the Argonauts

Karuna Supreme

Karuna Supreme is an album by American jazz saxophonist John Handy, recorded in 1975 and released on the MPS label. Allmusic awarded the album 4½ stars stating "Karuna Supreme, recorded in 1975, is one of the earliest true fusions of Indian music and jazz, remains one of the most successful... The level of communication among the players throughout this session would be difficult to surpass; this is one of those rare East-meets-West recordings that succeeds at every level. Recommended". "Ganesha's Jubilee Dance" - 9:19 "Karuna Supreme" - 11:06 "The Soul and the Atma" - 20:44 John Handy - alto saxophone Ali Akbar Khan - sarod Zakir Hussain - tabla Yogish S. Sahota - tanpura

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a condition in which a change from lying to standing causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate. This occurs with symptoms that may include lightheadedness, trouble thinking, blurred vision or weakness. Other associated conditions include Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, mast cell activation syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic headaches, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia; the causes of POTS are varied. It begins after a viral infection, surgery or pregnancy. Risk factors include a family history of the condition. Diagnosis in adults is based on an increase in heart rate of more than 30 beats per minute within ten minutes of standing up, accompanied by symptoms. Low blood pressure with standing, does not occur. Other conditions which can cause similar symptoms, such as dehydration, heart problems, adrenal insufficiency and Parkinson disease, must not be present. Treatment may include avoiding factors that bring on symptoms, increasing dietary salt and water, compression stockings, cognitive behavioral therapy and medications.

Medications used may include beta blockers, midodrine or fludrocortisone. More than 50% of people whose condition was triggered by a viral infection get better within five years. About 90% improve with treatment, it is estimated. The average age of onset is 20 years old, it occurs about 5 times more in females. In adults the primary symptom is an increase in heart rate of more than 30 beats per minute within ten minutes of standing up; the resulting heart rate is more than 120 beats per minute. For people aged between 12 and 19, the minimum increase for diagnosis is 40 beats per minute; this symptom is known as orthostatic tachycardia. It occurs without any coinciding drop in blood pressure, as that would indicate orthostatic hypotension. Certain medications to treat POTS may cause orthostatic hypotension, it is accompanied by other features of orthostatic intolerance—symptoms which develop in an upright position and are relieved by reclining. These orthostatic symptoms include palpitations, light-headedness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, weakness or "heaviness" in the lower legs, blurred vision and cognitive difficulties.

Symptoms may be exacerbated with prolonged sitting, prolonged standing, heat, exercise, or eating a large meal. In up to one third of people with POTS, fainting occurs in response to postural changes or exercise. Migraine-like headaches are common, sometimes with symptoms worsening in an upright position; some people with POTS develop acrocyanosis, or blotchy, red/blue skin upon standing over the feet. 48 % of people with POTS report 32 % report sleep disturbances. Others exhibit only the cardinal symptom of orthostatic tachycardia; the symptoms of POTS can be caused by several distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. These mechanisms are poorly understood, can overlap, with many people showing features of multiple POTS types. Many people with POTS exhibit low blood volume, which can decrease the rate of blood flow to the heart. To compensate for this, the heart increases its cardiac output by beating faster, leading to the symptoms of presyncope and reflex tachycardia. In the 30% to 60% of cases classified as hyperadrenergic POTS, norepinephrine levels are elevated on standing due to hypovolemia or partial autonomic neuropathy.

A smaller minority of people with POTS have standing norepinephrine levels that are elevated in the absence of hypovolemia and autonomic neuropathy. The high norepinephrine levels contribute to symptoms of tachycardia. Another subtype, neuropathic POTS, is associated with denervation of sympathetic nerves in the lower limbs. In this subtype, it is thought that impaired constriction of the blood vessels causes blood to pool in the veins of the lower limbs. Heart rate increases to compensate for this blood pooling. In up to 50% of cases, POTS is associated with recent viral illness, it may be associated with physical deconditioning or chronic fatigue syndrome. During viral illness or prolonged bed rest, the body may become conditioned to orthostatic intolerance and excitability of the central nervous system, resulting in a failure to re-adapt to the normal demands of standing or exercise. POTS is more common in females than males, it has been shown to be linked in patients with acute stressors such as pregnancy, recent surgery, or recent trauma.

POTS has been linked to patients with a history of autoimmune diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, cancer. Genetics plays a role, with one study finding that 1 in 8 POTS patients reported a history of orthostatic intolerance in their family. If POTS is caused by another condition, it may be classified as secondary POTS. Chronic diabetes mellitus is one common cause. POTS can be secondary to gastrointestinal disorders that are associated with low fluid intake due to nausea or fluid loss through diarrhea, leading to hypovolemia. Systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases have been linked to POTS. There is a subset of patients who present with both POTS and mast cell activation syndrome, it is not yet clear whether MCAS is a secondary cause of POTS or comorbid, however treating MCAS for these patients can improve POTS symptoms. POTS can co-occur in all types of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, a hereditary connective tissue disorder marked by loose hypermobil