The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends 8° north or south of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets are within the belt of the zodiac. In Western astrology, astronomy, the zodiac is divided into twelve signs, each occupying 30° of celestial longitude and corresponding to the constellations: Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Capricorn and Pisces; these astrological signs form a celestial coordinate system, or more an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude and the Sun's position at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude. The English word zodiac derives from zōdiacus, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek zōidiakòs kýklos, meaning "cycle or circle of little animals". Zōidion is the diminutive of zōion; the name reflects the prominence of animals among the twelve signs. The zodiac was in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period, which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic.
The construction of the zodiac is described in the Almagest. Although the zodiac remains the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system in use in astronomy besides the equatorial one, the term and the names of the twelve signs are today associated with horoscopic astrology; the term "zodiac" may refer to the region of the celestial sphere encompassing the paths of the planets corresponding to the band of about 8 arc degrees above and below the ecliptic. The zodiac of a given planet is the band. By extension, the "zodiac of the comets" may refer to the band encompassing most short-period comets; the division of the ecliptic into the zodiacal signs originates in Babylonian astronomy during the first half of the 1st millennium BC. The zodiac draws on stars in earlier Babylonian star catalogues, such as the MUL. APIN catalogue, compiled around 1000 BC; some constellations can be traced further back, to Bronze Age sources, including Gemini "The Twins," from MAŠ. TAB. BA. GAL. GAL "The Great Twins," and Cancer "The Crab," from AL.
LUL "The Crayfish," among others. Around the end of the 5th century BC, Babylonian astronomers divided the ecliptic into 12 equal "signs", by analogy to 12 schematic months of 30 days each; each sign contained 30° of celestial longitude, thus creating the first known celestial coordinate system. According to calculations by modern astrophysics, the zodiac was introduced between 409-398 BC and within a few years of 401 BC. Unlike modern astronomers, who place the beginning of the sign of Aries at the place of the Sun at the vernal equinox, Babylonian astronomers fixed the zodiac in relation to stars, placing the beginning of Cancer at the "Rear Twin Star" and the beginning of Aquarius at the "Rear Star of the Goat-Fish"; the divisions don't correspond to where the constellations started and ended in the sky. The Sun in fact passed through at least 13, not 12 Babylonian constellations. In order to align with the number of months in a year, designers of the system omitted the major constellation Ophiuchus.
Including smaller figures, astronomers have counted up to 21 eligible zodiac constellations. Changes in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation means that the time of year the Sun is in a given constellation has changed since Babylonian times; because the division was made into equal arcs, 30° each, they constituted an ideal system of reference for making predictions about a planet's longitude. However, Babylonian techniques of observational measurements were in a rudimentary stage of evolution, they measured the position of a planet in reference to a set of "normal stars" close to the ecliptic as observational reference points to help positioning a planet within this ecliptic coordinate system. In Babylonian astronomical diaries, a planet position was given with respect to a zodiacal sign alone, less in specific degrees within a sign; when the degrees of longitude were given, they were expressed with reference to the 30° of the zodiacal sign, i.e. not with a reference to the continuous 360° ecliptic.
In astronomical ephemerides, the positions of significant astronomical phenomena were computed in sexagesimal fractions of a degree. For daily ephemerides, the daily positions of a planet were not as important as the astrologically significant dates when the planet crossed from one zodiacal sign to the next. Knowledge of the Babylonian zodiac is reflected in the Hebrew Bible; some authors have linked the twelve tribes of Israel with the same signs, and/or the lunar Hebrew calendar having 12 lunar months in a lunar year. Martin and others have argued that the arrangement of the tribes around the Tabernacle corresponded to the order of the Zodiac, with Judah, Reuben and Dan representing the middle signs of Leo, Aquarius and Scorpio, respectively; such connections were taken up by Thomas Mann, who in his novel Joseph
"Good Stuff" is a song by American singer Kelis from her debut studio album, Kaleidoscope. Written and produced by The Neptunes, the song was released as the album's second single, features guest vocals from American rapper Pusha T, one half of the hip hop duo Clipse; the single failed to chart on any Billboard charts in the United States and only managed limited success in select European markets, but earned Kelis a second top-20 entry on the UK Singles Chart, peaking at number 19. UK CD 1"Good Stuff" – 3:52 "Good Stuff" – 3:23 "Good Stuff" – 11:02 "Good Stuff" – 4:22UK CD 2"Good Stuff" – 3:17 "Good Stuff" – 6:07 "Good Stuff" – 4:42Cassette single"Good Stuff" – 3:17 "Good Stuff" – 3:23 "Good Stuff" – 4:42 "Good Stuff" Music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
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