click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Armand Hammer

Armand Hammer was an American business manager and owner, most associated with Occidental Petroleum, a company he ran from 1957 until his death, though he was known as well for his art collection, his philanthropy, his close ties to the Soviet Union. Hammer's business interests around the world and his "citizen diplomacy" helped him cultivate a wide network of friends and associates, he appeared on television, commenting on international relations or agitating for research into a cure for cancer. As of 2016, he has been the subject of six biographies—in 1975, 1985, Weinberg 1989, Blumay 1992, Epstein 1996, Alef 2009, his art collection and his philanthropic projects were the subject of numerous publications. Hammer was born in New York City, to Jewish parents who immigrated from what was the Russian Empire and Julius Hammer, his father came to the United States from Odessa in what was the Russian Empire in 1875 and settled in the Bronx, where he ran a general medical practice and five drugstores.

Hammer said that his father had named him after a character, Armand Duval, in La Dame aux Camélias, a novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils. According to other sources, it was said that Hammer was named after the "arm and hammer" graphic symbol of the Socialist Labor Party of America, in which his father had a leadership role. Late in his life, Hammer confirmed. Due to socialist and communist activities Hammer's father Julius had been put under federal surveillance. On July 5, 1919, federal agents witnessed Marie Oganesoff enter Julius' medical office located in a wing of his Bronx home. Oganesoff "who had accumulated a life-threatening history of miscarriages and poor health, was pregnant and wanted to terminate her pregnancy." The surgical procedure took place in the midst of a great flu epidemic. Six days after the abortion Oganesoff died of pneumonia. Four weeks after her death a Bronx County grand jury indicted Julius Hammer for first-degree manslaughter; the following summer a criminal prosecutor convinced a jury that Julius Hammer had let his patient "die like a dog" and that the claims that she had died from complications due to influenza were mere attempts to cover up his crime.

In 1920 a judge sentenced Julius Hammer to three and a half years in Sing Sing prison. While most historians state that Julius had performed the abortion, an opposing position has been put forward by author Edward Jay Epstein. Epstein in his book Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer puts forward the claim that it was Armand Hammer a medical student, rather than his father who performed the abortion and his father Julius assumed the blame. Epstein's claims come from interview comments made by Bettye Murphy, Armand's mistress. According to Murphy and Epstein's account the legal strategy was that Julius did not deny that an abortion had been performed, but insisted that it had been medically necessary and that a licensed doctor rather than a medical student would be more convincing in presenting that argument. After Julius was imprisoned, he sent Armand Hammer to the Soviet Union to look after the affairs of his company Allied Drug and Chemical. Hammer traveled forth from the Soviet Union for the next 10 years.

When his father was sentenced to prison and his brothers took Allied Drug, the family business, to new heights, reselling equipment they had bought at depressed prices at the end of World War I. According to Hammer, his first business success was in 1919, manufacturing and selling a ginger extract which contained high levels of alcohol; this was popular during prohibition, the company had $1 million in sales that year. In 1921, while waiting for his internship to begin at Bellevue Hospital, Hammer went to the Soviet Union for a trip that lasted until late 1930. Although his career in medicine was cut short, he relished being referred to as "Dr. Hammer." Hammer's intentions in the 1921 trip have been debated since. He has claimed that he intended to recoup $150,000 in debts for drugs shipped during the Allied intervention, but was soon moved by a capitalistic and philanthropic interest in selling wheat to the then-starving Russians. In his passport application, Hammer stated. J. Edgar Hoover in the Justice Department knew this was false, but Hammer was allowed to travel anyway.

A skeptical U. S. government watched him for the rest of his life. After graduating from medical school, Hammer extended earlier entrepreneurial ventures with a successful business importing many goods from and exporting pharmaceuticals to the newly-formed Soviet Union, together with his younger brother Victor. According to Hammer, on his initial trip, he took $60,000 in medical supplies to aid in a typhus epidemic and made a deal with Lenin for furs and caviars in exchange for a shipment of surplus American wheat, he moved to the USSR in the 1920s to oversee these operations his large business manufacturing and exporting pens and pencils. According to Alexander Barmine, assigned by the Central Committee to run the Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga company to compete with Hammer, the stationery concession was granted to Julius Hammer. Barmine states the party spent five million gold rubles on stationery supplies made in factories cont

Habiba Sarābi

Dr. Habiba Sarabi is a hematologist and reformer of the post-Taliban reconstruction of Afghanistan. In 2005, she was appointed as Governor of Bamyan Province by President Hamid Karzai, which made her the first Afghan woman to become a governor of any province in the country, she served as Afghanistan's Minister of Women's Affairs as well as Minister of Culture and Education. Sarabi has been instrumental in promoting representation and environment issues, she belongs to the ethnic Hazara people of Afghanistan. Her last name is sometimes spelled Sarobi. Sarābi was born in Sarāb, Ghazni Province and spent her youth traveling around the country with her father, she moved to Kabul to attend high school and study medicine at university. After graduating in 1987, she was awarded a fellowship by the World Health Organization and moved to India to complete her studies in hematology. During the Taliban rule in Afghanistan, Dr. Sarabi and her children fled to Peshawar, but returned in secret, her husband stayed behind in Kabul to care for his family.

She worked underground as a teacher for girls, both secretly in Afghanistan and in refugee camps in Pakistan for Afghan refugees. In 1998, she joined the Afghan Institute of Learning and became the General Manager of the entire organization, she was the Vice President of Humanitarian Assistance for the Women and Children of Afghanistan. As governor, Sarabi has announced; the province has been a source of Buddhist culture and was the location of the Buddhas of Bamiyan, the two ancient statues destroyed by the Taliban prior to the U. S. invasion of Afghanistan. However, Bamiyan remains one of the poorest and most under-developed provinces of Afghanistan, with a litany of problems including high rates of illiteracy and poverty. In 2008 Time magazine included her in its list of Heroes of the Environment for her work in establishing the Band-e Amir National Park of Afghanistan in Bamiyan. In 2013, she won the Ramon Magsaysay Award. On 8 March 2018, International Women's Day, she delivered a statement to the UN Security Council during the Open Debate on the United Nations Mission in Afghanistan.

List of Hazara people Azra Jafari, Afghanistan's first female mayor Biography on the Global Fund website Biography on Salon.com BBC article on her appointment as governor BBC article on her impending appointment NPR Report: Female Governor Fights Lonely Battle in Afghanistan EurasiaNet: Afghanistan's First Female Governor Strives to Change Attitudes and Habits

Hotel Shilla

Hotel Shilla is a South Korean operator of luxury hotels and duty-free shops. It is a member of The Leading Hotels of the World. Lee Boo-jin is the general CEO of The Shilla; the company is an affiliate of Samsung. Hotel Shilla started operations in March 1979 at the direction of Lee Byung-chull, founder of the Samsung Group. Before 1979, it was the state guest house of Republic of Korea under the Park Chung-hee government. Now, it has been expanding into the commissioned management of fitness facilities as well as into the restaurant business; the Shilla focuses on "the harmony and beauty of modernism and tradition". They have hotels located in Seoul and Suzhou, China. In January 2008, The Shilla was selected as one of the top 500 hotels in the world by Travel & Leisure; the Seoul hotel reopened to the public on August 1, 2013 after seven months of renovations, featuring the first year-round outdoor pool in Seoul and the Shilla-Sitaras Fitness Center. There are two Presidential Suites at the Shilla Hotel, in Jangchung-dong, Jung-gu: the 280.9-square-metre south wing with a blend of traditional Korean decor and the 390-square-metre north wing with a Parisian palace decor.

The fitness center, affiliated with Sitaras Fitness, is equipped with a digital measurement room, a first in Korea, provides a differentiated fitness coaching service using a smart coaching system. A fitness program is customized for each client according to the results of a physical fitness assessment for systematic management; the Shilla corporate information The Shilla factsheet

Retraction Watch

Retraction Watch is a blog that reports on retractions of scientific papers and on related topics. The blog was launched in August 2010 and is produced by science writers Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus, its parent organization is the Center for Scientific Integrity. Oransky and Marcus were motivated to launch the blog to increase the transparency of the retraction process, they observed that retractions of papers are not announced, the reasons for retractions are not publicized. One result is that other researchers or the public who are unaware of the retraction may make decisions based on invalid results. Oransky describes an example of a paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that reported that a certain molecule could cause some types of breast cancers to respond to a drug that would otherwise be ineffective. Although the paper was retracted, its retraction was not reported in the media outlets that had reported on its conclusions, before it was retracted a company had been established to make use of the reported discovery.

The blog argues that retractions provide a window into the self-correcting nature of science, can provide insight into cases of scientific fraud. Its operators say that as science journalists, they have "found retractions to be the source of great stories that say a lot about how science is conducted." Retraction Watch has demonstrated that retractions are more common than was thought. When Retraction Watch was launched, Marcus "wondered if we'd have enough material", it had been estimated. However, in its first year, the blog reported on 200 retractions; as of January 2020 the Retraction Watch Database contains 21792 items. Newspapers such as The Washington Post and The Guardian have reported about Retraction Watch. Retraction watch has been funded by a variety including donations and grants, they received grants from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Helmsley Charitable Trust, the Laura and John Arnold Foundation; the database of retractions was funded by a 400,000 dollar grant from the MacArthur Foundation received in 2015.

They have partnered with the Center for Open Science, funded by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, to create a retraction database on the Open Science Framework. Replication crisis Center for Open Science Center for Scientific Integrity Official website

Lachlan (name)

Lachlan is a masculine given name of Irish & Scottish origin. The name is English and derived from Irish Scottish Gaelic; the name is an Anglicised form of the Irish Gaelic & Scottish Gaelic Lachlann, in turn derived from the earlier Gaelic personal name Lochlann. In the ninth century, the terms Laithlinn / Laithlind, appear in historical sources as terms denoting the origin of Vikings active in Ireland; the exact meaning behind these terms is uncertain. What is clear, however, is that the terms Lochlann / Lochlainn came to replace these earlier terms. Whether the terms Lochlann / Lochlainn were related to Laithlinn / Laithlind, or conflated with them, is unknown. In mediaeval Irish literature, the term Lochlann refers to a vague faraway place: sometimes the Otherworld, sometimes Scandinavia. Pet forms of Lachlan include Lachie and Lockie. A feminine form of the name is Lachina. A related form of Lachlan is the Irish Lochlainn. Anglicised forms of this latter name include Loughlin. Lochlainn has been rendered into English as Lawrence.

A variant form of Lachlann in Argyll is Lachann, a name influenced by the sounding Eachann. The name Lachlan and its variants were most found in Argyll; the following proverb contains the name Lachlan: "Mar mhadadh ag ol eanruich ainmean Chlann ‘ll ‘Eathain “Eachann, Lachann.” or. The senior branch of Clan Maclean are the Macleans of Duart; this branch was established in the 14th century on the Inner Hebridean Isle of Mull. The first Laird was known as Lachainn Lubanach or "Lachlan the crafty". Of the first fourteen Lairds of Duart, seven were named seven were named Hector. Forms of the name Lochlainn were borne by other families in the Early Middle Ages. Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, forms of the name were common amongst families in northern Ireland, but have since become unfashionable. Forms of the name Lachlan were common amongst families with connections to the Scottish Highlands, but have become remarkably popular in places such as Australia and New Zealand. A less common variant is the name Lauchlan.

Modern patronymic forms of the personal name Lochlann include the Irish surnames Mac Lochlainn, Ó Lochlainn. A patronymic form of the personal name Lachlann is the Scottish Gaelic surname MacLachlainn. Forms of the personal names first appear on record in the tenth century; the earliest known bearer of such names was Lochlaind mac Maíl Shechnaill, heir of the Corca Mruad, whose death is noted by the Annals of Inisfallen in 983. Another member of the Corca Mruad, a certain Lochlainn, is recorded by the same source to have been slain in 1015. Afterwards, the principal family of the region was the Uí Lochlainn, who bore the surname Ua Lochlainn. In Ulster, the Annals of Ulster record the slaying of a Lochlainn mac Maíl Shechlainn, an Uí Néill dynast, in 1023; this man's powerful grandson, Domnall Ua Lochlainn, High King of Ireland, ensured that their descendants, the Meic Lochlainn, bore the surnames Mac Lochlainn and Ua Lochlainn. The eponymous ancestor of the Scottish Clann Lachlainn, traditionally regarded as yet another branch of the Uí Néill, was a much man who bore a form of the name Lachlan.

In the 2000s and 2010s, Lachlan has been a common baby name in Australia and New Zealand. Ranking within the top ten masculine names registered in several Australian states. In 2008, Lachlan was ranked as the third most popular masculine baby name in New South Wales, with 581 registered that year; the same year, the name was ranked as the sixth most popular masculine baby name in Victoria, with 438 registered. In 2013 it was the tenth most popular name for boys in Australia. In 2018, the name was more popular in New Zealand than in Australia, as it ranked 13th in New Zealand, 17th in Australia; the name used to be popular in Scotland, Ireland, but the use of the name in those countries has been decreasing in recent years. Lachlann Mac Ruaidhrí, Scottish magnate Lachlan, Lord of Galloway Lachlan Buchanan, Australian actor. Lachlan Burr, Australian rugby league player. Lachlan Coote, Australian rugby league player. Lachlan Donald Ian Mackinnon, Royal Navy officer. Lachlan Dreher, Lachlan Elmer, Lachlan Fraser, Lachlan Gillespie, Australian children's entertainer Lachlan Gordon-Duff, Lachlan Grant, Scottish doctor Lachlan Hansen, Lachlan Henderson, Lachlan "Lockie" Leonard, main character in Tim Winton's Lockie Leonard books.

Lachlan Mackinnon, Lachlan Maclean, several people. Lachlan Bronneach Maclean, 7th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Cattanach Maclean, 11th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Hector Charles Maclean, 28th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Lubanach Maclean, 5th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Maclean, 10th Chief, 10th chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Maclean, 3rd Laird of Torloisk, Lachlan Maclean, 6th Laird of Coll, Lachlan Og Maclean, 8th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Og Maclean, 1st Laird of Torloisk, Sir Lachlan Maclean, 1st Baronet, 17th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean, 14th Clan Chief of Clan Maclean Lachlan Macleay, Lachlan Macquarie, Lachlan Maranta, Australian Rugby League player Lachlan McCaffrey, Australian rugby union player Lachlan McGillivray, Lachlan McIntosh, Lachlan McLean, America

Perdita Barran

Perdita Elizabeth Barran is a Professor of Mass Spectrometry at the University of Manchester. She is Director of the Michael Barber Centre for Collaborative Mass Spectrometry, she develops and applies ion-mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry to the study of molecule structure and is searching for biomarkers for Parkinson's disease. She co-leads the mass spectrometry theme for the Rosalind Franklin Institute, she was awarded the 2009 Joseph Black award from the Royal Society of Chemistry Analytical Division. Barran went to Latymer School, she moved to the University of Manchester to study chemistry, graduating in 1994. She joined the University of Sussex for her graduate studies, working with Harry Kroto and Tony Stace. Barran stayed with Stace for three years after completing her PhD in 1998. In 2001 Barran joined the University of California, Santa Barbara, working as a postdoctoral fellow with Mike Bowers, she was interested in the stability of small molecules in the gas phase. She looked at.

Barran joined the University of Edinburgh as an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Advanced Research Fellow in 2002. In 2005 she was awarded the 10th Desty Memorial prize for her innovations in Separation Science, she was made a Senior Lecturer in 2009. She worked on mass spectrometry techniques that can be used to evaluate conformational change and intrinsic conformation, she investigated mass spectrometry for therapeutics for pre-fibrillar aggregation. She helped to establish the Scottish Instrumentation and Resource Centre for Advanced Mass Spectrometry at the University of Edinburgh; this had an initial remit to provide proteomic analysis for the MRC Human Genetics Unit. In 2013 Barran was appointed to the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology as a Chair in Mass Spectrometry sponsored by Waters Corporation, she led. She works with Cait MacPhee, Garth Cooper and Tilo Kunath on neurodegenerative proteins, with several groups including Richard Kriwacki, Rohit Pappu and Gary Daughdrill to examine intrinsically disordered proteins.

She works with several biopharmaceutical companies to apply new mass spectrometry techniques to new drug modalites including monoclonal antibodies. She develops new mass spectrometry instrumentation, her group looks at the structure of biological systems at a molecular level, studying them in the gas and solution phase as well as theoretically. They use electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, ion mobility mass spectrometry native mass spectrometry and complementary solution based biophysical techniques, they are interested in a proteins structure and how it changes in an effort to relate that to their function. Ion-mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry can be used to look at the temperature dependent rotationally averaged collision cross-section of gas-phase ions of proteins. In 2014 she was awarded a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant to study the interactions of proteins with other proteins. Barran serves on the editorial board of the International Journal of Mass Spectrometry.

She was included in the page of Perditas created by Perdita Stevens. Barran has been working with Joy Milne to search for odorous biomarkers of Parkinson's disease. By smelling skin swabs, Milne can differentiate between people without Parkinson's disease, she identified changes in her husband's scent before he was formally diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, which he died of in 2015. Barran uses mass spectrometry to identify the biomarkers of Parkinson's disease; the story was made into a BBC documentary The Woman. Barran received ethical approval for her work of the skin metabolites of Parkinson's in 2015, allowing them to work with Parkinson's UK to conduct a larger study. In 2018 Milne travelled to the Tanzanian training centre APOPO to check whether she could smell Tuberculosis. Barran's work on Parkinson's is sponsored by The Michael J. Fox Foundation