Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction and division. Arithmetic is an elementary part of number theory, number theory is considered to be one of the top-level divisions of modern mathematics, along with algebra and analysis; the terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are sometimes still used to refer to a wider part of number theory. The prehistory of arithmetic is limited to a small number of artifacts which may indicate the conception of addition and subtraction, the best-known being the Ishango bone from central Africa, dating from somewhere between 20,000 and 18,000 BC, although its interpretation is disputed; the earliest written records indicate the Egyptians and Babylonians used all the elementary arithmetic operations as early as 2000 BC. These artifacts do not always reveal the specific process used for solving problems, but the characteristics of the particular numeral system influence the complexity of the methods.
The hieroglyphic system for Egyptian numerals, like the Roman numerals, descended from tally marks used for counting. In both cases, this origin resulted in values that used a decimal base but did not include positional notation. Complex calculations with Roman numerals required the assistance of a counting board or the Roman abacus to obtain the results. Early number systems that included positional notation were not decimal, including the sexagesimal system for Babylonian numerals and the vigesimal system that defined Maya numerals; because of this place-value concept, the ability to reuse the same digits for different values contributed to simpler and more efficient methods of calculation. The continuous historical development of modern arithmetic starts with the Hellenistic civilization of ancient Greece, although it originated much than the Babylonian and Egyptian examples. Prior to the works of Euclid around 300 BC, Greek studies in mathematics overlapped with philosophical and mystical beliefs.
For example, Nicomachus summarized the viewpoint of the earlier Pythagorean approach to numbers, their relationships to each other, in his Introduction to Arithmetic. Greek numerals were used by Archimedes and others in a positional notation not different from ours; the ancient Greeks lacked a symbol for zero until the Hellenistic period, they used three separate sets of symbols as digits: one set for the units place, one for the tens place, one for the hundreds. For the thousands place they would reuse the symbols for the units place, so on, their addition algorithm was identical to ours, their multiplication algorithm was only slightly different. Their long division algorithm was the same, the digit-by-digit square root algorithm, popularly used as as the 20th century, was known to Archimedes, who may have invented it, he preferred it to Hero's method of successive approximation because, once computed, a digit doesn't change, the square roots of perfect squares, such as 7485696, terminate as 2736.
For numbers with a fractional part, such as 546.934, they used negative powers of 60 instead of negative powers of 10 for the fractional part 0.934. The ancient Chinese had advanced arithmetic studies dating from the Shang Dynasty and continuing through the Tang Dynasty, from basic numbers to advanced algebra; the ancient Chinese used a positional notation similar to that of the Greeks. Since they lacked a symbol for zero, they had one set of symbols for the units place, a second set for the tens place. For the hundreds place they reused the symbols for the units place, so on, their symbols were based on the ancient counting rods. It is a complicated question to determine when the Chinese started calculating with positional representation, but it was before 400 BC; the ancient Chinese were the first to meaningfully discover and apply negative numbers as explained in the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, written by Liu Hui. The gradual development of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system independently devised the place-value concept and positional notation, which combined the simpler methods for computations with a decimal base and the use of a digit representing 0.
This allowed the system to represent both large and small integers. This approach replaced all other systems. In the early 6th century AD, the Indian mathematician Aryabhata incorporated an existing version of this system in his work, experimented with different notations. In the 7th century, Brahmagupta established the use of 0 as a separate number and determined the results for multiplication, division and subtraction of zero and all other numbers, except for the result of division by zero, his contemporary, the Syriac bishop Severus Sebokht said, "Indians possess a method of calculation that no word can praise enough. Their rational system of mathematics, or of their method of calculation. I mean the system using nine symbols." The Arabs learned this new method and called it hesab. Although the Codex Vigilanus described an early form of Arabic numerals by 976 AD, Leonardo of Pisa was responsible for spreading their use throughout Europe after the publication of his book Liber Abaci in 1202.
He wrote, "The method of the Indians surpasses any known method to compute. It's a marvelous method, they do their computations using nine figures and symbol zero". In the Middle Ages, arithmetic was one of the seven
"Opposite of Adults" is a 2010 single from American band Chiddy Bang. It was released in the United Kingdom on 21 February 2010 and samples "Kids" by MGMT, it was released in the United States on April 20, 2010. It was released online to blogs under the name "Kids" one year prior to that. In late 2010, "Opposite of Adults" was featured as the background music for the Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit video game commercial, as well as in the game, in an episode of Rob Dyrdek's Fantasy Factory, in episode 8 of Friday Night Lights's fifth season; the song was used in the trailer for 30 Minutes or Less. It was the goal song for Team North America. Fraser McAlpine of BBC Chart Blog awarded the song five stars and gave a positive review, stating: "Oh now this is the kind of thing we can all get behind, isn't it? Song titles as crossword clues! You don't have to know that this is based on reswizzled chunks of the MGMT song'Kids', because you can work it out from the title". 12" vinyl"Opposite of Adults" – 3:15 "Chiddy Freestyle" – 2:09 "Sooner or Later" – 3:16Digital download"Opposite of Adults" – 3:15 "Chiddy Freestyle" – 2:09 "Sooner or Later" – 3:167" vinyl"Opposite of Adults" - 3:15 "Sooner or Later" - 3:16 On 28 February 2010, "Opposite of Adults" entered the UK Singles Chart at No.12.
The following week, the single fell four places to No.16, where it remained for three consecutive weeks. On its fifth week in the chart, the single fell three places to No.19. The following week, the single fell a further two places to No.21. On 11 April 2010, the single fell to No.22 and the following week fell a further eight to No.30, marking the single's eighth week in the UK Singles Chart. The single debuted on the Irish Singles Chart on 25 February 2010, at No.49. The following week, the single climbed 17 places to No.32, followed by a further 12 places to No.20 the week after. On 18 March 2010, the single climbed four places to No.16 and the following week climbed a further three places to No.13. On 1 April 2010, the single climbed three places to its current peak of No.10, marking Chiddy Bang's first top 10 hit in Ireland. However, on its seventh week in the chart, the single fell five places to No.15. On 15 April 2010, the single fell a further six places to No.21. The single managed to debut on the Australian Singles Chart and the New Zealand Singles Chart on 5 April 2010, at a peak of No.36.
The following week, the single remained at No.36. In its fourth week in the chart, the single rose 11 places to No.22. It has thus far peaked at No.10 in Australia while in New Zealand, it achieved a top ten peak of No.8."Opposite of Adults" debuted at No.90 on the Billboard Hot 100 and has re-entered at No.100. Kids Worth It Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Muriel Grace Patterson is a former Australian politician who served as a Liberal Party member of the Legislative Council of Western Australia from 1989 to 2001, representing South West Region. She was a small-business owner before entering politics. Patterson was born in Katanning, Western Australia, to Grace Gertrude and Charles Lewis Quartermaine, she attended a state school in Woodanilling and studied at Perth Technical College as an external student. In 1964, Patterson and her husband began farming at Tambellup, on what had been virgin bushland, she opened a craft-supply store in Albany in 1976, became the first female president of the local chamber of commerce. Patterson served on the state council of the Western Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry from 1984 to 1988, including on the state executive from 1987 to 1988, where she was the first female member. Patterson joined the Liberal Party in 1980, served as president of the Albany branch from 1984 to 1987. At the 1989 state election, she ran in second place on the party's ticket in South West Region, was elected to a term beginning in May 1989.
Patterson was made deputy chairman of committees soon after entering parliament, in May 1992 was included in the shadow cabinet of Richard Court. However, she was not promoted to the ministry when the Liberal Party won the 1993 state election, instead being made government whip. Patterson remained a whip until her retirement at the 2001 state election. Women in the Western Australian Legislative Council