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Aries (constellation)

Aries is one of the constellations of the zodiac. It is located in the northern celestial hemisphere between Pisces to the west and Taurus to the east; the name Aries is Latin for ram, its symbol is, representing a ram's horns. It is one of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, remains one of the 88 modern constellations, it is ranking 39th overall size, with an area of 441 square degrees. Although Aries came to represent the ram whose fleece became the Golden Fleece of Ancient Greek mythology, it has represented a ram since late Babylonian times. Before that, the stars of Aries formed a farmhand. Different cultures have incorporated the stars of Aries into different constellations including twin inspectors in China and a porpoise in the Marshall Islands. Aries is a dim constellation, possessing only four bright stars: Hamal, Mesarthim, 41 Arietis; the few deep-sky objects within the constellation are quite faint and include several pairs of interacting galaxies.

Several meteor showers appear to radiate from Aries, including the Daytime Arietids and the Epsilon Arietids. Aries is recognized as an official constellation now, albeit as a specific region of the sky, by the International Astronomical Union, it was defined in ancient texts as a specific pattern of stars, has remained a constellation since ancient times. In the description of the Babylonian zodiac given in the clay tablets known as the MUL. APIN, the constellation, now known as Aries, was the final station along the ecliptic; the MUL. APIN was a comprehensive table of the risings and settings of stars, which served as an agricultural calendar. Modern-day Aries was known as MULLÚ.ḪUN. GÁ, "The Agrarian Worker" or "The Hired Man". Although compiled in the 12th or 11th century BC, the MUL. APIN reflects a tradition which marks the Pleiades as the vernal equinox, the case with some precision at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age; the earliest identifiable reference to Aries as a distinct constellation comes from the boundary stones that date from 1350 to 1000 BC.

On several boundary stones, a zodiacal ram figure is distinct from the other characters present. The shift in identification from the constellation as the Agrarian Worker to the Ram occurred in Babylonian tradition because of its growing association with Dumuzi the Shepherd. By the time the MUL. APIN was created -- by 1000 BC -- modern Aries was identified with a hired laborer; the exact timing of this shift is difficult to determine due to the lack of images of Aries or other ram figures. In ancient Egyptian astronomy, Aries was associated with the god Amon-Ra, depicted as a man with a ram's head and represented fertility and creativity; this is one of the reasons. Because it was the location of the vernal equinox, it was called the "Indicator of the Reborn Sun". During the times of the year when Aries was prominent, priests would process statues of Amon-Ra to temples, a practice, modified by Persian astronomers centuries later. Aries acquired the title of "Lord of the Head" in Egypt, referring to its symbolic and mythological importance.

Aries was not accepted as a constellation until classical times. In Hellenistic astrology, the constellation of Aries is associated with the golden ram of Greek mythology that rescued Phrixus and Helle on orders from Hermes, taking Phrixus to the land of Colchis. Phrixos and Helle were the daughter of King Athamas and his first wife Nephele; the king's second wife, was jealous and wished to kill his children. To accomplish this, she induced a famine in Boeotia falsified a message from the Oracle of Delphi that said Phrixos must be sacrificed to end the famine. Athamas was about to sacrifice his son atop Mount Laphystium. Helle fell off of Aries's back in flight and drowned in the Dardanelles called the Hellespont in her honor. After arriving, Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Zeus and gave the Fleece to Aeëtes of Colchis, who rewarded him with an engagement to his daughter Chalciope. Aeëtes hung its skin in a sacred place where it became known as the Golden Fleece and was guarded by a dragon. In a myth, this Golden Fleece was stolen by Jason and the Argonauts.

Aries has been depicted as a crouched, wingless ram with its head turned towards Taurus. Ptolemy asserted in his Almagest that Hipparchus depicted Alpha Arietis as the ram's muzzle, though Ptolemy did not include it in his constellation figure. Instead, it was listed as an "unformed star", denoted as "the star over the head". John Flamsteed, in his Atlas Coelestis, followed Ptolemy's description by mapping it above the figure's head. Flamsteed followed the general convention of maps by depicting Aries lying down. Astrologically, Aries has been associated with its humors, it was associated with Mars, both the planet and the god. It was considered to govern Western Europe and Syria, to indicate a strong temper in a person; the First Point of Aries, the location of the vernal equinox, is named for the constellation. This is because the Sun crossed the celestial equator from south to north in Aries more than two millennia ago. Hipparchus defined it in 130 BC. as a point south of Gamma Arietis. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, the First Point of Aries has since moved into Pisces and will move into Aquarius by around 2600 AD.

The Sun now appears in Aries from late April through mid May, though the constel

History of sundials

A sundial is a device that indicates time by using a light spot or shadow cast by the position of the Sun on a reference scale. As the Earth turns on its polar axis, the sun appears to cross the sky from east to west, rising at sun-rise from beneath the horizon to a zenith at mid-day and falling again behind the horizon at sunset. Both the azimuth and the altitude can be used to create time measuring devices. Sundials have been invented independently in every major culture and become more accurate and sophisticated as the culture developed. A sundial uses local solar time. Before the coming of the railways in the 1840s, local time was displayed on a sundial and was used by the government and commerce. Before the invention of the clock the sundial was the only source of time, after the invention, the sundial became more important as the clock needed to be reset from a sundial- as its accuracy was poor. A clock and a dial were used together to measure longitude. Dials were laid out using straight compasses.

In the late nineteenth century sundials became objects of academic interest. The use of logarithms allowed algebraic methods of laying out dials to be studied. No longer utilitarian, sundials remained as popular ornaments, several popular books promoted that interest- and gave constructional details. Affordable scientific calculators made the algebraic methods as accessible as the geometric constructions- and the use of computers made dial plate design trivial; the heritage of sundials was recognised and sundial societies were set up worldwide, certain legislations made studying sundials part of their national school curriculums. The earliest household clocks known, from the archaeological finds, are the shadow clocks in ancient Babylonian astronomy. Ancient analemmatic sundials of the same era and their prototype have been discovered on the territory of modern Russia. Much earlier obelisks, once thought to have been used as sundials, placed at temples built in honor of a pharaoh, are now thought to serve only as a memorial.

Humans were telling time from shadow-lengths at an earlier date, but this is hard to verify. In 700 BCE, the Old Testament describes a sundial — the "dial of Ahaz" mentioned in Isaiah 38:8 and 2 Kings 20:9 —, of Egyptian or Babylonian design. Sundials are believed to have existed in China since ancient times, but little is known of their history. There is an early reference to sundials from 104 BCE in an assembly of calendar experts; the ancient Greeks developed many of the forms of the sundial. Sundials are believed to have been introduced into Greece by Anaximander of Miletus, c. 560 BCE. According to Herodotus, Greek sundials were derived from their Babylonian counterparts; the Greeks were well-positioned to develop the science of sundials, having developed the science of geometry, in particular discovering the conic sections that are traced by a sundial nodus. The mathematician and astronomer Theodosius of Bithynia is said to have invented a universal sundial that could be used anywhere on Earth.

The Romans adopted the Greek sundials, the first record of a sundial in Rome is 293 BCE according to Pliny. Plautus complained in one of his plays about his day being "chopped into pieces" by the ubiquitous sundials. Writing in c. 25 BCE, the Roman author Vitruvius listed all the known types of dials in Book IX of his De Architectura, together with their Greek inventors. All of these are believed to be nodus-type sundials, differing in the surface that receives the shadow of the nodus; the hemicyclium of Berosus the Chaldean: a truncated, hemispherical surface the hemispherium or scaphe of Aristarchus of Samos: a full, hemispherical surface the discus of Aristarchus of Samos: a circular equatorial dial with nodus the arachne of Eudoxus of Cnidus or Apollonius of Perga: half a circular equatorial dial with nodus the plinthium or lacunar of Scopinas of Syracuse: an example in the Circus Flaminius) the pros ta historoumena of Parmenio the pros pan klima of Theodosius of Bithynia and Andreas the pelekinon of Patrocles: the classic double-bladed axe design of hyperbolae on a planar surface the cone of Dionysodorus: a concave, conical surface the quiver of Apollonius of Perga the conarachne the conical plinthium the antiboreum: a hemispherium that faces North, with the sunlight entering through a small hole.

The Romans built a large sundial in c. 10 BCE, the Solarium Augusti, a classic nodus-based obelisk casting a shadow on a planar pelekinon. The Globe of Matelica is felt to have been part of an Ancient Roman sundial from the first or second century; the custom of measuring time by one's shadow has persisted since ancient times. In Aristophanes' play, Assembly of Women, Praxagora asks her husband to return when his shadow reaches 10 feet; the Venerable Bede is reported to have instructed his followers in the art of telling time by interpreting their shadow lengths. However, Bede's important association with sundials is that he encouraged the use of canonical sundials to fix the times of prayers. During this era, while timekeeping technology stagnated or was forgotten in Europe, in the Islamic world it advanced, both because of the Islamic Golden Age and because timekeeping was important for determining when to pray, their improvements included using trigonometry to increase accuracy. Advanced technology and knowledge brought back from the Islamic world during the Crusades kicked off the Renaissance in Europ

List of streets in Edmonton

The following is a list of the north–south arterial thoroughfares in the city of Edmonton, Canada. Numbered streets run north-south with street numbers increasing to the west. In 1982 a quadrant system was adopted. Meridian Street, portions which run adjacent to the east leg of Anthony Henday Drive, divide the east and west quadrants. Edmonton has three quadrants: northwest and northeast. Addresses on 33 Street and east have been encouraged to include NW to avoid confusion with addresses in the NE quadrant; the majority of major north-south streets are aligned with road allowances. 17 Street NE is a segmented street and services rural and industrial areas. The southern section continues into Sherwood Park as a major arterial road. North of Highway 15, the northern segment is part of Highway 28A and is part of Canada's National Highway System. 17 Street NW is a major arterial road in east Edmonton, west Strathcona County. It services Refinery Row, but the southern portion runs through developing residential areas.

It provides access to Strathcona Science Provincial Park. 17 Street crosses Anthony Henday Drive as 17 Street SW, continues to the city limits at 41 Avenue SW, continuing into Leduc County as Range Road 235. Neighbourhoods 34 Street is located in east Edmonton, west Strathcona County, it services both residential, industrial areas. The boundary between the City of Edmonton and Strathcona County runs on the west side of this right-of-way from Sherwood Park Freeway to Baseline Road. 34 Street crosses Anthony Henday Drive as 34 Street SW to the city limits at 41 Avenue SW, continuing into Leduc County as Range Road 240. Neighbourhoods 50 Street is located in the town of Beaumont and east Edmonton as three separate segments, it begins in Beaumont at Highway 625, where it continues south as Highway 814, enters Edmonton at 41 Avenue SW. 50 Street is segmented by the North Saskatchewan River and the northern leg of Anthony Henday Drive. The portion between Yellowhead Trail and Manning Drive is part of Highway 15.

66 Street is divided into two major segments. The southern segment begins at 41 Avenue SW and travels north through Mill Woods and becomes 75 Street at Whitemud Drive, it is part of a 39 km continuous roadway that runs from 41 Avenue SW to 33 Street NE and includes portions of 75 Street, Wayne Gretzky Drive, portions of Fort Road, as well as Manning Drive. The northern segment begins at Ada Boulevard, north of the North Saskatchewan River, past Londonderry Mall, to Valour Avenue in Sturgeon County outside of CFB Edmonton. Neighbourhoods 75 Street is part of the inner ring road, it is part of a 39 km continuous roadway that runs from 41 Avenue SW to 33 Street NE and the southern portion of 66 Street, Wayne Gretzky Drive, portions of Fort Road, as well as Manning Drive. 82 Street is a major arterial road in north Edmonton. It ends at Valour Avenue in Sturgeon County at CFB Edmonton. Neighbourhoods 83 Street and Connors Road is a major arterial road in east Edmonton, it connects Downtown Edmonton with its mature southeastern neighbourhoods.

83 Street travels north. On the north side of the Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, it intersects 85 Street and 90 Avenue at a five exit roundabout known as the Bonnie Doon Traffic Circle; the roadway turns northeast as Connors Road towards downtown. At 95 Avenue it becomes a 3 lane road with a centre reversible lane and descends into the North Saskatchewan River valley, intersecting Scona Road and 98 Avenue at an interchange. Travellers have the option to cross the North Saskatchewan River using either the James MacDonald Bridge or the Low Level Bridge. 83 Street and Connors Road used to be signed as Highway 14A between Whyte Avenue and the Low Level Bridge due to its connection with downtown. The designation was phased out in the 1970s. Neighbourhoods 91 Street is a major arterial road in south Edmonton, its northern terminus travels south along the western edge of Mill Woods. South of Anthony Henday Drive it becomes 91 Street SW and becomes Ewing Trail south of 25 Avenue SW. At 41 Avenue SW, the roadway enters Leduc County where it becomes the Nisku Spine Road, a developing arterial road that presently connects with Nisku and will connect Highway 2A south of Leduc.91 Street is part of a cancelled freeway plan where it would run from Highway 2 near Gateway Park to downtown Edmonton via the Mill Creek Ravine.

Neighbourhoods 97 Street is a major arterial road in north Edmonton, Canada. It is used to take vehicles in and out of Downtown Edmonton to the city's northern suburban neighbourhoods and to the region's main military installation, CFB Edmonton. North of Yellowhead Trail, it is designated as part of Highway 28. 99 Street is a major arterial road in south Edmonton. It begins as Parsons Road at 91 Street in the Ellerslie area and travels north past the eastern edge of South Edmonton Common. At 34 Avenue, the roadway becomes 99 Street and serves the industrial areas adjacent to the CP rail yards and mature residential areas near Old Strathcona. At Saskatchewan Drive, the roadway becomes Scona Road and descends into the North Saskatchewan River valley, intersecting Connors Road and 98 Avenue at an interchange. Travellers have the option

Pritzker family

The Pritzker family is an American family engaged in entrepreneurship and philanthropy, one of the wealthiest families in the United States of America, being near the top of Forbes magazine's "America's Richest Families" list since the magazine began listings in 1982. Its fortune arose in the 20th century through the founding and expansion of the Hyatt hotel corporation. Family members still own Hyatt, owned the Marmon Group, a conglomerate of manufacturing and industrial service companies that has since been sold to Berkshire Hathaway. Other holdings have included the Superior Bank of Chicago, which collapsed in 2001, the TransUnion credit bureau, Braniff airlines, McCall's magazine, the Royal Caribbean cruise line; the Pritzker family is of Jewish descent and based in Illinois. In 1995, Jay Pritzker, the cofounder of Hyatt, stepped down and Thomas Pritzker took control of The Pritzker Organization; when Jay died in 1999, the family split the business into 11 pieces worth $1.4 billion each, but had to settle a lawsuit from two family members who received $500 million each in 2005.

In 2011, the dissolution had been completed and the cousins had gone their separate ways, with some pursuing business and others pursuing philanthropic or artistic ventures. After the division of the family fortune, according to Inside Philanthropy, there are so many Pritzkers, with so many different vehicles or foundations for their philanthropic giving that it is difficult to keep track. Members of the Pritzker family on the Forbes 400 list of "The 400 Richest Americans 2015": A. N. Pritzker Elementary School Jay Pritzker Pavilion at Chicago's Millennium Park Jay Pritzker Academy, Siem Riep Cambodia Pritzker Architecture Prize Pritzker Family Children's Zoo at the Lincoln Park Zoo Pritzker College Prep, A Campus of the Noble Network of Charter High Schools Pritzker Institute of Biomedical Science and Engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology Pritzker School of Law at Northwestern University Pritzker Legal Research Center at Northwestern Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering at UChicago Pritzker Marine Biological Research Center at New College of Florida Pritzker Galleries of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism at the Art Institute of Chicago Pritzker Traubert Family Library at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools The Pritzker Organization Pritzker Edition of Zohar, translation & commentary by Daniel Matt and, for last 3 volumes, Nathan Wolski and Joel Hecker.

The Pritzker Estate List of largest houses in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area List of largest houses in the United States

Lyubov Axelrod

Lyubov Isaakovna Axelrod was a Russian revolutionary, Marxist philosopher and an art theoretician. Axelrod was born in the family of a rabbi in Vilenkovichi, a village in the Vilna gubernia of the Russian Empire, now in Pastavy Raion, Belarus, she became involved with the narodnik organization at age 16. She emigrated to Switzerland in 1887, with the assistance of Leo Jogiches (lover of Rosa Luxemburg when the Vitebsk organisation collapsed in the wake of an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Alexander III of Russia organised by Aleksandr Ulyanov, older brother of Vladimir Lenin. In 1900, she received her Ph. D. in philosophy from Bern University. In 1892 she became a Marxist and joined the Geneva-based Emancipation of Labor group, becoming a close associate of its leader Georgi Plekhanov. In 1902, she worked with Plekhanov and Lenin on the newspaper Iskra, as a contributor and an organiser; when the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks at its Second Congress in 1903, she joined the Bolsheviks, but left split with them soon afterwards, at the same time as Plekhanov.

In 1906 Axelrod returned to Russia during an amnesty and became a leading Russian authority on Marxist philosophy, second only to Plekhanov, as well as working with the Mensheviks' illegal organisation. Her Philosophical Essays, published in 1906, were acknowledged by both the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks as the definitive rebuttal of the'neo-Kantians' Nikolai Berdyaev and Pyotr Struve, former Marxists who had broekn with the revolutionaries, she was critical of both Alexander Bogdanov and Vladimir Lenin during their debate over Empiriocriticism in 1908-1909, branding their ideas anti-Marxist. In 1910, in St Petersburg, she joined the Central Trade Union Bureau, illegal. After the outbreak of war in 1914, like Plekhanov, she argued that Germany was the aggressor and Russia had a right to defend itself, she teamed up with two other prominent Marxist'defencists', Pyotr Maslov and Aleksandr Potresov to produce the fortnightly journal Delo. After the February Revolution of 1917, she joined the central committee of the Menshevik party, following the Bolshevik, she was reunited with Plekhanov in the little anti-Bolshevik group Yedinstvo.

She abstained from party politics after the death of Plekhanov, made it her life's work to defend his philosophy. In the 1920s she first worked at the Institute of Red Professors and at the Soviet Institute of Philosophy, her appointment to lecture in philosophy at Sverdlov University, in 1921, was blocked by the Orgburo, but when Lenin was consulted he said that it should be allowed, on condition that she was kept under observation in case she started promoting Menshevism. In the 1930s her version of Marxism was denounced as a Mechanistic revision of Marxism and she faded into obscurity, she died on 5 February 1946 in Moscow.: Site devoted to Lyubov Axelrod Frederick Choate's site on Lyubov Axelrod

Île Amsterdam

Île Amsterdam known as Amsterdam Island, New Amsterdam, or Nouvelle Amsterdam, is an island of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in the southern Indian Ocean that together with neighbouring Île Saint-Paul 90 km to the south forms one of the five districts of the territory. The research station at Martin-de-Viviès, first called Camp Heurtin and La Roche Godon, is the only settlement on the island and is the seasonal home to about thirty researchers and staff studying biology and geomagnetics; the island is equidistant to the land masses of Madagascar and Antarctica – as well as the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Cocos Islands. The island is named after the ship Nieuw Amsterdam, in turn named after the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam that became New York City in the United States; the first person known to have sighted the island was the Spanish explorer Juan Sebastián de Elcano, on 18 March 1522, during his circumnavigation of the world. Elcano did not give the island a name.

On 17 June 1633, after sighting it, Dutch mariner Anthonie van Diemen named the island after his ship, Nieuw Amsterdam. The first recorded landing on the island occurred in December 1696, led by the Dutch explorer Willem de Vlamingh. French mariner Pierre François Péron wrote that he was marooned on the island between 1792 and 1795. Péron's Memoires, in which he describes his experiences, were published in a limited edition, now an expensive collectors' item. However, Île Amsterdam and Île Saint-Paul were confused at the time and Péron may have been marooned on Saint-Paul. Sealers are said to have landed on the island, for the first time, in 1789. Between that date and 1876, 47 sealing vessels are recorded at the island. Relics of the sealing era can still be found; the island was a stop on the Macartney Mission during its voyage to China in 1793. On 11 October 1833, the British barque Lady Munro was wrecked at the island. Of the 97 persons aboard, 21 survivors were picked up two weeks by a US sealing schooner, General Jackson.

John Balleny in command of the exploration and sealing vessel Eliza Scott visited the island in November 1838 in search of seals. He returned with a few fish and reported having seen the remains of a hut and the carcase of a whale; the islands of Île Amsterdam and Île Saint-Paul were first claimed by Martin Dupeyrat for France in 1843. However, the governor of Réunion refused to ratify the act of possession and France took formal control only in October 1892. In January 1871 an attempt to settle the island was made by a party led by Heurtin, a French resident of Réunion. After seven months, their attempts to raise cattle and grow crops were fruitless, they returned to Réunion, abandoning the cattle on the island. In May 1880 HMS Raleigh circumnavigated the island searching for a missing ship the Knowsley Hall. A cutter and gig were despatched to the island to search for signs of habitation. There was a flagpole on Hoskin Point and 50–70 yards north were two huts, one of which had an intact roof and contained three bunks, empty casks, an iron pot and the eggshells and feathers of sea-birds.

There was an upturned serviceable boat in the other hut, believed to belong to the fishermen who visited the island. The islands were attached to the French colony of Madagascar from 21 November 1924 until 6 August 1955 when the French Southern and Antarctic Lands was formed; the first French base on Île Amsterdam was established in 1949, was called Camp Heurtin. The Global Atmosphere Watch still maintains a presence on Île Amsterdam. From 1987–98, there were frequent amateur radio operations from Amsterdam Island. There was a resident radio amateur operator in the 1950s, using callsign FB8ZZ. In January 2014 Clublog listed St Paul Islands as the seventh most-wanted DXCC entity. On 25 January 2014 a DX-pedition landed on Amsterdam Island using MV Braveheart and began amateur radio operations from two separate locations using callsign FT5ZM; the DX-pedition remained active until 12 February and achieved over 170,000 two-way contacts with amateur radio stations worldwide. The volcanic island is a active volcano that last erupted in 1792.

It has an area of 55 km2, measuring about 10 km on its longest side, reaches as high as 867 m at the Mont de la Dives. The high central area of the island, at an elevation of over 500 metres, containing its peaks and caldera, is known as the Plateau des Tourbières; the cliffs that characterise the western coastline of the island, rising to over 700 metres, are known as the Falaises d'Entrecasteaux after the 18th-century French navigator Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. Île Amsterdam has a mild, oceanic climate under the Köppen climate classification, with a mean annual temperature of 14 °C, rainfall of 1,100 mm, persistent westerly winds and high levels of humidity. Under the Trewartha climate classification the island is well inside the maritime subtropical zone due to its low diurnal temperature variation keeping means high. Phylica arborea trees occur on Amsterdam, the only place where they form a low forest, although the trees are found on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island, it was called the Grand Bois, which covered the lowlands of the island until forest fires set by sealers cleared much of it in 1825.

Only eight fragments remain. Some sailors from HMS Raleigh landed on the island on 27 May 1880, they described the vegetation as Rough ground, grass several feet high, myrtle 10–15 feet (3.0–4