A shot clock is used in basketball to quicken the pace of the game. The shot clock times a play and provides that a team on offense that does not promptly try to score points loses possession of the ball, it is distinct from the game clock. The shot clock may be referred to by its initial value. For example, in the National Basketball Association, it may be called the "24-second clock". A shot clock is used in snooker, men's lacrosse, water polo and ten-pin bowling, it is analogous with the play clock used in American and Canadian football, the pitch clock used in baseball. The shot clock is a digital clock; the shot clock is displayed above the backboard behind each goal, allowing offensive players to see how much time they have to shoot and officials to determine whether buzzer beaters should be counted. The NBA specifies that a transparent shot clock and game clock be part of the backboard assembly, FIBA, many venues use this arrangement. Three signals indicate when the time to shoot has expired: A value of 0.0 on the shot clock itself An audible horn distinct from the scoreboard operator's signal for end of period and substitutions A yellow strip of lights on the backboard.
Both the NBA and FIBA require this. In the final five seconds to shoot, the shot clock displays tenths of seconds; this was adopted in the 2011–12 NBA season, 2014–15 Euroleague, FIBA starting in 2018. The NBA has had a 24-second limit since 1954. FIBA introduced a 30-second shot clock in 1956 and switched to 24 seconds in 2000; the Women's National Basketball Association had a 30-second clock and switched to 24 seconds in 2006. College basketball for both men and women has a 30-second limit; the NBA had problems attracting fans before the shot clock's inception. Teams in the lead were running out the clock; the trailing team commit fouls to recover possession following the free throw. Frequent low-scoring games with many fouls bored fans; the most extreme case occurred on November 22, 1950, when the Fort Wayne Pistons defeated the Minneapolis Lakers by a record-low score of 19–18, including 3–1 in the fourth quarter. The Pistons held the ball for minutes at a time without shooting to limit the impact of the Lakers' dominant George Mikan.
It led the St. Paul Dispatch to write, " gave pro basketball a great black eye." NBA President Maurice Podoloff said, "In our game, with the number of stars we have, we of necessity run up big scores." A few weeks after the Pistons/Lakers game, the Rochester Royals and Indianapolis Olympians played a six-overtime game with only one shot in each overtime: in each overtime period, the team that had the ball first held it for the entirety of the period before attempting a last-second shot. The NBA tried several rule changes in the early 1950s to speed up the game and reduce fouls before adopting the shot clock. In 1954 in Syracuse, New York, Syracuse Nationals owner Danny Biasone and general manager Leo Ferris experimented with a 24-second shot clock during a scrimmage. Jack Andrews, longtime basketball writer for The Syracuse Post-Standard recalled how Ferris would sit at Danny Biasone's Eastwood bowling alley, scribbling potential shot clock formulas onto a napkin. According to Biasone, "I looked at the box scores from the games I enjoyed, games where they didn't screw around and stall.
I noticed. That meant 120 shots per game. So I divided that by 120 shots; the result was 24 seconds per shot." Ferris was singled out by business manager Bob Sexton at the 1954 team banquet for pushing the shot clock rule. Biasone and Ferris convinced the NBA to adopt it for the 1954–55 season, a season in which the Nationals won the NBA Championship; when it was introduced by the NBA, the 24-second shot clock made players so nervous that it hardly came into play, as players were taking fewer than 20 seconds to shoot. According to Syracuse star Dolph Schayes, "We thought we had to take quick shots – a pass and a shot was it – maybe 8–10 seconds... But as the game went on, we saw the inherent genius in Danny's 24 seconds – you could work the ball around for a good shot."The shot clock, together with some rule changes concerning fouls, revolutionized NBA basketball. In the last pre-clock season, teams averaged 79 points per game; the advent of the shot clock coincided with an increase in attendance, which increased 40% within a few years to an average of 4,800 per game.
The shot clock received near-universal praise for its role in improving the style of play in the NBA. Coach and referee Charley Eckman said, "Danny Biasone saved the NBA with the 24-second rule." Boston Celtic all-star Bob Cousy said, "Before the new rule, the last quarter could be deadly. The team in front would hold the ball indefinitely, the only way you could get it was by fouling somebody. In the meantime, nobody dared take the whole game slowed up. With the clock, we have constant action. I think, it allowed the game to breathe and progress." League president Maurice Podoloff called the adoption of the shot clock "the most important event in the NBA." The league itself states, "Biasone's invention rescue the league." Two pro leagues that rivaled the NBA adopted a modified version of the shot clock. The American Basketball League use
Hanover Square, Syracuse
Hanover Square in Downtown Syracuse, New York, is a triangular-shaped public park located at the intersection of Warren and East Genesee streets. The triangle was named Veteran's Park; the name may refer to the larger Hanover Square Historic District which includes seventeen historic buildings in the area, the first commercial district in Syracuse. In the warm weather months, entertainment is common on the plaza around the fountain. Workers in the surrounding office buildings and retail establishments lunch there; the public square was named Veteran's Park. It was renamed to Hanover Square after the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument was dedicated in Clinton Square in 1910 and the function of commemorating Syracuse's war dead was shifted there; the triangular shape of the park came as a result of the city's new grid street system in the early 19th century, "superimposed on the diagonal route" of early Genesee Turnpike. The larger, Clinton Square, the city's town center located to the west, had developed first, following the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, commercial and retail activity spread along Genesee Street to Hanover Square.
When Syracuse was still a village, the village well was located in Hanover Square. In the 1820s, a group of shops called the Hanover Arcade were located where the State Tower Building now stands; the buildings on Water Street were backed by the Erie Canal, were known as “double-enders.” This facilitated the unloading of goods from barges on the canal. Civil War recruiting booths were set up in the square, were made into a huge bonfire at the end of the war; the first buildings in the square were a church and several wooden structures which were both residential and commercial. In March 1834, the area was devastated by fire which destroyed all the buildings on the north side of the square, next to the canal; that same year, the buildings were replaced with narrow, brick structures in the Federal style of architecture and known as the Phoenix Buildings four of which still stand today on the northern edge of the square. In 1834, the owners of the wooden buildings on the south side of the square erected a similar row of brick buildings along East Genesee Street known as the Franklin buildings.
The area was soon known as Franklin Square. Three of the buildings are still standing today. Similar to Clinton Square, the public space became an "important center" of social and political life in the city with its "public meetings and partisan speeches." After 1840, the railroad brought additional commerce to the intersection. In 1865, after Abraham Lincoln's funeral procession traveled through Syracuse on the way to Springfield, thousands came to the square to hear eulogies for the former president. Hanover Square has played a vital role in Syracuse's commercial development. At one time and theaters lined the square, known as Veteran's Park. Throughout the years, the square served as a transportation hub for railroads and trolleys and was a busy commercial center. At one time, the square served as a "hack stand" where drivers would hire out their wagons to local merchants. For years, many pedestrians women, complained that they could not safely travel from one side of the square to the other due to the standing carts and moving vehicles.
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976, the square is an intact nineteenth century historic district. The square is a National Register Historic District and a Local Preservation District whose buildings represent over 100 years of architecture and was the first in the city on the register. Hanover Square has changed little since the Civil War. Several of the buildings date to the period that ran from 1830 through 1860. Newer buildings date to the late 19th century, such as the Onondaga County Savings Bank, constructed in 1896; the 17 properties can by visited in order, starting at South Salina Street and Water Street, going east on Water Street, turning south on Warren Street, returning on the diagonal along East Genesee Street to Water Street. The buildings in the square encompass a myriad of architectural styles building over a period of several years including; the park is now a major setting for ceremonial and cultural gatherings where shade trees and annual plantings "complement the water sculpture."The center of the square showcases a fountain and plaza where lunchtime entertainment is available during the summer months.
The plaza is faced on both sides by various storefronts including cafes and salons. In addition to modern businesses and stores, loft-style apartments have been created on the upper floors of some of Hanover Square's historic buildings. Businesses in Hanover Square include: Bull and Bear Pub Coffee Pavilion Downtown Manhattan's Koolakian and Manro Menswear munly brown studio Anthony's Pasta Bar Niko's Wild Will's Saloon Nick's Place The 23-floor State Tower Building overlooking the square hosts offices and is a major telecommunications hub for downtown Syracuse. Hanover Square, at SyracuseThenAndNow
Landmark Theatre (Syracuse, New York)
The Landmark Theatre known as Loew's State Theater, is an historic theater from the era of "movie palaces", located on South Salina Street in Syracuse, New York, United States. Designed by Thomas W. Lamb, it is the city's only surviving example of the opulent theatrical venues of the 1920s; the Landmark is on the National Register of Historic Places. The Loew's Corporation announced plans for a new theater on February 19, 1926, it would be built at the intersection of South Salina Street and West Jefferson Street the location of the Jefferson Hotel. The Loew's State Theatre opened on February 18, 1928, offered double bills of famous vaudeville stage acts and first-run films. During the Great Depression and World War II it continued to do good business, as theater patrons escaped for a few hours into its plush grandeur. However, by the 1970s, the theater was in disrepair, it was in danger of demolition. In 1976, Syracuse Area Landmark Theatre, or SALT, was formed to renovate the venue. With the help of an October 11, 1977 benefit concert by Harry Chapin, the group raised $65,000 to purchase the property, at which time Loew's State was renamed the Landmark Theatre.
SALT gained ownership of the theater while the remainder of the building including the upper floors remained with then-owner Sutton Real Estate. The Landmark purchased the first two floors of the building and a $16 million renovation project lasting from October 2010 to November 2011 expanded the backstage area providing new dressing rooms and green rooms in a plan to try to attract larger, longer-running events to the theater; the aging, recessed loading dock in the theater's rear on South Clinton Street was removed and replaced with a new two-bay dock. The box office was relocated from Jefferson Street to Salina Street, next to the lobby entrance and the original wooden ticket booth, both disused since its Loews State days. Awnings over the street-level storefronts were removed. In addition to the theater, the building includes several storefronts and offices on the upper floors; the Clinton Street storefronts were eliminated during the backstage expansion, the display windows now used for event posters.
The upper floors have a separate entrance on West Jefferson Street and are collectively referred to as the Loews Building. Two floors have been converted by developer Robert Doucette into 24 condominium apartments. On September 12, 2008, the Landmark hosted the world premiere of The Express, a fictionalized account of the life of Syracuse University alumnus Ernie Davis, attended by stars Rob Brown and Dennis Quaid. Several blocks of South Salina Street a main thoroughfare through downtown, were closed to traffic for the event. According to Peter Baum of SALT, Loew's State was the first great "Oriental-style" movie theater, predating Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood and two additional Loew's "Oriental palaces" in New York City. Architect Thomas Lamb described the theatre as "European, Romanesque –, the Orient as it came to us through the merchants of Venice." A large chandelier once hung in the lobby designed by Louis Tiffany for Cornelius Vanderbilt's mansion. The chandelier was sold during the 1970s.
A 1,400-pipe Wurlitzer organ was once a major feature of the venue, but was gone by the time SALT purchased the property. The promenade lobby, reached via a grand staircase, once held a fishpond with a Japanese pagoda fountain; the Landmark's red and gold decor and several large murals have been restored. The restored lobby is only open for special events. Landmark Theatre official site Landmark Theatre at Cinema Treasures
Far Westside, Syracuse
The Syracuse Far Westside is one of 26 neighborhoods recognized by the City of Syracuse, New York. Until this area joined the city in 1886 it was known as the village of Geddes; the Syracuse Far Westside is bounded by Erie Blvd West on the northeast, South Geddes Street on the lower east and Rowland Street on the south. The western border runs from Velasko Road in the south, to South Avery Avenue, Salisbury Road, Myrtle Street and parallel to Charles Avenue in Westvale, a section of Geddes ending at Willis Avenue just south of Onondaga Lake at the railroad tracks. In 1886 the village of Geddes was the largest community in the town of Geddes with many homes and businesses. Geddes became a town in 1848. "It included the west side of Syracuse to Geddes Street, the eastern boundary of the town." Local residents voted to join the city because Syracuse had a paid professional police department, a paid professional fire department and the city was about to obtain an excellent water supply from Skaneateles Lake.
The village of Geddes was annexed by Syracuse on May 20, 1886. "In one day, Geddes lost its town hall, town supervisor, town clerk, town justice, most town board members and three-quarters of its population." The residents in the area encouraged the annexation. Twice, entire commercial blocks along Furnace Street burned to the ground for lack of water and fire protection; when the village of Geddes joined the city in 1886, Major John P. Burnet, who owned a large farm on Tipperary Hill, gave a large hill top plot of land to Syracuse now known as Burnet Park with the condition that the city spend $6,000 to build roads and plant trees in this new city park. Burnet was satisfied with the city's efforts, thus, in 1887, gave the city an additional plot of land, known as the Oak Grove, still full of oak trees, on the corner of South Avery Avenue and Whittier Avenue; the Far Westside includes Tipperary Hill, an Irish neighborhood, known for its upside-down traffic signal. Additionally, Burnet Park and the Rosamond Gifford Zoo are within its limits.
The Westcott Reservoir, an excellent sledding location, is within its limits. The St. Patrick's Church Complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. 44 percent of housing in the neighborhood is owner-occupied, close to the citywide average. As of the 2000 census, 6,916 people lived in the Far Westside. 91.3 % were 8.7 % other. 51.9 % were 48.1 % male. The median age was 34.2, the median household income was $28,006. Registered voters are 38% Democrat, 28% Republican, 26% non-enrolled, 8% percent other. Far Westside neighborhood in Syracuse, New York. City-Data.com
University Hill, Syracuse
University Hill is a neighborhood and business district in Syracuse, New York, located east and southeast of Downtown Syracuse, on one of the larger hills in Syracuse. The neighborhood is bounded on the west by Almond Street and Interstate 81, it continues east to Ostrom Avenue and Thornden Park, where it borders the Westcott and University neighborhoods. Interstate 690 serves as the neighborhood's northern boundary. University Hill is the major educational and medical district of Syracuse, as well as an important business district, with three of the top ten employers in the Syracuse region located there; the most expansive of these is Syracuse University. "The Hill" is to home a Veterans Administration Medical Center, the State University of New York Upstate Medical University, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, as well as Crouse Hospital and the Richard H. Hutchings Psychiatric Center; these five institutions account for over 20,000 students. Syracuse University, SUNY ESF, Upstate Medical University together house nearly 10,000 students in student housing on the hill, with many others living in private, off-campus housing in the neighborhood.
As students make up the majority of the residents, census data might appear odd when comparing other neighborhoods. For example, the 2000 Census indicated that 66.8 percent of University Hill's population walked to work, more than six times the citywide average. Only limited parking is available in much of the neighborhood, making walking an attractive option. Student renting explains the lack of owner-occupied housing, low median household income, it is estimated by the University Hill Corporation that over 20,000 people work on "The Hill," with a combined payroll of over $400 million annually. Only the downtown neighborhood employs more people in Syracuse; the neighborhood has Marshall Street and East Genesee Street. Marshall, the larger of the two, has dozens of shops and bars, as well as the Syracuse University Sheraton. East Genesee is lined with three upscale hotels, several shops and eateries, Syracuse Stage, the performance venue of the Syracuse University drama department; as part of the negotiations that brought the former Genesee College from Lima, New York to Syracuse, George F. Comstock, a member of the university's board of trustees, offered the school 50 acres of farmland in this area of the city.
In January 1871, Bishop Jesse Peck, the first chairman of the Board of Trustees, described what was, in effect, the university's first master plan: a scheme for the construction of seven new buildings on Comstock's hillside, each to be dedicated to a different academic discipline. Peck's vision for the new campus was one of stylistic eclecticism; the Hall of Languages, completed in 1873, stood as the only manifestation of the university's first campus plan for a long time. The Panic of 1873 interrupted the institution's further development, the Hall of Languages housed the entire University for fourteen years. While the Hall of Languages was being built on his old property, George Comstock purchased 200 acres of the Stevens farm to the north of University Place. By 1872, Comstock had deeded Walnut Park, the centerpiece of his new "Highlands" subdivision, to the City, parceled out residential lots to the local elite; this greensward, extending northward from University Place, was soon bordered on both sides by large and gracious homes.
From the beginning, Comstock intended Syracuse University and the Highlands to develop as an integrated whole. By the end of the 1880s, the university had resumed construction on the south side of University Place. Holden Observatory was followed by two Romanesque Revival buildings – von Ranke Library, now Tolley Administration Building, Crouse College. Together with the Hall of Languages, these first buildings formed the basis for the "Old Row," a grouping which, along with its companion Lawn, established one of Syracuse's most enduring images; the emphatically linear organization of these buildings along the brow of the hill follows a tradition of American campus planning which dates to the construction of the "Yale Row" in the 1790s. At Syracuse, the Old Row continued to provide the framework for its growth well into the twentieth century; the university now has over 250 buildings on University Hill. The Crouse College, Syracuse University, Estabrook House, Grace Episcopal Church, Hall of Languages, Syracuse University, Pi Chapter House of Psi Upsilon Fraternity, Sherbrook Apartments, Syracuse University – Comstock Tract buildings, Temple Society of Concord, Walnut Park Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
University Hill continues to grow, led by expansions by Syracuse University and Upstate Medical University. In 2005, SU finished a new 150,000 square foot building for the Martin J. Whitman School of Management. A major problem facing University Hill is traffic. Many roads are only two-lane, cannot handle rush hour traffic; some streets have been widened but many are lined with houses and buildings historic, that prevent adding motor vehicle capacity. SUNY Upstate Medical University: 9,100 employees Syracuse University: 4,402 employees Crouse H
Strathmore, or Strathmore "By the Park" Subdivision, is a neighborhood in the southwest of Syracuse, New York, United States. It is a residential neighborhood that has many houses from the early and middle of the twentieth century; the subdivision was developed in 1919 by Clark & Porter, Inc.. Marketing materials stated "...no smoke, no dirt, no fogs, no two-family or apartment houses, no business places of any kind, nothing but homes." An extension of the middle class and upper middle class Summit Avenue residential neighborhood on the other side of Onondaga Park and Hiawatha Lake, Strathmore was marketed as "an exclusive residential district" when it opened on September 27, 1919. It attracted solidly middle class and upper middle class residents into various enclaves such as Robineau Road; the original advertisement flyer proclaimed "There can be no cheap homes in Strathmore by the Park", referring to Onondaga Park. Strathmore was zoned residential, allowing for only single-family homes with a garage.
It contains many rental properties in the "less greater" section past Summit Ave. Today, the neighborhood remains desirable and attracts a diverse, solidly middle and upper middle class population of white collar and creative class professionals. Strathmore is characterized by its Garden City town planning principles, bucolic tree-lined streets, residential architecture of well-built Colonial Revival, Federal, Norman French and Arts and Crafts style homes. During the annual Strathmore House Tour, five renovated houses are open to the public. In 1987, Onondaga Park became an official Syracuse Historic Preservation District, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. Strathmore homes designed by Ward Wellington Ward which are listed on the National Register of Historic Places are: Clark House, 105 Strathmore Drive Dunfee House, 206 Summit Avenue Fairchild House, 111 Clairmont Ave Hunziker House, 265 Robineau Road Porter House, 106 Strathmore Drive Sanford House, 211 Summit Ave Stowell House, 225 Robineau Road White House, 176 Robineau RoadOther listings on the National Register of Historic Places are the Huntley Apartments, Onondaga Highlands-Swaneola Heights Historic District, Onondaga Park, Strathmore "By the Park" Subdivision.
Media related to Strathmore "By the Park" Subdivision at Wikimedia Commons Official Site of the Greater Strathmore Neighborood Association
Onondaga Creek is a major tributary of Onondaga Lake, located in Onondaga County, New York. The headwaters of the creek originate 27 miles south of the city of Syracuse near the hamlet of Vesper, in the town of Tully, New York; the creek flows north through the Tully Valley and through the city of Syracuse where it empties into Onondaga Lake. The major tributaries of Onondaga Creek are the West Branch of Onondaga Creek, Hemlock Creek and Rattlesnake Gulf; the watershed consists of "mixed land use of about 80% forest and agriculture, 20% urban". Onondaga Creek contributes 30 to 40 percent of the total inflow to Onondaga Lake. Water quality in the creek has been a concern "historically with regards to its impacts" on the lake. At its mouth, Onondaga Creek is enriched with suspended sediment; these problems are magnified at high flows. Near the mouth, groundwater springs continuously discharge brackish water into the creek; the creek is the largest source of sediment in Onondaga Lake. The settlement that became Syracuse arose in a forested swampy area at the creek outlet in the early 1800s as a result of the state of NY constructing the Erie Canal and developing salt production on the shores of Onondaga Lake.
From this time forward, the natural meandering flood plain of the creek was periodically channelized and straightened to facilitate uncontrolled development of the creek-side and flood plain upstream towards the Onondaga Nation Reservation. A "progress"-based economic cycle involved land developers purchasing farmland and building in the adjacent rural towns, followed by flooding, water supply, school crises; the city of Syracuse would respond to petitions by the new homeowners and businesses to formally ask the state legislature to annex these lands. By the turn of the twentieth century, this cycle accelerated due to the city acquiring water rights to Skaneatles lake, the development of street car lines. After a series of major floods, the city engineer was authorized by the state to study the whole watershed; the 1927 report concluded that the region had experienced much heavier rainfalls in the preceding decades than had Onondaga Creek, so the in the future floods could be larger. In addition, the anticipated uncontrolled sprawl up to the Onondaga Nation reservation would in effect block the remaining overflows to the farmland flood plain further increasing peak flood flows.
The City Engineer recommend the construction of two flood control dam within Onondaga reservation, just inside the northern and the southern boundaries. There were state or federal funds available for such a project; the Onondaga nation and the Iroquois Confederation opposed this taking. In 1936 Congress passed the Federal Flood Control Act, it provided funding for construction. States had to acquire land rights, were responsible for operation and maintenance. By 1940 a flood control project for Onondaga creek was authorized, subject to agreement by the Nation. In the late 1940s, the Army Corp. of Engineers built a single flood control dam with a short term reservoir within the southern bounds of Onondaga Nation Reservation for the purpose of regulating the peak flow that reaches the city of Syracuse. The structure influences the creek's flow pattern only in the event of a large runoff when a portion of high flow is stored in the reservoir and released back into the creek when the water recedes.
List of rivers of New York Onondaga Creekwalk Media related to Onondaga Creek at Wikimedia Commons