Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending from the 1860s to the 1970s, denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency away from the narrative, characteristic for the traditional arts, toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is called contemporary art or postmodern art. Modern art begins with the heritage of painters like Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec all of whom were essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists including the pre-cubists Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Jean Metzinger and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism.
Matisse's two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. It reflected Matisse's incipient fascination with primitive art: the intense warm color of the figures against the cool blue-green background and the rhythmical succession of the dancing nudes convey the feelings of emotional liberation and hedonism. Influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec and other late-19th-century innovators, Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube and cone. With the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Picasso created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. Analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by Synthetic cubism, practiced by Braque, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and several other artists into the 1920s.
Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, collage elements, papier collé and a large variety of merged subject matter. The notion of modern art is related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier; the date most identified as marking the birth of modern art is 1863, the year that Édouard Manet showed his painting Le déjeuner sur l'herbe in the Salon des Refusés in Paris. Earlier dates have been proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H. Harvard Arnason: "Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a new beginning.... A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years."The strands of thought that led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant "the first real Modernist" but drew a distinction: "The Enlightenment criticized from the outside....
Modernism criticizes from the inside." The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and accustomed the public to vigorous political and social debate. This gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a "self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper."The pioneers of modern art were Romantics and Impressionists. By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in modern art had begun to emerge: post-Impressionism as well as Symbolism. Influences upon these movements were varied: from exposure to Eastern decorative arts Japanese printmaking, to the coloristic innovations of Turner and Delacroix, to a search for more realism in the depiction of common life, as found in the work of painters such as Jean-François Millet; the advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the tradition-bound academic art that enjoyed public and official favor.
The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through large public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters' unions, while governments held public exhibitions of new fine and decorative arts; the Impressionists argued that people do not see objects but only the light which they reflect, therefore painters should paint in natural light rather than in studios and should capture the effects of light in their work. Impressionist artists formed a group, Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Graveurs which, despite internal tensions, mounted a series of independent exhibitions; the style was adopted by artists in preference to a "national" style. These factors established the view that it was a "movement"; these traits—establishment of a working method integral to the art, establishment of a movement or visible active core of support, international adoption—would be repeated by artistic movements in the Modern period in art.
Among the movements which fl
Norman Creek is a small tributary of the Brisbane River. The headwaters of the creek are located on the northern slopes of Toohey Mountain and Mount Gravatt in southern Brisbane. Edmund Lockyer named the waterway Norman Creek in 1825; the creek drains the suburbs of Tarragindi and Holland Park West flows northwards through Greenslopes, Norman Park and East Brisbane before entering the Brisbane River at Humbug Reach. The total catchment area is 29.8 km². Coorparoo Creek in Coorparoo is a sub-catchment of Norman Creek. Other sub-catchments include Ekibin Creek. There are four significant bridges. At Stones Corner the tidal part of the creek funnels out into a thin gully. From here south, parts of the creek have been channelised into cement drains. Invasion by weeds, the dumping of rubbish and in the past, sewage discharges have posed problems for the environmental health of this urbanised waterway. Volunteer conservation groups are attempting to redress the problems. Brisbane City Council is developing a master plan called "Norman Creek 2026" for the catchment.
Community feedback and genuine actioning is critical for the success of the project to be able to deliver a healthy ecosystem. In March 2011, the BCC announced $14.5 million worth of funding to make the creek more resistant to the threat of flooding and to improve the landscape along its course. The Eastern Busway at Stones Corner is built over the creek; the Anglican Church Grammar School backs onto the creek. The construction of floodgates at the mouth of the creek has been suggested by a local emeritus professor, in order to stop flooding of the Brisbane River pushing into the creeks and stormwater drains which flow into Norman Creek. Bulimba Creek Oxley Creek Norman Creek Catchment Coordinating Committee Norman Creek 2026
Conrad Francis Dobler is a retired American football offensive guard in the NFL. Dobler was drafted in the fifth round out of the University of Wyoming in the 1972 NFL Draft by the St. Louis Cardinals, he played right offensive guard for the Cardinals from 1972 to 1977, next to Hall-of-Famer Dan Dierdorf at right tackle. In those years, the Cardinals had solid offensive lines for pass blocking. Dobler was an important cog of this success, making three consecutive Pro Bowl appearances from 1975 to 1977. Dobler developed a reputation as a nasty player, he did little to tone down that image. On the contrary, he seemed to revel in it believing that this would intimidate some defensive players, as indicated by the following quote: "I see defensive linemen jump to knock a pass down; when that happened near me, I'd smack'em in the solar plexus, that got their hands down real quick." As sportswriter Paul Zimmerman said: "Conrad Dobler was mean dirty. He tried to hurt people in a bad way...he made teams that he played on better.
He played hurt, didn't complain, but he was a filthy, filthy player." He made the cover of Sports Illustrated, who heralded Dobler as "Pro Football's Dirtiest Player". In 1978, the Cardinals traded Dobler to the New Orleans Saints, where he played for the next two years. Dobler spent his final two seasons with the Buffalo Bills, retiring after the 1981 campaign. Dobler, known for such transgressions as punching Mean Joe Greene, spitting on a downed and injured opponent Bill Bergey, kicking Merlin Olsen in the head, parodied his image in a Miller Lite beer commercial by getting a section of fans to argue the eternal question, "Tastes Great! Less Filling!". Dobler paid a high price for his NFL career, having suffered through numerous operations to repair his battered body. Now disabled, Dobler has had nine knee replacements. Still in need of further surgeries, like many other disabled pro football veterans, has been unable to gain disability assistance from the NFL. On April 5, 2007, The Buffalo News reported that as a result of falling out of a hammock in 2001, Dobler's wife Joy became a paraplegic.
Substantial medical bills for Joy's care put the Dobler family in such financial hardship that they could no longer pay for their academically gifted daughter Holli or their son Stephen to attend college. Champion golfer and philanthropist Phil Mickelson heard of the situation on ESPN and volunteered to pay for Holli's education at Miami University in Ohio and Stephen's at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. On June 21, 2018 Dobler was enshrined into the National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame in Troy, Michigan. Dobler, Conrad, they Call Me Dirty. Putnam Adult. ISBN 978-0399133992. Dobler, Conrad. Pride and Perseverance: A Story of Courage and Redemption. Foreword by Dan Dierdorf. Triumph Books. ISBN 978-1600782985. Conrad Dobler career statistics