Arminianism is a branch of Protestantism based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants. His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, other Protestant Reformers. Jacobus Arminius was a student of Theodore Beza at the Theological University of Geneva. Arminianism is known to some as a soteriological diversification of Calvinism. Dutch Arminianism was articulated in the Remonstrance, a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the States General of the Netherlands; the Synod of Dort was called by the States General to consider the Five Articles of Remonstrance. These articles asserted; those who signed this remonstrance and others who supported its theology have since been known as Remonstrants."Many Christian denominations have been influenced by Arminian views on the will of man being freed by Grace prior to regeneration, notably the Baptists in the 17th century, the Methodists in the 18th century and the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the 19th century.
Some assert that Universalists and Unitarians in the 18th and 19th centuries were theologically linked with Arminianism. Denominations such as the Anabaptists and other groups prior to the Reformation have affirmed that each person may choose the contingent response of either resisting God's grace or yielding to it; the original beliefs of Jacobus Arminius himself are defined as Arminianism, but more broadly, the term may embrace the teachings of Simon Episcopius, Hugo Grotius, John Wesley, others. Classical Arminianism, to which Arminius is the main contributor, Wesleyan Arminianism, to which John Wesley is the main contributor, are the two main schools of thought. Wesleyan Arminianism is identical with Methodism; some schools of thought, notably semi-Pelagianism—which teaches that the first step of Salvation is by human will—are confused as being Arminian in nature. But classical Arminianism holds that the first step of Salvation is the grace of God; the Council of Orange condemned semi-Pelagian thought, is accepted by some as a document which can be understood as teaching a doctrine between Augustinian thought and semi-Pelagian thought, relegating Arminianism to the orthodoxy of the early Church fathers.
The two systems of Calvinism and Arminianism share both history and many doctrines, the history of Christian theology. Arminianism is related to Calvinism historically. However, because of their differences over the doctrines of divine predestination and election, many people view these schools of thought as opposed to each other; the distinction is whether God allows His desire to save all to be resisted by an individual's will or if God's grace is irresistible and limited to only some. Put another way, is God's sovereignty shown, in part, through His allowance of free decisions? Some Calvinists assert that the Arminian perspective presents a synergistic system of Salvation and therefore is not only by Grace, while Arminians reject this conclusion. Many consider the theological differences to be crucial differences in doctrine, while others find them to be minor. Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch theologian in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, he was taught by Theodore Beza, Calvin's hand-picked successor, but after examination of the scriptures, he rejected his teacher's theology that it is God who unconditionally elects some for salvation.
Instead Arminius proposed that the election of God was of believers, thereby making it conditional on faith. Arminius's views were challenged by the Dutch Calvinists Franciscus Gomarus, but Arminius died before a national synod could occur. Arminius's followers, not wanting to adopt their leader's name, called themselves the Remonstrants. Arminius died before he could satisfy Holland's State General's request for a 14-page paper outlining his views; the Remonstrants replied in his stead crafting the Five articles of Remonstrance, in which they express their points of divergence with the stricter Calvinism of the Belgic Confession. After some political maneuvering, the Dutch Calvinists were able to convince Prince Maurice of Nassau to deal with the situation. Maurice systematically removed Arminian magistrates from office and called a national synod at Dordrecht; this Synod of Dort was open to Dutch Calvinists, while the Arminians were excluded (13
Mina Chang is an American singer and former government official. She served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the United States Department of State's Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations from April 2019 until her resignation on November 18, 2019, after NBC News reported that she had falsified her resume with multiple false claims about her education, charity work, that she had appeared on a Time magazine cover. Chang failed to mention that her non-profit had its status revoked. Chang, a Korean-American, claims to be the child of two Salvation Army officers and spent her childhood in Atlanta. In a May 2014 interview, Chang claimed to hold a degree in international development from the University of Hawaii, concentrating on mission work and aid practices; the university, publicly stated days that it has neither a Mina Chang of her age in their records, nor a "degree in international development." Prior to 2010, Chang performed as a pop singer, touring internationally and recording albums in both English and Korean.
During this time she did volunteer work in relief efforts, which led to her joining the Korea-based nonprofit "Linking the World". Somewhere between 2012 and 2014, she purportedly became the president and CEO of the nonprofit and relocating its offices to Dallas. In January 2017, Chang spoke at the Asia Society Texas Center's Women's Leadership Series as a featured guest. Writer Kimberly Chuck called Chang a "renowned humanitarian". On January 16, 2019, the Trump administration nominated Chang to be the Assistant Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development; the nomination was withdrawn on September 9, 2019. On April 29, 2019, Chang was appointed Deputy Assistant Secretary in the U. S. State Department's Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations, stepped down from her president and CEO positions at Linking the World. In July 2019, Town & Country and The Philippine Star speculated that Chang may become the next United States Ambassador to the Philippines, although that prediction did not come to fruition.
On November 12, 2019, NBC News reported that Chang had "embellished her résumé with misleading claims about her professional background" prior to joining the United States Department of State, claiming to be an alumna of Harvard Business School, a former chief of staff of a nonprofit, to have had a role on a UN panel, to have appeared on the front cover of Time magazine. The NBC News report states that she claimed to have spoken at both Democratic and Republican national conventions, that her resume implies she had testified before Congress. Chang displayed a fake cover of Time magazine to a videotaped January 2017 interview with journalist Mary Sit produced by Houston Community College's show, Global Outlook. In response to the interviewer's question: "Here you are on Time magazine, congratulations! Tell me about this cover and how this came to be?" Chang represented the cover as genuine and replied: "We started using drone technology in disaster response, so, when the whole talk of how is technology being used to save lives in disaster response scenarios... and I suppose I brought some attention to that".
Chang's State Department biography remained unchanged following the NBC News report until it was removed on November 18, 2019. It claimed that she was an "alumna of the Harvard Business School" and held undergraduate degrees from Southern Methodist University and the University of the Nations, an unaccredited Christian school with volunteer teachers. Chang claimed to be a graduate of the United States Army War College National Security Seminar, a Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government Senior Executive in National and International Security, a former International Security Fellow at New America. On November 18, 2019, Chang resigned from her role at the United States Department of State. In her resignation letter, Chang claimed that "character assassination based on innuendo was launched against me attacking my credentials and character. My superiors at the Department refused to defend me, stand up for the truth or allow me to answer the false charges against me." Mina Chang is married to Jake Harriman.
Harriman is a graduate of the U. S. Naval served in the Marine Corps, he founded Nuru International. Chang has a daughter named Trinity from her previous marriage. Mina Chang on State.gov Mina Chang's channel on YouTube
OpenWSN is a project created at the University of California Berkeley and extended at the INRIA and at the Open University of Catalonia which aims to build an open standard-based and open source implementation of a complete constrained network protocol stack for wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things. The root of OpenWSN is a deterministic MAC layer implementing the IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH based on the concept of Time Slotted Channel Hopping. Above the MAC layer, the Low Power Lossy Network stack is based on IETF standards including the IETF 6TiSCH management and adaptation layer; the stack is complemented by an implementation of 6LoWPAN, RPL in non-storing mode, UDP and CoAP, enabling access to devices running the stack from the native IPv6 through open standards. OpenWSN is related to other projects including the following: RIOT OpenMoteOpenWSN is available for Linux, Windows and OS X platforms. Current release of OpenWSN is 1.14.0