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Armed Forces of the Dominican Republic

The Armed Forces of the Dominican Republic is the combined national military of the Dominican Republic. It consists of 44,000 active duty personnel 60 percent of which are utilized for non-military operations, including security providers for government-owned non-military facilities, toll security, forestry workers and other state enterprises, personal security for ministers, etc; the president is the commander in chief for the military and the Ministry of Defense is the chief managing body of the armed forces. The primary missions are to protect the territorial integrity of the country; the Dominican Republic's military is second in size to Cuba's in the Caribbean. The Army, twice as large as the other services combined with about 56,789 active duty personnel, consists of six infantry brigades, an air cavalry squadron and a combat service support brigade; the Air Force operates two main bases, one in southern region near Santo Domingo and one in the northern region of the country, the air force operates 40 aircraft including helicopters.

The Navy maintains three ageing vessels which were donated from the United States, around 25 patrol crafts and interceptor boats and two helicopters. There is a counter-terrorist group formed by members of the three branches; this group is trained in counter-terrorism missions. The armed forces participate in counter-illegal drug trade efforts, for this task, there is a taskforce known as DEPROSER 24/7, they are active in efforts to control contraband and illegal immigration from Haiti to the Dominican Republic and from the Dominican Republic to the United States. Haiti under their president Jean-Pierre Boyer had invaded and occupied Dominican Republic from 1822 to 1844; the military forces of the First Republic's army comprised about 4,000 soldiers organized into seven line infantry regiments, several loose battalions, 6 escudrones cavalry and 3 artillery brigades with 2/2 brigades. The requisition taken: the schooner Maria Luisa, 3 guns. 674 operated by a man. In addition to the aforementioned military corps expeditionary southern army recruited by Pedro and Ramon Santana in Hato Mayor and El Seibo, with a permit issued by the Central Governing Board with the rank of commander in chief of the army existed.

These men were skilled in handling spear. His deputy commander was Brigadier General Antonio Duvergé; the other expeditionary army was the Northern Borders created to defend these borders: its commander was Major General Francisco A. Salcedo; the Dominican forces would reach levels of efficiency of considerable notoriety. As an example of this, it would suffice to highlight the fact of the achievement and preservation of National Independence, with the Dominican victory over repeated Haitian military invasions in the 12-year period that followed the proclamation of Independence; the events that led to the United States military intervention of 1916, brought about the disappearance of any vestige of military structure in the Dominican Republic, setting the intervening forces a military government headed by Captain William Knapp, who make an interim police force called "Constabulary "equivalent to an" armed police force as a military unit "and he had the task of maintaining internal order and enforce the implementing provisions of the US government.

This body, purely police function disappears in 1917. As a result of this historic event of our recent past, the country inherited a hierarchical and organizational akin to the US Marine Corps structure, which served as a platform to the transformations that gave rise to the armed forces we know today, made up of three components, terrestrial one, one naval and one air; this land component, now called the National Army, inherited by both its organizational structure of the National Guard organized by the US occupation forces, which operated from April 7, 1917 until June 1921, when it becomes Dominican National Police by Executive Order No. 631 of Rear Admiral Thomas Snowden, at that time the military governor of Santo Domingo. After the US military occupation in 1924, Horacio Vásquez wins the presidential elections of that same year. Among his first decisions, decrees the change of the Dominican National Police in National Brigade, a situation that continues until 17 May 1928, when new turn changes the name of the Army by Law No.

928, but inheriting a structure Police, who obeyed schemes imposition of public order demanded by the country at that time and not those of an army in their typical roles. Due to its characteristics and missions, organizational structure that demanded presence throughout the country, realized with the creation of posts and detachments in different parts of the country and the establishment in some provinces of company size units, many of which still Army retains today. Over the years and existing National Police created by decree No. 1523 of March 2, 193

Dudley W. Morton

Dudley Walker Morton, nicknamed "Mushmouth" or "Mush", was a submarine commander of the United States Navy during World War II. He was commander of the USS Wahoo during its third through seventh patrols. Wahoo was one of the most-celebrated submarines of World War II, as it sank at least 19 Japanese ships, more than any other submarine of the time. Morton and Wahoo disappeared in 1943 during a transit of La Pérouse Strait, he was declared deceased three years later. Morton was born in Owensboro, Kentucky, on July 17, 1907, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1930. There he received the nickname "Mushmouth", after a character in the cartoon strip Moon Mullins whose large square jaw and prominent mouth resembled Morton's; the nickname was shortened by which he was known for much of his life. Prior to the outbreak of World War II, Morton served in the USS Saratoga, USS Chicago, USS Canopus, USS Fairfax, the submarines USS S-37 and USS R-5, which he commanded from August 19, 1940 to April 23, 1942.

Morton was promoted to lieutenant commander on October 15, 1942, was in nominal command of USS Dolphin while it underwent extended repairs at Pearl Harbor. He was relieved to make a war patrol in USS Wahoo between November 8 and December 26 as prospective commanding officer, a supernumerary position to prepare him for command of a fleet boat. Morton took command of Wahoo on December 31 in Australia. Between January 26, 1943 and October 11, he carried out four offensive patrols, during which Wahoo was responsible for sinking 19 cargo and transport ships for a combined total of 55,000 tons. During Wahoo's third war patrol, Morton was responsible for an incident which resulted in shipwrecked soldiers in about twenty lifeboats of sunken Japanese transport Buyo Maru being fired on while in the water; the transport was torpedoed by Wahoo on 26 January 1943. Morton was responsible for ordering the machine gunning of the shipwrecked survivors in the water. Morton and his executive officer, Richard O'Kane, had misidentified the survivors as Japanese.

In fact, they were Indian POWs of 2nd Battalion, 16th Punjab Regiment, plus escorting forces from the Japanese 26th Field Ordnance Depot. Of 1,126 men aboard Buyo Maru, 195 Indians and 87 Japanese died in all, including those killed in the initial sinking; this action is still considered controversial, since survivors in the water may have been shot at deliberately. O'Kane, on Wahoo's bridge when the incident took place, likened it to attacks on small craft made during the Dunkirk evacuation, he used the same pretense as the Germans did: to prevent the enemy from recovering soldiers that would shortly fight again. However, the Hague Convention of 1907 bans the killing of shipwreck survivors under any circumstances. O'Kane further explained that the fire from Wahoo was intended to force the troops to abandon their boats and no troops were deliberately targeted. Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood, the contemporary COMSUBPAC, not present at the incident, asserted that the survivors were army troops and turned machinegun and rifle fire on Wahoo while she maneuvered on the surface.

He further stated. Historian Clay Blair states Morton opened fire first and the shipwrecked returned fire with handguns; this is regarded as a "simple war crime" by some while others believe it to be a crime that should have been punished. Unlike German submariner Heinz-Wilhelm Eck, executed as a war criminal for ordering the killing of civilian shipwreck survivors, Morton did not face any criminal liability for his alleged actions. O'Kane believed. After three arduous war patrols, Morton was given the dangerous assignment of penetrating the Sea of Japan for the second time. Morton was reported missing in action in December. After the war, it was determined from Japanese records that, on October 11, in the time frame in which the Wahoo was expected to exit through La Perouse Strait, an antisubmarine aircraft found a surfaced submarine and attacked, dropping three depth charges. Declared deceased on January 7, 1946, Morton had been awarded the Navy Cross with three gold stars in lieu of a second and fourth awards, the Army Distinguished Service Cross.

The destroyer USS Morton was named in his honor. In 1960, Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood, Jr. ComSubPac during World War II, was asked to write the foreword for former Wahoo crewmember Forest Sterling's book, Wake of the Wahoo, he wrote about Morton: "When a natural leader and born daredevil such as Mush Morton is given command of a submarine, the result can only be a fighting ship of the highest order, with officers and men who would follow their skipper to the Gates of Hell... And they did." Added Lockwood: "Morton lined up an impressive number of'firsts' during the short ten months that he commanded Wahoo: first to penetrate an enemy harbor and sink a ship therein. In Herman Wouk's novel War and Remembrance, the mini-series based on it, the Buyo Maru incident is prominently fictionalized as a scene for a major character's development. Anthony Miers The Joint Army Navy Assessment Committee. "Appendix: Japanese Shipping Lost by United States Submarines". Japanese Naval and Merchant Shipping Losses During World War II by All Causes.

HyperWar Foundation. Retrieved 23 November 2011. Blair Jr. Clay. Silent Victory: The U. S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. ISBN 0-397-00753-1

St. Joseph Minor Seminary

St. Joseph Minor Seminary is a Catholic secondary school in Sint-Niklaas, Diocese of Ghent, Belgium. There were a Recollect monastery and a seminary on the site; the first buildings were built starting April 1689, the friars were authorised to found the second monastery in the city. The Chapel of Saint Anthony was completed in 1692 and in 1696 Mgr vander Noot, bishop of Ghent consecrated the church, in baroque style and famous for the major carvings of Jan Boeksent; the friars lived there until the French Revolution in the conventual buildings. After they were chased out they never returned, it was sold to Maurice-Jean de Broglie who converted the old monastery into a Minor seminary dedicated to Saint Joseph. Many important priests were educated here. For the centenary of the school, Pope Pius X sent his personal pontifical blessing in 1908. Today the seminary has gone, the building is now part of the Catholic secondary school property of the diocese. At the end of the last century the old main staircase went up in flames.

The church was saved from the fire. Honoré Jozef Coppieters, bishop of Ghent. Henri-Charles Lambrecht, bishop of Ghent. Oscar Joliet, bishop of Ghent. Antoon Stillemans, bishop of Ghent. Gustaaf Joos and bishop of Ypres. Henry Gabriels, bishop of Ogdensburg. Augustine Van de Vyver, bishop of Richmond. Amaat Joos Camil Van Hulse Blessed Edward Poppe Anton van Wilderode

Ernst von Leyser

Ernst Ulrich Hans von Leyser was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several army corps. After the war, in 1947, Leyser was tried for war crimes committed in the Balkans and sentenced to ten years of imprisonment during the Hostages Trial. During the invasion of France, Leyser commanded a regiment. In April 1941 he appointed commander of the 269th Infantry Division; as part of the Army Group North, the division fought in northern Soviet Union after the launching of Operation Barbarossa. On 18 September 1941 he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and command of the XXVI Army Corps during the siege of Leningrad. On 1 December 1942 Leyser assumed command of the XXVI Army Corps. A year he was assigned to lead the XV Mountain Army Corps, fighting against Yugoslav partisans in Croatia. On 20 July 1944 he switched command with General Gustav Fehn, commander of the XXI Mountain Army Corps in the Balkans. On 29 April 1945, he was relieved of command.

Leyser was arrested by the United States forces on 8 May. Leyser was tried, as subordinate to General Lothar Rendulic, along with 12 other high-ranking German officers in the Hostages Trial, from 13 May 1947 to 19 February 1948, he was found guilty on two charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes: murder and mistreatment of POWs and murder and mistreatment of civilians. Leyser was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in December 1947. On 31 January 1951, John J. McCloy, the US High Commissioner in Germany, revised his sentence to time served. Leyser died in Garstedt on 23 September 1962, at the age of 73. Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class House Order of Hohenzollern, Knight's Cross with swords Baltic Cross The Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918 with swords Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class Johanittenorden Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 18 September 1941 as Generalmajor and commander of the 269. Infanterie-Division German Cross in Gold on 14 April 1943 as General der Infanterie and commanding general of the XXVI.


Tatjana Ječmenica

Tatjana Ječmenica-Jevtić is a Serbian former professional tennis player. Since 2014 she is the captain of Serbia Fed Cup team, her second stint at the helm, having led the team between 2005–2007. Ječmenica won three doubles titles on the ITF tour in her career. On 24 June 1996, she reached her best singles ranking of world No. 72. On 29 July 1996, she peaked at world No. 88 in the doubles rankings. At Grand Slams her best result was reaching the second round at the US Open in 1995 and at the French Open in 1996. Ječmenica started playing tennis in her hometown of Novi Sad at the age of 7 and attended the same school and played in the same tennis club as Monica Seles. In 1993, as a 2nd seed Ječmenica reached the final of Orange Bowl 16s, where she was defeated by 5th seed Stephanie Halsell, who avenged previous years loss to Ječmenica in the quarterfinals of Junior Orange Bowl 14s, she won Port Washington 14s. In 1994, she lost in the first round of Junior French Open, but won German Junior Open, a Grade 1 event, without losing a set in the tournament.

Junior Grand Slam results - Singles: Australian Open: – French Open: 1R Wimbledon: – US Open: –Junior Grand Slam results - Doubles: Australian Open: – French Open: 2R Wimbledon: – US Open: – As a perspective youth she enrolled at the Nick Bollettieri Tennis Academy. Her career high in WTA rankings was No. 72 in singles on 24 June 1996 and No. 88 in doubles on 29 July 1996. She won six tournaments in three in doubles on the ITF Circuit. At Grand Slams her best result was reaching the second round at the US Open in 1995 and at the French Open in 1996. After her longtime coach, Dragan Ćirić Šeki, who coached her since she was 9, died in a car accident on 10 October 1997, Ječmenica didn't play for five months after being unable to find a new coach, she briefly trained at the Nikola Pilić Tennis Academy before retiring in 1998 at the age of 20. In 2001, she played her first doubles tournament in over three years and over the next several years would play two more doubles tournaments, reaching one final in 2004, before retiring for good in 2005.

Following her playing career, Ječmenica became a tennis coach and in 2004 founded a tennis school "Ječmenica" in her hometown of Novi Sad for children aged 5 to 20, with some being ranked in the top 10 in the country. She served as the captain of Serbia Fed Cup team from 2005 until her resignation on 20 February 2007. On 5 November 2014, Ječmenica was named the captain of Serbia's Fed Cup team for the second time. Tatjana Ječmenica at the Women's Tennis Association Tatjana Ječmenica at the International Tennis Federation Tatjana Ječmenica at the Fed Cup Interview for local newspaper Dnevnik Interview for Ilustrovana politika


The Einheitsdampflokomotiven, sometimes shortened to Einheitslokomotiven or Einheitsloks, were the standardized steam locomotives built in Germany after 1925 under the direction of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft. Their manufacture made extensive use of standard design components. Following the merger of the state railways in Germany into the Reich railway in 1920 and into the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft in 1924, the locomotive fleet of the new national railway administration still had 210 different types and classes of steam engine; this hindered the flexible employment of locomotives within the railway network, servicing and maintenance was costly as a result of the large number of different spare parts that had to be stocked. In addition, production tolerances of individual components were so small that even components for the same class of locomotive could only be used after further finishing work had been carried out. On top of that, substantial reparations as a result of the First World War, 1914–18 reduced the rolling stock of the German railways without regard to the variety of classes.

Thus out of the 33,000 locomotives in the fleet, 8,000 had to be handed over. There was therefore a need to build new locomotives and to introduce a sensible degree of standardisation in procuring these new engines. To that end a locomotive standards committee was convened by the Reichsbahn. Representatives of the locomotive industry took part in this standardisation process; the question was posed as to whether proven state railway classes should continue to be built or whether new, modern locomotives should be developed and ordered. Because the basic concepts for the new locomotives had not been decided, in order to give the locomotive factories follow-on orders, it was decided in 1921 to continue to build proven state railway classes to begin with; these classes were given new Reichsbahn classifications. Amongst them were the Prussian P 8, the Prussian P 10, the Prussian G 12 and the Prussian T 20, all of which continued to be manufactured until 1925; the Bavarian S 3/6 was procured right up to 1930.

The Prussian G 12, not developed until 1917 counted as the first German Einheitslok, because it was employed by all the state railways and built by several locomotive factories across the whole Reich. Technical and economic factors, as well as the Reichsbahn's aim of improving main lines to handle a standard axle load of 20 tons, led to the decision to develop new types of locomotive. After heated debates in the locomotive committee, the design principles and a programme for the development of standard Deutsche Reichsbahn locomotive classes emerged, of which the first were built in 1925. Playing a decisive role in these discussions was the head of the Grunewald Locomotive Research Office at that time, Richard Paul Wagner. In fact the production of engines in the desired quantities could not be achieved at first, both for economic reasons and due to delays in the improvement of routes to take the higher axle loads. Of the classes with a 20-ton axle load - 01, 02, 43 and 44 - only small pre-production numbers were procured at first.

Up to the end of the 1930s the state railway classes, taken over or re-ordered by the Reichsbahn, dominated the scene, in particular those of Prussian stock. The delay to the upgrade of routes meant that additional classes with lower axle loads had to be developed, e.g. the classes 03 and 50. In spite of the Deutsche Reichsbahn's ambitious plans, their actual acquisition of locomotives from 1925 onwards, only reached about one tenth of the average procurement quantities for the years 1914-1920 and it remained at this level until 1938; the causes of this were the worldwide economic crises and the resulting reduction in demand for Reichsbahn's railway services. Not until 1930 was the 500th standard locomotive built, in 1934 the 1000th engine was delivered and in 1938 there were 1,500 Einheitsloks in existence. Not until 1939 did the procurement quantities rise significantly. With the introduction of a production programme for simpler goods train locomotive designs, that led into the construction of the war locomotives, engines with an axle load of 15 tons were built in significant quantities.

Now, there was a different objective: supporting the conduct of the war. So by 1945 the total number of standard and war locomotives had climbed to about 14,500; this state of affairs stood in stark contrast to the image promoted by the Deutsche Reichsbahn, that wanted to give the impression of a modern railway administration through its railway exhibitions, record speed runs, the introduction of the SVT network and proud photographic news reports. In fact the low level of procurement was responsible for the fact that the average age of the locomotive fleet continued to rise in the years from 1925 to 1938. In many cases, rivetted plate locomotive frames were used on the older steam locomotives as a support for the running gear and engine. For reasons of stability, this frame had to be of a certain height. To meet the increasing demands in performance on the newer engines, a larger boiler was required, for which there was not enough room for the high-sided plate frame; as a result, the new Einheitslokomotiven had a more solid bar frame.

In addition, the higher performance required a larger boiler heating area.