Armenian art is the unique form of art developed over the last five millennia in which the Armenian people lived on the Armenian Highland. Armenian architecture and miniature painting have dominated Armenian art and have shown consistent development over the centuries. Other forms of Armenian art include sculpture, mosaic, metalwork and textiles Armenian carpets. Prehistoric Armenia was home to the Urartu culture in the Iron Age, notable for its early metal sculptures of animals; the region was, as often contested by the large empires holding the nearby regions of Persia and Anatolia, these all had considerable influence of Armenian art. The Armenians adopted Christianity early, developed their own version of Eastern Christian art, with much use of icons, Armenian miniatures in books, the original architecture of their churches and monasteries. A distinctive Armenian feature, which may have influenced the Medieval art of Europe, was the popularity from early on of figurative relief carvings on the outside of churches, unknown in Byzantium.
Armenians specialized in crafts such as carpet-weaving. The study of Armenian art began in the early 20th century. Notable scholars of Armenian art were Catholicos Garegin Hovsepian and professor Sirarpie Der Nerséssian. More Jean-Michel Thierry and Professor Dickran Kouymjian are prominent scholars of Armenian art; the first Armenian churches were built during the lifetime of St. Gregory the Illuminator, were built on the sites of destroyed pagan temples, imitated some aspects of Armenian pre-Christian architecture. Classical and Medieval Armenian architecture is divided into four separate periods; the first period, from the 4th to the 7th centuries, began with Armenia's conversion to Christianity, ended after the Arab invasions of Armenia. The early churches were simple basilicas, some with side apses. By the 5th century the typical cupola cone in the center had become used. By the 7th century, centrally-planned churches had been built and the more complicated niched buttress and radiating Hrip'simé style had formed.
By the time of the Arab invasions, most of what we now know as classical Armenian architecture had formed. The second period lasted from the 9th to the 11th centuries. Armenian architecture underwent a revival under the patronage of the Bagratid dynasty with many buildings erected in the regions of Ani and Lake Van: these included both traditional styles and new innovations. Ornately carved. Many new cities and churches were built during this time, including a new capital at Lake Van and a Cathedral on Akdamar Island to match; the Cathedral of Ani was completed during this dynasty. It was during this time that the first major monasteries, such as Haghpat and Haritchavank were founded; this period was ended by the Seljuk invasion. Illuminated manuscripts were produced in Armenia between the 5th and the 17th centuries; the highest point of this art is associated with the 13th century and the name of Toros Roslin, considered to be the most prominent medieval Armenian manuscript illuminator. The majority of the manuscripts were lost, scholarly approach to studies of Armenian illuminated manuscripts was only developed in the second half of the 20th century.
Each culture possesses a certain original element which becomes a symbol of the entire national culture. In Armenia such symbol is “khachkar, the so-called cross-stones, the monuments of Armenia which are not found anywhere in the world; the word “khachkar” is formed by two Armenian roots: “khach” and "kar". Armenia has a rich heritage when it comes to sculptures; some of the sculptures in the country date way back before the formation of Armenia as a nation. Such sculptures were created by empires. A good example of these is the "Khachkar". Besides these ancient sculptures, Armenia has plenty of post-war sculptures which show the influence of modern times and foreign traditions that have been adopted. Ceramics and frescoes constitute a different category of Armenian artwork; the creation of the outlined artifacts dates back to the days of the Urartian Empire that existed long before the establishment of Armenia as a nation. Therefore some of the ancient art is shared among several countries in the region that were part of the Urartian Empire.
While the evidence of these forms of art was realized through excavations in the country, their remains have been reconstructed thus providing physical evidence of what they looked like. Armenia has a history of making engravings and metalwork which are considered as part of the art. Artifacts in this category can be subdivided into coins and gold, bronze and tinned copper; the coins refer to the pieces of metals that were designed during the ancient times for trading purposes between Armenia and its neighbors such as Greece. On the other hand and silver were luxury items during ancient Armenia which were fashioned in various ways such as drinking vessels and statues just to mention a few. Besides, tinned copper and bronze were used. Excavations in the country have revealed that these were used to make household items and statues. Textiles are another part of Armenian art and a significant part of their economy both in the ancient and present times. One of the most extensive collections of Armenian textiles can be found in the Armenian Museum of America.
In the current world, textile products from Armenia are a major trade commodity between Armenia and America. Dance and Music are an essential aspect
Armenian illuminated manuscripts
Armenian illuminated manuscripts form a separate tradition, related to other forms of Medieval Armenian art, but to the Byzantine tradition. The earliest surviving examples date from the Golden Age of Armenian art and literature in the 5th century. Early Armenian Illuminated manuscripts are remarkable for their festive designs to the Armenian culture; the greatest Armenian miniaturist, Toros Roslin, lived in the 13th century. The Matenadaran Institute in Yerevan, has the largest collection of Armenian manuscripts, including the Mugni Gospels and Echmiadzin Gospels; the second largest collection of Armenian illuminated manuscripts is stored in the depository of St. James, in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem, of the Patriarchate of Jerusalem of Armenia's Holy Apostolic Church. Other collections exist in the British Library, Bibliothèque nationale de France, other large collections at the Mechitarist establishments in Venice and Vienna, as well as in the United States; the University of California, Los Angeles keeps an Armenian illuminated manuscript dating back to the 14th century among its collection of Armenian manuscripts, one of the largest in the world.
They have the manuscript of the Gladzor Gospels. Another form of an illuminated manuscript is a prayer roll, which traditionally included images from the Armenian iconography as well as Biblical passages or teachings but at a much smaller size was a more personal, portable, religious treasure. Armenian prayer rolls could include iconography applicable to all Christian sects such as images of St. Mark, or St. Luke, or St. John as well as panels depicting important moments in the life of Jesus Christ. For the Armenians, the rolls would include illustrations specific to the history of their country or church; these included St. Gregory the Illuminator credited with bringing Christianity to Armenian in the 4th century or St. Nerses IV important to the growth of Christianity in Armenia in the 12th century as well as establishing the theology of icon veneration within the Armenian Church; as in the case of other traditional Armenian manuscripts, prayer rolls were drawn and illustrated by hand on vellum.
The scroll served as a personal talisman for the protection of its owner or for needs and prayer intentions of members of their family. Prayer rolls were narrow in width and included panels of religious illustration followed by religious text; the rolls were always quite long although exact measurements varied, depending on the number of panels it contained. The owner of this religious artifact could roll the vellum and conceal it when carried. Concealment was crucial for protection of the prayer roll, since illuminated manuscripts and prayer rolls were valued and targeted by thieves. Devout Armenians held manuscripts and other works of art of the Church in high regard due to the fact the church and its teachings were an important part of daily life in medieval Armenia. About 31,000 manuscripts still survive after continuous invasions of Armenia throughout the centuries and the more recent Armenian Diaspora where hundreds of thousands of Armenians were displaced or massacred. Illuminated manuscripts recount religious teachings and gospels of the Armenians and were handed down through families.
So valuable were these manuscripts it was regarded as a sacrilege to sell or damage them, or to allow the manuscripts to fall into enemy hands. Most of the manuscripts were illustrated by monks located in monasteries. Many manuscripts are elaborate, covered in gilt and brilliant colors. However, there is another type of manuscript, stripped of unnecessary ornamentation, lacking colored backgrounds and painted with transparent colors with less than perfect artistry. Manuscripts were adorned with fantastical creatures and birds, which formed the initial letters of chapters to attract the eye, while providing a mental break during which the beauty of the illustration could refresh the mind and spirit; these brilliantly illustrated letters were followed by “erkat’agir”, an uncial script known as iron script, as it was carved into stone. Notary script known as “notrgir” was used for writing the script and colophon and “bologir,” meaning “rounded letters” was used as a minuscule in writing the rubrics, which are sections written in red ink in order to draw attention.
Black lettering was used to write the chapters, symbolizing the pain of original sin, while the white paper space symbolized the innocence of birth. The colophon written in red ink, was found at the beginning or end of the manuscript and would provide information about the scribe, the patron, the artist, the date, when and for whom the manuscript was created; the scribe would add notes about his working conditions or anecdotes of wisdom in the colophon and was carried into the margins of the manuscript. So important was owning a manuscript, the owner would add his name into the script. If a manuscript had multiple owners, multiple signatures might be found within the script. Evans, Helen C. & Wixom, William D. The glory of Byzantium: art and culture of the Middle Byzantine era, A. D. 843-1261, 1997, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780810965072 Modern icon: contemporary artists and the legacy of the Armenian illuminated manuscript, 2001, ISBN 0-9710263-1-9 Treasures in Heaven: Armenian illuminated manuscripts, 2994, ISBN 0-87598-100-3 Dickran Kouymjian, The Arts of Armenia, Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 1992.
Https://web.archive.org/web/20110820062953/http://armenianstudies.csufresno.edu/arts_of_armenia/index.htm Matenadaran site Armenian Illuminated Manuscripts
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152, he was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years the term sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his empire, he was formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian. Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia, he was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from the rival House of Welf. Frederick, descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors.
He combined qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicacity. His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. Frederick died in 1190 in Asia Minor while leading an army in the Third Crusade. Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia, shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade; the expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king.
Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days on 9 March 1152. Frederick's father was from the Hohenstaufen family, his mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany; the Hohenstaufens were called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia. The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight of the Investiture controversy. For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was a nominal title with no real power; the king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, he was prevented from exercising any real authority or leadership in the realm. The royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown.
When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in effective abeyance for over twenty-five years, to a considerable degree for more than eighty years. The only real claim to wealth lay in the rich cities of northern Italy, which were still within the nominal control of the German king; the Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125. The German princes refused to give the crown to his nephew, the duke of Swabia, for fear he would try to regain the imperial power held by Henry V. Instead, they chose Lothair III, who found himself embroiled in a long-running dispute with the Hohenstaufens, who married into the Welfs. One of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany; when Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, since he was a Welf on his mother's side. The Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, would not be appeased, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy.
Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, little else to construct an empire. The Germany that Frederick tried to unite was a patchwork of more than 1600 individual states, each with its own prince. A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large. Many were too small to pinpoint on a map; the titles afforded to the German king were "Caesar", "Augustus", "Emperor of the Romans". By the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning. Frederick was a pragmatist. Unlike Henry II of England, Frederick did not attempt to end medieval feudalism, but rather tried to restore it, though this was beyond his ability; the great players in the German civil war had been the Pope, Emperor and the Guelfs, but none of these had emerged as the winner. Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy.
Issuing a general order for peace, he
A khachkar known as an Armenian cross-stone is a carved, memorial stele bearing a cross, with additional motifs such as rosettes and botanical motifs. Khachkars are characteristic of Medieval Christian Armenian art. Since 2010, their symbolism and craftsmanship are inscribed in the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage; the most common khachkar feature is a cross surmounting a solar disc. The remainder of the stone face is filled with elaborate patterns of leaves, grapes and bands of interlace. A khachkar is surmounted by a cornice sometimes containing biblical or saintly figures. Most early khachkars were erected for the salvation of the soul of either a living or a deceased person. Otherwise they were intended to commemorate a military victory, the construction of a church, or as a form of protection from natural disasters; the most common location for early khachkars was in a graveyard. However, Armenian gravestones take many other forms, only a minority are khachkars; the first true khachkars appeared in the 9th century, during the time of Armenian revival after liberation from Arab rule.
The oldest khachkar with a known date was carved in 879. Erected in Garni, it is dedicated to the wife of king Ashot I Bagratuni; the peak of the khachkar carving art was between the 14th centuries. The art declined during the Mongol invasion at the end of the 14th century, it revived in the 16th and 17th centuries, but the artistic heights of the 14th century were never achieved again. Today, the tradition still remains, one can still see khachkar carvers in some parts of Yerevan. About 40,000 khachkars survive today. Most of them are free standing, though those recording donations are built into monastery walls; the following three khachkars are believed to be the finest examples of the art form: One in Geghard, carved in 1213 by master Timot and master Mkhitar The Holy Redeemer khachkar in Haghpat, carved in 1273 by master Vahram A khachkar in Goshavank, carved in 1291 by master Poghos. A number of good examples have been transferred to the Historical Museum in Yerevan and beside the cathedral in Echmiadzin.
The largest surviving collection of khachkars is in Armenia, at Noraduz cemetery on the western shore of the Lake Sevan, where an old graveyard with around 900 khachkars from various periods and of various styles can be seen. The largest number was located at Julfa in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, but the entire medieval cemetery was destroyed by Azeri soldiers in 2005; the art of carving khachkars has witnessed a rebirth as a symbol of Armenian culture in the 20th century. There are hundreds of khachkars worldwide, many of which are memorials to commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide. According to one count, there are nearly 30 khachkars on public locations in France. A large portion of khachkars, which were created in historic Armenia and surrounding regions, in modern times have become the possession of Turkey and Georgia and Iran; as a result of systematic eradication of khachkars in Turkey, today only a few examples survive. These few survivors are not cataloged and properly photographed.
Thus, it is difficult to follow up with the current situation. One documented example took place in the Armenian Cemetery in Jugha. One source says that khachkars are being neglected, or moved in Armenia. Reasons cited for moving; the government of Azerbaijan has denied claims that members of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces smashed khachkars with sledgehammers in Nakhichevan in December 2005. Amenaprkich is a particular type of khachkar in which on the cross is a depiction of the crucified Christ. Only a few such designs are known, most date from the late 13th century. Trei Ierarhi Monastery - a 17th-century church in Iași, decorated with Khachkar motifs High cross - Monumental Celtic crosses. Preaching crosses - Monumental crosses used as open air pulpits Hill of Crosses - A hill in Lithuania covered with ornamental crosses. ^ Thierry, Jean-Michel. Armenian Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-0625-2. Armenian cross-stones art. Symbolism and craftsmanship of Khachkars Khatchkar collection at Armenica.org Old Jugha page on Armeniapedia Destruction of Jugha khachkars by Azeri soldiers captured in photos and movie clips.
Khachkar page on Armeniapedia Photos at Armenia Photos.info Photos of 15th/16th CE khatchkars near Bitlis, Turkey Khachkar.am:: Everything about khachkars Photos and history of Khachkars Djulfa Virtual Memorial and Museum Largest facebook page dedicated to Armenian Cross-Stones
The Armenian alphabet is an alphabetic writing system used to write Armenian. It was developed around 405 AD by an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader; the system had 36 letters. The Armenian word for "alphabet" is այբուբեն, named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet: ⟨Ա⟩ Armenian: այբ ayb and ⟨Բ⟩ Armenian: բեն ben. Armenian is written horizontally, left-to-right. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in Eastern Armenian or in Western Armenian. Notes: ^ Primarily used in classical orthography. ^ Except in ով /ov/ "who" and ովքեր /ovkʰer/ "those" in Eastern Armenian. ^ Iranian Armenians pronounce this letter as, like in Classical Armenian. ^ In classical ու and և are considered a digraph and a ligature, respectively. In reformed orthography, they are separate letters of the alphabet. ^ In reformed orthography, the letter ւ appears only as a component of ու. In classical orthography, the letter represents /v/, except in the digraph իւ /ju/; the spelling reform in Soviet Armenia replaced իւ with the trigraph յու.
^ Except in the present tense of "to be": եմ /em/ "I am", ես /es/ "you are", ենք /enkʰ/ "we are", եք /ekʰ/ "you are", են /en/ "they are". ^ The letter ը is used only at the start or end of a word, so the sound /ə/ is unwritten between consonants. ^ The ligature և has no majuscule form. Ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures; some of the used ligatures are: ﬓ, ﬔ, ﬕ, ﬖ, ﬗ, և, etc. Armenian print typefaces include many ligatures. In the new orthography, the character և is no longer a typographical ligature, but a distinct letter, placed in the new alphabetic sequence, before "o". Armenian punctuation marks include: The čakertner are used as ordinary quotation marks and they are placed like French guillemets: just above the baseline (preferably vertically centered in the middle of the x-height of Armenian lowercase letters; the computer-induced use of English-style single or double quotes is discouraged in Armenian as they look too much like other – unrelated – Armenian punctuations. The storaket is used as a comma, placed as in English.
The boot' is used as a short stop, placed in the same manner as the semicolon, to indicate a pause, longer than that of a comma, but shorter than that of a colon. The mijaket is used like an ordinary colon to separate two related clauses, or when a long list of items follows; the verjaket is used as the ordinary full stop, placed at the end of the sentence. Armenian punctuation marks used inside a word: The yent'amna is used as the ordinary Armenian hyphen; the pativ was used as an Armenian abbreviation mark, was placed on top of an abbreviated word to indicate that it was abbreviated. It is now obsolete; the apat'arts is used as a spacing apostrophe, only in Western Armenian, to indicate elision of a vowel /ə/. The following Armenian punctuation marks placed above and to the right of the vowel whose tone is modified, in order to reflect intonation: The yerkaratsman nshan is used as an exclamation mark; the shesht is used as an emphasis mark. The hartsakan nshan is used as a question mark. ISO 9985 transliterates the Armenian alphabet for modern Armenian as follows: In the linguistic literature on Classical Armenian different systems are in use.
One of the classical accounts about the existence of an Armenian alphabet before Mashtots comes from Philo of Alexandria, who in his writings notes that the work of the Greek philosopher and historian Metrodorus of Scepsis, On Animals, was translated into Armenian. Metrodorus was a close friend and a court historian of the Armenian emperor Tigranes the Great and wrote his biography. A third century Roman theologian, Hippolytus of Rome, in his Chronicle, while writing about his contemporary, Emperor Severus Alexander, mentions that the Armenians are amongst those nations who have their own distinct alphabet. Philostratus the Athenian, a sophist of the second and third centuries CE, wrote:And they say that a leopardess was once caught in Pamphy
Flag of Armenia
The national flag of Armenia, the Armenian Tricolour, consists of three horizontal bands of equal width, red on the top, blue in the middle, orange on the bottom. The Armenian Supreme Soviet adopted the current flag on 24 August 1990. On 15 June 2006, the Law on the National Flag of Armenia, governing its usage, was passed by the National Assembly of Armenia. Throughout history, there have been many variations of the Armenian flag. In ancient times, Armenian dynasties were represented by different symbolic animals displayed on their flags. In the twentieth century, various Soviet flags represented the Armenian SSR; the meanings of the colors are interpreted in many different ways. For example, red stands for the blood of the 1.5 million Armenians killed in the Armenian Genocide, blue is for the Armenian pure sky, orange represents the country's courage. The official definition of the colors, as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, is: The red emblematizes the Armenian Highland, the Armenian people's continued struggle for survival, maintenance of the Christian faith, Armenia's independence and freedom.
The blue emblematizes the will of the people of Armenia to live beneath peaceful skies. The orange emblematizes the creative hard-working nature of the people of Armenia. In 2012, the Armenian National Institute of Standards issued specifications about the construction and colors on the national flag.: Today's tricolor flag bears little resemblance to the earliest Armenian'flags'. In ancient times, armies went into battle behind carvings mounted on poles; the carvings might represent a dragon, an eagle, a lion or "some mysterious object of the gods". With the advent of Christianity, the Armenian empire adopted many different flags representing various dynasties; the Artaxiad Dynasty's flag, for instance, consisted of a red cloth displaying two eagles gazing at each other, separated by a flower. After Armenia was split between the Persian and the Ottoman Empires, the idea of an Armenian flag ceased to exist for some time; the Armenian Catholic priest Father Ghevont Alishan created a new flag for Armenia in 1885, after the Armenian Students Association of Paris requested one for the funeral of the French writer Victor Hugo.
Alishan's first design was similar to today's Armenian flag: a horizontal tricolor. However, it looked more like an upside-down variation of the current flag of Bulgaria; the top band was red, symbolizing the first Sunday of Easter, followed by a green band to represent the "Green" Sunday of Easter, an arbitrary color, was chosen to complete the combination. While in France, Alishan designed a second flag, identified today as the "Nationalist Armenian Flag", it too was a tricolor, but unlike the previous design, this one was a vertical tricolor similar to the French flag. Its colors were red and blue, from left to right, representing the rainbow that Noah saw after landing on Mount Ararat. In 1828, Persian Armenia was annexed to the Russian Empire after the last Russo-Persian War, became known as Russian Armenia; when the Russian Empire collapsed, Russian Armenia declared its independence and joined the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, together with Georgia and Azerbaijan.
This unified state hardly was soon dissolved. Since the Republic was short-lived, it did not use any symbols; some historians consider a horizontal gold and red tricolor, similar to that of the German flag but arranged differently, to have been the flag of Transcaucasia. The federation was dissolved on May 26, 1918, when Georgia declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence two days on May 28, 1918, as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, respectively. After gaining independence, the First Republic of Armenia adopted the modern Armenian tricolor. Upon Stepan Malkhasyants's appearance in the Armenian National Council, the independent Armenian government selected the colors used during the Lusignan period: red and yellow. An earlier prototype, rejected, was the rainbow flag; this prototype can be seen at the Martiros Saryan House Museum in Armenia. They chose to replace the yellow with orange "because it merged better with the other two colors, presenting a more pleasing composition".
The flag of independent Armenia had a ratio of 2:3, but on August 24, 1990, when the Armenian Supreme Soviet adopted it as the flag of the Republic of Armenia, the ratio was changed to 1:2. On November 29, 1920 Bolsheviks established the Armenian SSR. A new flag was introduced and fixed in the Constitution, accepted on February 2, 1922 by the First Congress of Soviets of the Armenian SSR; that flag existed only for a month, because on March 12 the Armenian SSR united with the Georgian SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR under the Transcaucasian SFSR. On December 30, 1922 the Transcaucasian SFSR became one of the four Soviet republics that united to form the USSR; the flag of the republic had a hammer and sickle inserted into a star with initials "ЗСФСР" written in Russian sans-serif script. These letters stand for Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика. In 1936, the TSFSR was broken up into its three constituent regions, which were named the Georgian SSR, the Armenian SSR, the Azerbaijan SSR.
As a republic of the USSR, the Armenian SSR introduced its first flag in 1936. Similar to the flag of the Soviet Union, it was red and featured a yellow hammer and sickle in the corner. Underneath tha
Vardavar or Vartavar is an Armenian festival in Armenia where people of social groups drench each other with water. Although now a Christian tradition, celebrating the transfiguration of Jesus Christ, Vardavar's history dates back to pagan times; the ancient festival is traditionally associated with the goddess Astghik, the goddess of water, beauty and fertility. The festivities associated with this religious observance of Astghik were named “Vartavar” because Armenians offered her roses as a celebration, this is why it was celebrated in the harvest time. Vardavar is celebrated 98 days after Easter. During the day of Vardavar, people from a wide array of ages are allowed to douse strangers with water, it is common to see people pouring buckets of water from balconies on unsuspecting people walking below them. The festival is popular among children as it is one day where they can get away with pulling pranks, it is a means of refreshment on the hot and dry summer days of July or late June. Vardavar.
No comment Voice of America Midsummer fun: Armenians pour water on each other to bridge pagan and Christian traditions Vardevar Vardavar 2005