Armory Show

The Armory Show known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U. S. National Guard armories; the three-city exhibition started in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913. The exhibition went on to the Art Institute of Chicago and to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed; the show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own "artistic language."

The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early 20th century, which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, enlarging audiences for contemporary art. On December 14, 1911 an early meeting of what would become the Association of American Painters and Sculptors was organized at Madison Gallery in New York. Four artists met to discuss the contemporary art scene in the United States, the possibilities of organizing exhibitions of progressive artworks by living American and foreign artists, favoring works ignored or rejected by current exhibitions; the meeting included Jerome Myers, Elmer Livingston MacRae and Walt Kuhn. In January 1912, Walt Kuhn, Walter Pach, Arthur B. Davies joined together with some two dozen of their colleagues to reinforce a professional coalition: AAPS, they intended the organization to "lead the public taste in art, rather than follow it."

Other founding AAPS members included D. Putnam Brinley, Gutzon Borglum, John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke, Leon Dabo, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, Jonas Lie, George Luks, Karl Anderson, James E. Fraser, Allen Tucker, J. Alden Weir. AAPS was to be dedicated to creating new exhibition opportunities for young artists outside of the existing academic boundaries, as well as to providing educational art experiences for the American public. Davies served with Kuhn acting as secretary; the AAPS members spent more than a year planning their first project: the International Exhibition of Modern Art, a show of giant proportions, unlike any New York had seen. The 69th Regiment Armory was settled on as the main site for the exhibition in the spring of 1912, rented for a fee of $5,000, plus an additional $500 for additional personnel, it was confirmed that the show would travel to Chicago and Boston. Once the space had been secured, the most complicated planning task was selecting the art for the show after the decision was made to include a large proportion of vanguard European work, most of which had never been seen by an American audience.

In September 1912, Kuhn left for an extended collecting tour through Europe, including stops at cities in England, the Netherlands, France, visiting galleries and studios and contracting for loans as he went. While in Paris Kuhn met up with Pach, who knew the art scene there intimately, was friends with Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse. Together they secured three paintings that would end up being among the Armory Show's most famous and polarizing: Matisse's Blue Nude and Madras Rouge, Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. Only after Davies and Kuhn returned to New York in December did they issue an invitation for American artists to participate. Pach was the only American artist to be affiliated with the Section d'Or group of artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Duchamp brothers Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Villon and others. Pach was responsible for securing loans from these painters for the Armory Show. Most of the artists in Paris who sent works to the Armory Show knew Pach and entrusted their works to him.

The Armory Show was the first, the only exhibition mounted by the AAPS. It displayed some 1,300 paintings and decorative works by over 300 avant-garde European and American artists. Impressionist and Cubist works were represented; the publicity that stormed the show had been well sought, with the publication of half-tone postcards of 57 works, including the Duchamp nude that would become its most infamous. News reports and reviews were filled with accusations of quackery, insanity and anarchy, as well as parodies, caricatures and mock exhibitions; some responded with laughter, as the artist John French Sloan seemed to not take the exhibition in his published cartoon, "A slight attack of third dimentia brought on by excessive study of the much-talked of cubist pictures in the International Exhibition at New York". About the modern works, former President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "That's not art!" The civil authorities did not, close down or otherwise interfere with the show. Among the scandalously radical works of art, pride of place goes to Marcel Duchamp's cubist/futurist style Nude Descending a Staircase, painted the year before, in which he expressed motion with successive superimposed images, as in motion pictures.

Julian Street, an art critic, wrote that the work resembled "an explosion in a shingle f

Boarding schools in China

As of 2015 there were about 100,000 boarding schools in rural areas of Mainland China, with about 33 million children living in them. The majority of these boarding schools are in western China, not as wealthy as eastern and central China; as of 2015 many migrant workers and farmers in rural China send their children to boarding schools. In addition to the rural boarding schools there are boarding schools, including kindergartens, in urban areas; as of 2017 about 4% of the children in urban areas, about 3.5 million, board. 1% of pupils at the primary level and 8% of pupils at the secondary levels board. The boarding schools are close to students' residences, parents believe that boarding helps the child concentrate more than if the grandparents supervised them. Chinese parents do not have reservations over cost or over not being around their children that a Western parent would; as of 2013 some children in urban areas are sent to boarding schools beginning at age 3. In 1949 the Chinese government established boarding kindergartens for orphans who lost their parents in preceding wars.

The popularity of boarding kindergartens for wealthier families peaked in the 1990s, but the popularity declined afterwards, with some schools converting to day schools and others closing. The Chinese government began establishing boarding schools in rural areas and ethnic minority areas in the 1950s in order to give the children living there chances of getting formal education without having to move to urban areas; the establishment of boarding schools slowed during the Cultural Revolution, but other than that time, boarding schools had been established since then. Secondary boarding schools in centralized areas were established in the 1980s; these schools, covering junior secondary levels, are located in towns. As of 2015, 11 million rural students at the primary level and about 21.76 million rural students at the secondary level board. As of 2017, half of the secondary students and about 12% of the primary students in rural China board, with the number of primary school boarders being about 10 million.

Many parents in rural areas who find work in urban areas leave their children in rural schools while they work in urban areas since the parents are unable to enroll their children in urban schools, as a hukou from the urban areas is required for enrollment. Children who are left in rural areas are known as "left-behind children"; as of 2015 "left-behind children" with parents in cities make up about 60% of students at rural boarding schools. Day schools and teaching points small education centers, served the educational needs of rural areas at the primary level; the teaching points, each staffed by one or two teachers, covered grades 1-3. Therefore, boarding schools at the primary level were uncommon in rural China; the One Child Policy and migration into urban areas had caused a decline in the number of children in rural areas, the educational quality between rural and urban areas varied significantly. The Chinese central government, as part of the 2001 Decision of the State Council on Basic Education Reform and Development, established a school merging program to consolidate primary-level village education.

Beginning in 2000 many village schools have closed, students were redirected to boarding schools. From 2000 to 2015, several thousand boarding schools opened, replacing about 240,000 village schools that had closed during the same period; the central government of China argued that replacing the village schools with boarding schools would allow resources to be used more and increase the quality of the schools in the regions. Zhenzhou Zhao, author of the 2011 research article "A matter of money? Policy analysis of rural boarding schools in China," stated that the real reason many village schools closed was because the central government had passed taxation reforms that limited the amount of revenues received by local governments. In 2007 53.6% of secondary students in rural areas in western China boarded at school, 11.6% of primary students in the same areas boarded. In ethnic minority provinces such as Guangxi and Yunnan the general percentage of secondary boarders is over 70%, while the percentage of primary boarders was over 20%.

In 2013 some regions had a shortage of managers of dormitories for rural primary schools. The Stanford University Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies Rural Education Action Program sought to recruit dorm managers. For her 2011 research article Zhenzhou Zhao conducted interviews in boarding schools in Guangxi and Qinghai, collecting over 2,500 student questionnaires, 95 student interviews, 325 teacher questionnaires, 63 teacher interviews, over 100 parent questionnaires. Zhenzhou Zhao concluded "children's interests are ignored and their rights overlooked in educational policy formulation and enactment" and that the schools "fail to provide a safe, healthy environment or protect and enable students' human rights". From January 2012 to November 2014, the non-governmental organization Growing Home conducted a survey of students at 100 boarding schools in rural areas in Hebei, Sichuan and six other provinces, collecting responses from over 30,000 students total. Growing Home stated in 2015 that the average weight of a K-12 student at a rural boarding school was 9 kilograms less than that of other children, the di


Stockmansella is a genus of extinct plants of the Middle Devonian, fossils of which have been found in north-west Germany. The sporophyte generation consists of prostrate dichotomizing stems up to 10 cm long and around 3mm wide, which at intervals produce narrower smooth upright stems; these bear sporangia on short lateral branches. The prostrate stems have bulges. Both prostrate and upright stems have a central strand of conducting tissue which contains simple tracheids, so that Stockmansella is a vascular plant; the genus was created by Fairon-Demaret for fossil forms assigned to Taeniocrada but which differ in having single lateral sporangia. The form genus Sciadophyton is thought to be the gametophyte stage of several early land plants, including Stockmansella, although as these forms have only been found as compressed fossils, their morphology is not clear. In 2004, Crane et al. published a cladogram for the polysporangiophytes, in which Stockmansella is placed in the Rhyniaceae, sister to all other tracheophytes