Army–Navy Game

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Army–Navy Game
Sport College football
First meeting November 29, 1890
Latest meeting December 9, 2017
Next meeting December 8, 2018
Statistics
Meetings total 118
All-time record Navy leads 60–51–7
Longest win streak Navy, 14 (2002–2015)
Current win streak Army, 2 (2016–present)

The Army–Navy Game is an American college rivalry game in college football between the Army Black Knights of the United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, New York, and the Navy Midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy (USNA) at Annapolis, Maryland. The Black Knights (alternatively, the "Cadets") and Midshipmen each represent their service's oldest officer commissioning sources. As such, the game has come to embody the spirit of the interservice rivalry of the United States Armed Forces. The game marks the end of the college football regular season and the third and final game of the season's Commander-in-Chief's Trophy series, which also includes the Air Force Falcons of the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) near Colorado Springs, Colorado.

The Army–Navy game is one of the most traditional and enduring rivalries in college football. It has been frequently attended by sitting U.S. presidents.[1] The game has been nationally televised each year since 1945 on either ABC, CBS or NBC. CBS has televised the game since 1996 and has the rights to the broadcast through 2028.[2] Instant replay made its American debut in the 1963 Army–Navy game.[3] Since 2009, the game has been held the Saturday following FBS conference championship weekend.[4]

The game has been held in multiple locations, but outside the 1926 game in Chicago and 1983 game in Pasadena, California, it has been played in the Northeast megalopolis, most frequently in Philadelphia, followed by the New York City area and the Baltimore–Washington area. The series has been marked by several periods of domination by one team or the other, with Navy's 14-game winning streak from 2002 through 2015 being the longest for either side. Through the 2017 meeting, Navy leads the series 60–51–7.

Series history[edit]

Army and Navy first met on the field on November 29, 1890. They played 30 times between that date and November 26, 1927. The series has been renewed annually since 1930. The game has been held at several locations throughout its history, including Baltimore and New York City, but has most frequently been played in Philadelphia, roughly equidistant from the two academies. Historically played on the Saturday after Thanksgiving (a date on which most other major college football teams end their regular seasons), the game is now played on the second Saturday in December and is traditionally the last game of the season for both teams and the last regular-season game played in Division I FBS football. With the permanent expansion of the regular season to 12 games starting in 2006, several conference championship games joined the Army–Navy Game on its then-current date of the first weekend of December. In 2009, the game was moved from the first Saturday in December to the second Saturday; this means that it no longer conflicts with conference championship games and once again is the last non-bowl contest in college football.[5]

1908 Army–Navy college football game at Franklin Field

This game has inter-service "bragging rights" at stake. For much of the first half of the 20th century, both Army and Navy were often national powers, and the game occasionally had national championship implications. However, as the level of play in college football improved nationally, and became fueled by prospects of playing in the National Football League (NFL), the high academic entrance requirements, height and weight limits, and the five-year military commitment required has reduced the overall competitiveness of both academies. Since 1963, only the 1996, 2010, 2016 and 2017 games have seen both teams enter with winning records. Nonetheless, the game is considered a college football institution. It has aired nationally on radio since 1930, and has been nationally televised every year since 1945. The tradition associated with the game assures that it remains nationally broadcast to this day.

A game ball from the 1974 Army–Navy Game, with the game's final score (Navy 19, Army 0) adhered on with a label.

Arguably, one of the reasons this game has maintained its appeal is that the players are playing solely for the love of the game. Most players are required to fulfill a post-graduation active duty military commitment and, by the time this ends, many players are deemed too old to consider playing competitively again. Nevertheless, some participants in the Army–Navy Game have gone on to professional football careers. Quarterback Roger Staubach (Navy, 1965) went on to a Hall of Fame career with the Dallas Cowboys that included starting at quarterback in two Super Bowl victories including being named the Most Valuable Player of Super Bowl VI. Wide receiver and return specialist Phil McConkey (Navy, 1979) was a popular player on the New York Giants squad that won Super Bowl XXI. Running back Napoleon McCallum (Navy, 1985) was able to complete his commitment to the Navy and play for the then-Los Angeles Raiders in 1986. After satisfying his Navy commitment, he joined the Raiders full-time. Running back Kyle Eckel (Navy, 2005) was a two-time Army-Navy Game MVP and played in the Super Bowl twice during a five year career, once with the team who originally signed him, the New England Patriots in Super Bowl XLII, and winning the other with the New Orleans Saints in Super Bowl XLIV.

2002 Army–Navy Game at Giants Stadium. Navy is in dark and Army is in white.

The game is especially emotional for the seniors, called "first classmen" by both academies, since it is typically the last competitive regular season football game they will ever play (though they sometimes play in a subsequent bowl game). During wartime the game is even more emotional, as some seniors may face combat and perhaps die after they graduate. Recognition of those who share the uniform and are deployed overseas is an important part of the day.

At the end of the game, both teams' almae matres are played and sung. The winning team stands alongside the losing team and faces the losing academy's students; then the losing team accompanies the winning team, facing their students.[6] This is done in a show of mutual respect and solidarity. Since the winning team's alma mater is always played last, the phrase "to sing second" has become synonymous with winning the rivalry game.

The rivalry between Annapolis and West Point, while friendly, is intense. The cadets live and breathe the phrase "Beat Navy!" while for midshipmen the opposite phrase, "Beat Army!" is ingrained. They have become a symbol of competitiveness, not just in the Army–Navy Game, but in the service of their country, and are often used at the close of (informal) letters by graduates of both academies. A long-standing tradition at the Army-Navy football game is to conduct a formal "prisoner exchange" as part of the pre-game activities. The prisoners are the cadets and midshipmen currently spending the semester studying at the sister academy. After the exchange, students have a brief reprieve to enjoy the game with their comrades.[7]

In 2011, the 112th Army–Navy Game saw Navy's 10th consecutive win.

The game is the last of three contests in the annual Commander-in-Chief's Trophy series, awarded to each season's winner of the triangular series between Army, Navy, and Air Force since 1972. In years when Navy and Army have each beaten Air Force before the Army–Navy Game (1972, 1977, 1978, 1996, 2005, 2012 and 2017) the Army-Navy game has also determined whether Army or Navy would win this trophy. In years when Air Force has split its two games, the Army-Navy game determines whether the trophy is shared or won outright by the winner of the game.

The rivalries Army and Navy have with Air Force are much less intense than the Army–Navy rivalry, primarily due to the relative youth of the USAFA, established in 1954, and the physical distance between the USAFA and the other two schools. The Army–Air Force and Navy–Air Force games are usually played at the academies' regular home fields, although on occasion they have been held at a neutral field.

Navy won 14 Army-Navy games in a row from 2002 to 2015, the longest winning streak in the history of the series.[8] On December 10, 2016, Army snapped its 14-game losing streak against Navy with a 21–17 victory.

Venues[edit]

Though the game has been played 118 times, only six of those games have ever been held on the campus of either academy. Neither team has ever played at an on-campus stadium nearly large enough to accommodate the large crowds that usually attend the game, as well as the media and dignitaries. Army's Michie Stadium only seats 38,000 people, while Navy's Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium only seats 34,000. The game's popularity grew enough early on that when it was revived in 1899, it was played at a neutral site, the Franklin Field in Philadelphia. Except for the 1942 and 1943 games, which were played on-campus due to World War II travel restrictions, it has been played at a neutral site every year since.

Pennsylvania Railroad trains lined up at a temporary station outside the Municipal Stadium after the 1955 game.

Traditionally, the game is played in Philadelphia, due to the historic nature of the city and the fact that it is approximately halfway between West Point and Annapolis. Additionally, Philadelphia has always had a stadium large enough to accommodate the crowds. Philadelphia's John F. Kennedy Stadium (JFK) hosted the game from 1936 to 1979 (except for three years in World War II) – more than any other venue in the history of the series. It even hosted the game for several years after the 1971 construction of nearby Veterans Stadium, which finally became the game's host in 1980. The Pennsylvania Railroad and its successors offered game-day service to all Army–Navy games (except several during World War II) at John F. Kennedy Stadium, using a sprawling temporary station constructed each year on the railroad's nearby Greenwich freight yard. The service, with 40-odd trains serving as many as 30,000 attendees, was the single largest concentrated passenger rail movement in the country.[9][10]

Franklin Field, on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania, hosted the game in the early twentieth century before it was moved to JFK. New York's Polo Grounds holds the record for most games hosted outside of Philadelphia. The city of Baltimore has hosted a number of games throughout the history of the series as well, even though Baltimore is closer to Annapolis.

1926 game at Chicago's Soldier Field

The Rose Bowl is the only site west of the Mississippi River to host the Army–Navy game; it did so in 1983. The city of Pasadena, California, paid for the travel expenses of all the students and supporters of both academies – 9,437 in all.[11] A substitute, however, for Bill XXII – the Navy mascot – and four rented Army mules were brought in.[11] The attendance was 81,000.[12][13] The game was held at the Rose Bowl that year because there are a large number of military installations and servicemen and women, along with many retired military personnel, on the West Coast.[11] The game has been held one other time in a non-East Coast venue, at Chicago's Soldier Field, which played host to the 1926 game. In October 1984, the $100,000 in costs to transport the cadets and midshipmen to the California game earned the Department of Defense a "Golden Fleece Award" from United States Senator William Proxmire, a Democrat from Wisconsin.[14]

Currently the game is played primarily at Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia, the home of the Philadelphia Eagles. Since the 1980s, the game has been held roughly once every three or four years at a site other than Philadelphia. In addition to the Rose Bowl, these sites have included Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey (replaced in 2010 by MetLife Stadium, which is scheduled to host the game for the first time in 2021), M&T Bank Stadium in Baltimore and FedExField in Landover, Maryland. These are still considered neutral-site games, but provide locations that are closer to one academy or the other.

Future venues[edit]

All games through 2020 will be held at Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia. MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey will host the 2021 game. The game will then return to Lincoln Financial Field for 2022. Games beyond 2022 have yet to be awarded.[15]

Total games by venue and geography[edit]

Venue Games Army victories Navy victories Tie games First game Most recent game
John F. Kennedy Stadium (Philadelphia) 41 16 22 3 1936 1979
Franklin Field 18 11 7 0 1899 1935
Veterans Stadium 17 11 5 1 1980 2001
Lincoln Financial Field 11 1 10 0 2003 2017
Polo Grounds 9 5 3 1 1913 1927
Giants Stadium 4 1 3 0 1989 2002
M&T Bank Stadium 4 1 3 0 2000 2016
The Plain 2 0 2 0 1890 1892
Worden Field 2 1 1 0 1891 1893
Municipal Stadium (Baltimore) 2 2 0 0 1924 1944
Yankee Stadium 2 2 0 0 1930 1931
Osborne Field 1 0 0 1 1905 1905
Soldier Field 1 0 0 1 1926 1926
Thompson Stadium 1 0 1 0 1942 1942
Michie Stadium 1 0 1 0 1943 1943
Rose Bowl 1 0 1 0 1983 1983
FedExField 1 0 1 0 2011 2011
City Games Army victories Navy victories Tie games First game Most recent game
Philadelphia 87 39 44 4 1899 2017
New York City 11 7 3 1 1913 1931
Baltimore 6 3 3 0 1924 2016
East Rutherford, New Jersey 4 1 3 0 1989 2002
West Point, New York 3 0 3 0 1890 1943
Annapolis, Maryland 3 1 2 0 1891 1942
Princeton, New Jersey 1 0 0 1 1905 1905
Chicago 1 0 0 1 1926 1926
Pasadena, California 1 0 1 0 1983 1983
Landover, Maryland 1 0 1 0 2011 2011
State Games Army victories Navy victories Tie games First game Most recent game
Pennsylvania 87 39 44 4 1899 2017
New York 14 7 6 1 1890 1943
Maryland 10 4 6 0 1891 2016
New Jersey 5 1 3 1 1905 2002
Illinois 1 0 0 1 1926 1926
California 1 0 1 0 1983 1983
CSA Games Army victories Navy victories Tie games First game Most recent game
Philadelphia–Reading–Camden, PA–NJ–DE–MD 87 39 44 4 1899 2017
New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA 19 8 9 2 1890 2002
Washington–Baltimore–Arlington, DC–MD–VA–WV–PA 10 4 6 0 1891 2016
Chicago–Naperville, IL–IN–WI 1 0 0 1 1926 1926
Los Angeles–Long Beach, CA 1 0 1 0 1983 1983

Game results[edit]

Army victoriesNavy victoriesTie games
No.DateLocationWinning teamLosing team
1 November 29, 1890 West Point, NY Navy 24 Army 0
2 November 28, 1891 Annapolis, MD Army 32 Navy 16
3 November 26, 1892 West Point, NY Navy 12 Army 4
4 December 2, 1893 Annapolis, MD Navy 6 Army 4
5 December 2, 1899 Philadelphia, PA Army 17 Navy 5
6 December 1, 1900 Philadelphia, PA Navy 11 Army 7
7 November 30, 1901 Philadelphia, PA Army 11 Navy 5
8 November 29, 1902 Philadelphia, PA Army 22 Navy 8
9 November 28, 1903 Philadelphia, PA Army 40 Navy 5
10 November 26, 1904 Philadelphia, PA Army 11 Navy 0
11 December 2, 1905 Princeton, NJ Tie6Tie6
12 December 1, 1906 Philadelphia, PA Navy 10 Army 0
13 November 30, 1907 Philadelphia, PA Navy 6 Army 0
14 November 28, 1908 Philadelphia, PA Army 6 Navy 4
15 November 26, 1910 Philadelphia, PA Navy 3 Army 0
16 November 25, 1911 Philadelphia, PA Navy 3 Army 0
17 November 30, 1912 Philadelphia, PA Navy 6 Army 0
18 November 29, 1913 New York, NY Army 22 Navy 9
19 November 28, 1914 Philadelphia, PA Army 20 Navy 0
20 November 27, 1915 New York, NY Army 14 Navy 0
21 November 25, 1916 New York, NY Army 15 Navy 7
22 November 29, 1919 New York, NY Navy 6 Army 0
23 November 27, 1920 New York, NY Navy 7 Army 0
24 November 26, 1921 New York, NY Navy 7 Army 0
25 November 25, 1922 Philadelphia, PA Army 17 Navy 14
26 November 24, 1923 New York, NY Tie0Tie0
27 November 29, 1924 Baltimore, MD Army 12 Navy 0
28 November 28, 1925 New York, NY Army 10 Navy 3
29 November 27, 1926 Chicago, IL Tie21Tie21
30 November 26, 1927 New York, NY Army 14 Navy 9
31 December 13, 1930 New York, NY Army 6 Navy 0
32 December 12, 1931 New York, NY Army 17 Navy 7
33 December 3, 1932 Philadelphia, PA Army 20 Navy 0
34 November 25, 1933 Philadelphia, PA Army 12 Navy 7
35 December 1, 1934 Philadelphia, PA Navy 3 Army 0
36 November 30, 1935 Philadelphia, PA Army 28 Navy 6
37 November 28, 1936 Philadelphia, PA Navy 7 Army 0
38 November 27, 1937 Philadelphia, PA Army 6 Navy 0
39 November 26, 1938 Philadelphia, PA Army 14 Navy 7
40 December 2, 1939 Philadelphia, PA Navy 10 Army 0
41 November 30, 1940 Philadelphia, PA Navy 14 Army 0
42 November 29, 1941 Philadelphia, PA #11 Navy 14 Army 6
43 November 28, 1942 Annapolis, MD Navy 14 Army 0
44 November 27, 1943 West Point, NY #6 Navy 13 #7 Army 0
45 December 2, 1944 Baltimore, MD #1 Army 23 #2 Navy 7
46 December 1, 1945 Philadelphia, PA #1 Army 32 #2 Navy 13
47 November 30, 1946 Philadelphia, PA #1 Army 21 Navy 18
48 November 29, 1947 Philadelphia, PA #12 Army 21 Navy 0
49 November 27, 1948 Philadelphia, PA Tie21Tie21
50 November 26, 1949 Philadelphia, PA #4 Army 38 Navy 0
51 December 2, 1950 Philadelphia, PA Navy 14 #2 Army 2
52 December 1, 1951 Philadelphia, PA Navy 42 Army 7
53 November 29, 1952 Philadelphia, PA Navy 7 Army 0
54 November 28, 1953 Philadelphia, PA #18 Army 20 Navy 7
55 November 27, 1954 Philadelphia, PA #6 Navy 27 #5 Army 20
56 November 26, 1955 Philadelphia, PA Army 14 #11 Navy 6
57 December 1, 1956 Philadelphia, PA Tie7Tie7
58 November 30, 1957 Philadelphia, PA #8 Navy 14 #10 Army 0
59 November 29, 1958 Philadelphia, PA #5 Army 22 Navy 6
60 November 28, 1959 Philadelphia, PA Navy 43 Army 12
No.DateLocationWinning teamLosing team
61 November 26, 1960 Philadelphia, PA #7 Navy 17 Army 12
62 December 2, 1961 Philadelphia, PA Navy 13 Army 7
63 December 1, 1962 Philadelphia, PA Navy 34 Army 14
64 December 7, 1963 Philadelphia, PA #2 Navy 21 Army 15
65 November 28, 1964 Philadelphia, PA Army 11 Navy 8
66 November 27, 1965 Philadelphia, PA Tie7Tie7
67 November 26, 1966 Philadelphia, PA Army 20 Navy 7
68 December 2, 1967 Philadelphia, PA Navy 19 Army 14
69 November 30, 1968 Philadelphia, PA Army 21 Navy 14
70 November 29, 1969 Philadelphia, PA Army 27 Navy 0
71 November 28, 1970 Philadelphia, PA Navy 11 Army 7
72 November 27, 1971 Philadelphia, PA Army 24 Navy 23
73 December 2, 1972 Philadelphia, PA Army 23 Navy 15
74 December 1, 1973 Philadelphia, PA Navy 51 Army 0
75 November 30, 1974 Philadelphia, PA Navy 19 Army 0
76 November 29, 1975 Philadelphia, PA Navy 30 Army 6
77 November 27, 1976 Philadelphia, PA Navy 38 Army 10
78 November 26, 1977 Philadelphia, PA Army 17 Navy 14
79 December 2, 1978 Philadelphia, PA Navy 28 Army 0
80 December 1, 1979 Philadelphia, PA Navy 31 Army 7
81 November 29, 1980 Philadelphia, PA Navy 33 Army 6
82 December 1, 1981 Philadelphia, PA Tie3Tie3
83 December 4, 1982 Philadelphia, PA Navy 24 Army 7
84 November 25, 1983 Pasadena, CA Navy 42 Army 13
85 December 1, 1984 Philadelphia, PA Army 28 Navy 11
86 December 7, 1985 Philadelphia, PA Navy 17 Army 7
87 December 4, 1986 Philadelphia, PA Army 27 Navy 7
88 December 5, 1987 Philadelphia, PA Army 17 Navy 3
89 December 12, 1988 Philadelphia, PA Army 20 Navy 15
90 December 9, 1989 East Rutherford, NJ Navy 19 Army 17
91 December 8, 1990 Philadelphia, PA Army 30 Navy 20
92 December 7, 1991 Philadelphia, PA Navy 24 Army 3
93 December 5, 1992 Philadelphia, PA Army 25 Navy 24
94 December 4, 1993 East Rutherford, NJ Army 16 Navy 14
95 December 3, 1994 Philadelphia, PA Army 22 Navy 20
96 December 2, 1995 Philadelphia, PA Army 14 Navy 13
97 December 7, 1996 Philadelphia, PA #23 Army 28 Navy 24
98 December 6, 1997 East Rutherford, NJ Navy 39 Army 7
99 December 5, 1998 Philadelphia, PA Army 34 Navy 30
100 December 4, 1999 Philadelphia, PA Navy 19 Army 9
101 December 2, 2000 Baltimore, MD Navy 30 Army 28
102 December 1, 2001 Philadelphia, PA Army 26 Navy 17
103 December 7, 2002 East Rutherford, NJ Navy 58 Army 12
104 December 6, 2003 Philadelphia, PA Navy 34 Army 6
105 December 4, 2004 Philadelphia, PA Navy 42 Army 13
106 December 3, 2005 Philadelphia, PA Navy 42 Army 23
107 December 2, 2006 Philadelphia, PA Navy 26 Army 14
108 December 1, 2007 Baltimore, MD Navy 38 Army 3
109 December 6, 2008 Philadelphia, PA Navy 34 Army 0
110 December 12, 2009 Philadelphia, PA Navy 17 Army 3
111 December 11, 2010 Philadelphia, PA Navy 31 Army 17
112 December 10, 2011 Landover, MD Navy 27 Army 21
113 December 8, 2012 Philadelphia, PA Navy 17 Army 13
114 December 14, 2013 Philadelphia, PA Navy 34 Army 7
115 December 13, 2014 Baltimore, MD Navy 17 Army 10
116 December 12, 2015 Philadelphia, PA #21 Navy 21 Army 17
117 December 10, 2016 Baltimore, MD Army 21 #25 Navy 17
118 December 9, 2017 Philadelphia, PA Army 14 Navy 13
119 December 8, 2018 Philadelphia, PA
Series: Navy leads 60–51–7

Notable games[edit]

Navy Midshipman (and later Admiral) Joseph Mason Reeves wore what is widely regarded as the first football helmet in the 1893 Army–Navy Game. He had been advised by a Navy doctor that another kick to his head would result in intellectual disability or even death, so he commissioned an Annapolis shoemaker to make him a helmet out of leather.[16]

On November 27, 1926, the Army–Navy Game was held in Chicago for the National Dedication of Soldier Field as a monument to American servicemen who had fought in World War I. Navy came to the game undefeated, while West Point had only lost to Notre Dame, so the game would decide the National Championship. Played before a crowd of over 100,000, the teams fought to a 21–21 tie, but Navy was awarded the national championship.[17]

In both the 1944 and 1945 contests, Army and Navy entered the game ranked #1 and #2 respectively.[18] The 1945 game was labeled the "game of the century" before it was played. Army defeated a 7–0–1 Navy team 32–13. Navy's lone tie was against Notre Dame.[19]

In 1963, shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy urged the academies to play after there had been talk of cancellation. Originally scheduled for November 30, 1963, the game was played on December 7, 1963 also coinciding with the 22nd anniversary of Pearl Harbor Day.[20] In front of a crowd of 102,000 people in Philadelphia's Municipal Stadium, later named John F. Kennedy Stadium, junior (second class Midshipman) quarterback Roger Staubach led number two ranked Navy to victory which clinched a Cotton Bowl national championship matchup with Texas played on January 1, 1964. Army was led by junior (second class Cadet) quarterback Rollie Stichweh. Stichweh led off the game with a touchdown drive that featured the first use of instant replay on television. Army nearly won the game after another touchdown and two point conversion, Stichweh recovered the onside kick and drove the ball to the Navy 2 yard line. On 4th down and no timeouts, crowd noise prevented Stichweh from calling a play and time expired with the 21–15 final score. Staubach won the Heisman Trophy that year and was bumped off the scheduled cover of Life magazine due to the coverage of the assassination. Stichweh and Staubach would meet again in 1964 as First Class where Stichweh's Army would defeat Staubach's Navy. Staubach went on to serve in the Navy and afterward became a Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback with the Dallas Cowboys. Stichweh served five years in Vietnam with the 173rd Airborne Brigade. Stichweh was inducted into the Army Sports Hall of Fame in 2012.[21][22]

On December 10, 2016, Army beat Navy 21–17, snapping Navy's 14-year winning streak.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography
Notes
  1. ^ Staff writer (November 18, 2008). "President Bush Will Attend Army-Navy Game for First Time since 2004"". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  2. ^ Staff writer (May 18, 2017). "CBS SPORTS TO REMAIN HOME OF ANNUAL ARMY-NAVY FOOTBALL CLASSIC THROUGH 2028". Navy Sports Webpage. Retrieved May 18, 2017. 
  3. ^ Gelston, Dan (December 5, 2008). "Army–Navy, Instant Replay, Tony Verna, 45 Years Later ..." Los Angeles Daily News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Army, Navy have no plans to move game for College Football Playoff schedule". USA Today. May 22, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Army–Navy Will Move to Second Saturday in December". Associated Press (via ESPN). October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  6. ^ Blansett, Sarah (December 12, 2014). "Tradition and History Wrapped into 115th Army–Navy Game". Military.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016. 
  7. ^ Eastwood, Kathy. "West Point, Naval exchange students gear up for big game". United States Military Academy. Retrieved November 17, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Army Looks To Sink Navy's Winning Streak « CBS New York". Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  9. ^ Cupper, Dan (1992). Crossroads of Commerce: The Pennsylvania Railroad Calendar Art of Grif Teller. Stackpole Books. p. 138. ISBN 9780811729031 – via Google Books. 
  10. ^ Froio, Michael (December 11, 2015). "To The Game: A Pennsylvania Railroad Tradition". Retrieved August 24, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c Clark, N. Brooks (December 5, 1983). "The Week" Archived October 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Sports Illustrated. Accessed December 24, 2009.
  12. ^ [verification needed]Staff writer (undated). "No. 1 Rivalry – Army–Navy". Athlon Sports. Accessed December 24, 2009.
  13. ^ "1983 – Score: Navy 42 – Army 13 | Game played at the Rose Bowl". United States Naval Academy exhibits. Accessed December 24, 2009.
  14. ^ "Golden Fleece Awards, 1975-1987". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved 15 March 2017. 
  15. ^ Staff writer (August 22, 2017) "MetLife Stadium to Host 2021 Army-Navy Game". "armynavygame.com" Accessed August 22, 2017
  16. ^ "History of the Football Helmet" from Past Time Sports. Accessed Jan 1,2010
  17. ^ Nimitz Library | U. S. Naval Academy Archival Images: Army Navy Football: 1926. Accessed Dec 31, 2009 Archived January 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ [verification needed]Unknown writer (undated). "Games Where #1 Faced #2" Archived 2008-08-28 at the Wayback Machine. kiko13.com (fansite). Accessed December 24, 2009.
  19. ^ "Middies All Hepped Up to Knock Over Cadets". Los Angeles Times, November 27, 1945. "Navy, far from conceding next Saturday's football 'game of the century' to Army, will field a spirited, offense-minded team determined to win and 'not merely hold down the score,' Public Relations Chief Lt. William Sullivan said today."
  20. ^ Norlander, Matt. "Film on '63 Army-Navy game shows impact of rivalry, JFK tragedy". CBS Sports. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  21. ^ "Carl Roland Stichweh HOF profile". CBS Interactive. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  22. ^ "Army Sports Hall of Fame Members – By Induction Class". CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 

External links[edit]