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Army Ballistic Missile Agency

The Army Ballistic Missile Agency was formed to develop the U. S. Army's first large ballistic missile; the agency was established at Redstone Arsenal on 1 February 1956, commanded by Major General John B. Medaris with Wernher von Braun as technical director; the Redstone missile was the first major project assigned to ABMA. The Redstone was a direct descendant of the V-2 missile developed by the von Braun team in Germany during World War II. After the Naval Research Laboratory's Project Vanguard was chosen by the DOD Committee on Special Capabilities, over the ABMA's proposal to use a modified Redstone ballistic missile as a satellite launch vehicle, ABMA was ordered to stop work on launchers for satellites and focus, instead, on military missiles. Von Braun continued work on the design for what became the Jupiter-C IRBM; this was a three-stage rocket, which, by coincidence, could be used to launch a satellite in the Juno I configuration. In September 1956, the Jupiter-C was launched with a 30 pounds dummy satellite.

It was believed that the ABMA could have put a satellite into orbit at that time, had the US government allowed ABMA to do so. A year the Soviets launched Sputnik 1; when the Vanguard rocket failed, a Redstone-based Jupiter-C launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, on 31 January 1958. Redstone was used as a launch vehicle in Project Mercury. Redstone was deployed by the U. S. Army as the PGM-11, the first missile to carry a nuclear warhead. Studies began in 1956 for a replacement for the Redstone missile. Called the Redstone-S, the name was changed to MGM-31 Pershing and a contract was awarded to The Martin Company, beginning a program that lasted 34 years. In early 1958, NACA's "Stever Committee" included consultation from the ABMA's large booster program, headed by Wernher von Braun. Von Braun's Group was referred to as the "Working Group on Vehicular Program." In March 1958, ABMA was placed under the new Army Ordnance Missile Command along with Redstone Arsenal, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, White Sands Proving Ground, the Army Rocket and Guided Missile Agency.

General Medaris was placed in command of AOMC and BG John A. Barclay took command of ABMA. On 1 July 1960, the AOMC space-related missions and most of its employees and equipment were transferred to NASA, forming the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Wernher von Braun was named MSFC director. BG Richard M. Hurst took command of ABMA from May 1960 until December 1961 when both ABMA and ARGMA were abolished and the remnants were folded directly into AOMC. In 1962, AOMC was restructured into the new US Army Missile Command. In the aftermath of World War II, a number of German rocket scientists and engineers were moved to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip. Rocketry was at that time considered to be a sort of long-range artillery, fell to the Army to explore; the group was settled at Fort Bliss, Texas – where they aided General Electric's Project Hermes efforts to build and test a variety of V-2-derived designs at the nearby White Sands Proving Ground. Around the same time, North American Aviation won the contract to build a long-range cruise missile that became the SM-64 Navaho.

This needed to be boosted up to operational speed by a rocket. Their Propulsion Division was given two V-2 engines to work with to meet this requirement, along with a wealth of research papers from the original V-2 engine team; the NAA team discovered that a major upgrade to the V-2's original Model 39 engine was planned through the use of a new fuel injector design, but the Germans were not able to cure lingering combustion problems. Attacking this task, NAA solved the problems and began using this new injector; this became the XLR-41 Phase III engine, which provided 75,000 pounds-force of thrust, one third greater than the Model 39, was lighter and smaller than the German design. The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 led to calls for the rapid deployment of new missiles, the Army responded by developing a requirement for a ballistic missile with 500 miles range while carrying a 500 pounds warhead that could be operational as as possible; the fastest solution was to provide the German team with anything they needed to achieve this goal by adapting the V-2 design.

The team, under the leadership of Wernher von Braun, began work on the problem at Fort Bliss. In 1951 they moved to the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, home to the Army's Ordnance commands. Known as the Ordnance Guided Missile Center the Guided Missile Development Division, in 1956 they became the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, or ABMA. Taking the XLR-41, renamed as the NA-75-110 in Army use, they wrapped it in the largest airframe it could lift, increasing fuel load and extending the range; the result was a larger version of the V-2. As tensions of the Cold War mounted, the Army changed the requirement to be able to carry smallest nuclear warheads in the inventory – with a warhead weight of 6,900 pounds, range was reduced to only 175 miles. Design work was complete in 1952 and on 8 April it became known as the SSM-G-14 Redstone; the first ABMA-built prototype flew in August 1953, the first production-line model from Chrysler in July 1956, the Redstone entered service in 1958. While the PGM-11 Redstone program continued, NAA was receiving a continual stream of orders from the Air Force to extend the range and payload of their Navaho design.

This required a much larger missile, a much larger booster to launch it. As a result, NAA was continually introducing new versions of their engines. By the mid-1950s, NAA had a version

Smother (film)

Smother is a 2008 comedy film co-written and directed by Vince Di Meglio and starring Diane Keaton as a mother, over-attached to her adult son, played by Dax Shepard. The film aired on Lifetime in 2009. Noah Cooper, a therapist, gets fired from the office; when he arrives home he finds Myron Stubbs, has moved in. That evening his mother, Marilyn arrives with her dogs and asks whether she can stay. Though Noah is displeased, he allows Marilyn to stay, he discovers. He and Marilyn get hired at a carpet store, but because of Marilyn's stupid tasks both of them get fired. Meanwhile, his relationship with his wife, Clare and she subsequently leaves. Marilyn spies her husband and they have an encounter, her husband, Gene confesses. Noah's grandmother, Helen Cooper dies, at the funeral Noah and Maryiln debate. Noah gets moved by his mother's words and realises that his decision not to have a baby was wrong and rushes to Clare to apologize; the film ends with Myron moving in together elsewhere. Diane Keaton as Marilyn Cooper Dax Shepard as Noah Cooper Liv Tyler as Clare Cooper Mike White as Myron Stubbs Ken Howard as Gene Cooper Selma Stern as Helen Cooper Jerry Lambert as Donnie Booker Don Lake as Minister Sarah Lancaster as Holly Smother on IMDb Smother at Rotten Tomatoes

Desert of Fire

Desert of Fire is a 1997 TV miniseries directed by Enzo G. Castellari, it is a European co-production between Italy and France. Anthony Delon as René / Ben Mandala Tayde as Amina Stéphane Freiss as Jacquot Arielle Dombasle as Magda Virna Lisi as Christine Duvivier Claudia Cardinale as Leila Vittorio Gassman as Tarek Marie Laforêt as Rama Fabio Testi as Diderot Giuliano Gemma as Tafud Franco Nero as Marcel Duvivier Mathieu Carrière as François Legrand Jean Sorel as Miller Christopher Buchholz as Dubai Orso Maria Guerrini as Alkan Luca Lionello as Selim Hans Peter Hallwachs as Jafar Desert of Fire on IMDb

Mercury(II) reductase

Mercury reductase known as MerA, is an oxidoreductase enzyme and flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0. Mercury reductase is found in the cytoplasm of many eubacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic environments and serves to convert toxic mercury ions into inert elemental mercury. Mercury reductase known as MerA, is encoded in a structural gene found on the mer loci or as transposon 501, it shares the same promoter region as mercury transport class proteins, such as MerP and MerT, regulatory factor MerD. MerA transcription is regulated by both MerR and MerD. Free mercury ions can bind to metalloproteins those with cysteine residues, can cause incorrect conformations resulting in function loss; this can cause death in many bacteria, as can many other heavy metals, thus, needs to be removed from the cell or transformed into a chemically inert form. Mercury reductase takes Hg2+ and catalyzes its reduction into Hg0, released from the cell as a vapour. Mercury in its elemental form does not have the ability to form stable complexes with amino acid residues in proteins so is less dangerous than its ionic form.

Hg2+ + NADPH → Hg0 + H+ + NADP+ 1. Hg2+ + 2Cys-S− → Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys 2. FAD + NADPH → FADH− + NADP+3. Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys + FADH− → H+ + Hg0 + FAD + 2Cys-S−The substrates used in mercuric reductase, as shown above, are Hg2+ and NADPH. In the catalytic active site of the enzyme, Hg2+ is held as a complex with two cysteine thiolates in a linear geometry. NADPH from the cytoplasm of the cell undergo a hydride transfer with an embedded FAD forming FADH−; the resulting FADH− reduces Hg2+ into Hg0, in turn being oxidized back into FAD. After reduction, the mercury is released from the enzyme as a volatile vapour. Mercury reductase cannot reduce organomercury compounds such as methyl mercury. Thus, MerB cleaves the carbon-mercury bonds via protonolysis and forms a mercury dithiolate complex, upon which MerB transports the mercury directly to MerA for reduction; the active form of mercury reductase is found as a homodimer. It has a quaternary conformation and the monomer is composed of two domains. One of the domains of mercuric reductase, NmerA, has a structural fold of βαββαβ.

It is attached to the active site through linkers made of around 30 amino acids. NmerA contains two cysteine residues which function in the acquisition of Hg2+ from other proteins or inorganic ligands such as MerT and direct transport to the catalytic active site of MerA. Few mercuric reductases have been found to lack the NmerA domain; the active site of MerA consists of four cysteine residues, a FAD, a tyrosine residue. When bound to a Hg2+, a complex is formed with at least two cysteine thiolates at any time until release. Two cysteine residues are buried within the protein and the other two cysteine residues are found near the surface near the C terminus; the buried cysteine residues function as the site of catalysis whereas the surface cysteine residues function as transport to the site of catalysis. During Hg2+ transfer to the catalytic active site from the C terminus cysteine residues, a trigonal planar intermediate is formed stabilized by hydrogen bonding of a water molecule to the thiolates.

The water molecule is held in place by hydrogen bonding from the hydroxyl group of a nearby tyrosine residue. Various proteins assist in transporting mercury to mercury reductase. MerP, a periplasmic mercury transport protein found in gram negative bacteria, transports mercury through the outer membrane into the inner membrane where it holds the mercury for another protein to bind to it and transport it to mercury reductase. MerT, a membrane bound protein found in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, binds to free floating mercury. Mercury reductase can directly take mercury from MerT and MerP; when mercury enters the cell and is not bound to a membrane protein, mercury reductase can transport it to its active site on its own depending on the size of its ligands. If the ligands attached to mercury are large, mercury reductase uses the C-terminus cysteine residues to transport the mercury to its active site. If the ligands are small, mercury can go directly the active site for reduction.

The ligands can be removed by the NmerA domain. In the case of organomercury compounds, MerB breaks the Hg-C bonds and transports the Hg to mercuric reductase; when not bound to Hg2+, mercury reductase acts as an oxidase creating toxic hydrogen peroxide. Thus, excess of the enzyme can result in bacterial death. Bacteria developed MerR and MerD, for mercury reductase. There are two promoter regions on the mer loci: The first region encodes regulator protein MerR, the second region encodes the structural mer genes and the gene for the regulatory protein MerD. Both promoter regions overlap. MerR binds to an operator in the structural mer gene promoter called MerO; this binding causes the DNA of the mer loci to bend to. However, Hg2+ can bind to MerR and allosterically change the shape of the DNA, so that RNA polymerase can read the promoter region of the structural genes. Since both promoter regions overlap when apoMerR is bound to MerO, the change in DNA conformation causes neither the structural genes nor the regulatory genes to be read.

This makes MerR a negative autoregulator. MerR forms a stable trigonal planar complex with Hg2+, which causes it to be released much than when mercury reductase has reduced all free Hg2+ in the cytoplasm. Thus, it causes an excess in production of mercuric reductase. To circumvent this problem, MerD binds to MerO in order to act antagonistically to Hg2+ bound MerR

Temptation (Shelby Lynne album)

Temptation is the fourth studio album by American country singer-songwriter Shelby Lynne, released July 6, 1993. Two songs, "Tell Me I'm Crazy"and "I Need a Heart to Come Home To", were released as singles and one of the tracks, "I Need a Heart to Come Home To", featured on the soundtrack to Tony Scott's 1993 film True Romance. Following her first three albums, Lynne left her record label Epic and began working with Brent Maher. In a 2009 interview, she said of the move, "After Soft Talk, I knew. Hell, if I wasn’t going to be embraced by country radio, I might as well make critically acclaimed albums! I wanted to cross genres and not make that silly-ass country pop." She went on to say, "I consider Temptation the real beginning of my career." Lynne co-wrote two songs on the album, the title track and "Some of That True Love". Temptation was released on July 1993 on Mercury Records and Morgan Creek; the album reached No. 55 on the US Billboard Country Albums chart and No. 21 on the Heatseekers Albums chart.

Two songs from the album were released as singles: "Feelin' Kind of Lonely Tonight", which reached No. 69 on the US Hot Country Songs chart, "Tell Me I'm Crazy", which failed to chart. "I Need a Heart to Come Home To" was included on the soundtrack of Tony Scott's 1993 film True Romance. Writing for AllMusic, Thom Jurek gave it a star-rating of four out of five, he noted that the album was markedly different from Lynne's previous albums Tough All Over and Soft Talk and described it as "hardcore jacked-up Western swing and big-band country". He cited "Temptation", "Don't Cry for Me" and "Some of That True Love" as highlights and summed up the review by calling the album "hip and tough." "Temptation" – 3:04 "Feelin' Kind of Lonely Tonight" – 3:00 "Tell Me I'm Crazy" – 3:44 "Little Unlucky at Love" – 3:01 "Some of That True Love" – 2:47 "The Rain Might Wash Your Love Away" – 4:34 "Don't Cry for Me" – 2:43 "I Need a Heart to Come Home To" – 4:20 "Come a Little Closer" – 3:15 "Where Do We Go from Here" – 3:38

Way Out West (1930 film)

Way Out West is a 1930 American pre-Code comedy film, drama, romance, western parody directed by Fred Niblo and starring William Haines, Leila Hyams, Polly Moran, Ralph Bushman. It tells a con man who cheats a group of cowboys out of their money; when they discover his cheating and learn that he himself has been robbed, they force him to work on a ranch until he has paid his debt. Windy, a sideshow barker, cheats a group of cowboys out of their pay, but is robbed himself; when the cowboys discover they have been cheated, they decide to hang him decide to make him work off his debt. He falls in love with ranch owner Molly, when he saves her life after she is bitten by a rattlesnake, he wins her heart. William Haines as Windy Leila Hyams as Molly Rankin Polly Moran as Pansy Cliff Edwards as Trilby Ralph Bushman as Steve Vera Marshe as La Belle Rosa Charles Middleton as Buck Rankin Jack Pennick as Pete Buddy Roosevelt as Tex Jay Wilsey as Hank Way Out West was made on a budget of $413,000, one of the most expensive William Haines vehicles.

The New York Times deemed Way Out West "an impertinent, moderately comic affair tinctured with slapstick and romance". The film made a profit of $84,000, making it one of the least profitable of Haines's films of the period. Gay film historians, noting the homosexuality of William Haines, suggest that Way Out West is "one of the gayest films made". Haines biographer William J. Mann cites latent homoeroticism and inside gay humor throughout the film. In one particular example, viewed in light of the Pansy Craze, beginning to reach Hollywood, Windy is mistaken for the cook, Pansy; when called by her name, he replies, "I'm the wildest pansy you picked!" Richard Barrios, author of Screened Out: Playing Gay in Hollywood from Edison to Stonewall, writing, "For anyone seeking gay text or subtext in any of Haines's movies, this is the one to study." Way Out West at the Internet Movie Database Way Out West at Turner Classic Movies