click links in text for more info


Arnis known as Kali or Eskrima/Escrima, is the national martial art of the Philippines. The three are interchangeable umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines, which emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, bladed weapons, various improvised weapons, as well as "open hand" or techniques without weapons, it is known as Estoque and Garrote. In Luzon it may go by the name of Arnis de Mano; the indigenous martial art that the Spanish encountered in 1610 was not yet called "Eskrima" at that time. During those times, this martial art was known as Paccalicali-t to the Ibanags, Didya to the Ilokanos, Sitbatan or Kalirongan to Pangasinenses, Sinawali to the Kapampangans, Calis or Pananandata to the Tagalogs, Pagaradman to the Ilonggos and Kaliradman to the Cebuanos. Kuntaw and Silat are separate martial arts that are practised in the Philippine Archipelago. There have been campaigns for arnis to be nominated in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, along with other Philippine martial arts.

As of 2018, UNESCO has inscribed 9 martial-arts–related intangible heritage. Arnis includes hand-to-hand combat, joint locks and weapon disarming techniques. Although in general, emphasis is put on weapons for these arts, some systems put empty hands as the primary focus and some old school systems do not teach weapons at all. For all intents and purposes, arnis and kali all refer to the same family of Filipino weapon-based martial arts and fighting systems. Both Arnis and Eskrima are loans from Spanish: Arnis comes from arnés, Old Spanish for "armor", it is said to derive from the armor costumes used in Moro-moro stage plays where actors fought mock battles using wooden swords. Arnes is an archaic Spanish term for weapon, like in the following sentence from Ilustracion de la Deztreza Indiana by Francisco Santos de la Paz in 1712: Eskrima is a Filipinization of the Spanish word for fencing, esgrima, their cognate in French is escrime and is related to the English term'skirmish'. Kali has multiple theories on its origin:One theory is that the word comes from tjakalele, a tribal style of stick-fencing from Indonesia.

This is supported by the similarities between tjakalele and eskrima techniques, as well as Mindanao's proximity to Indonesia. According to Guro Dan Inosanto, Kali is a portmanteau of the Cebuano words "kamot", meaning hand, "lihok", meaning motion. In the Ilocano language, kali means "to dig" and "to stab". There exist numerous similar terms of reference for martial arts such as kalirongan and pagkalikali; these may be the origin of the term kali or they may have evolved from it. According to Grandmaster Vic Sanchez, the Pangasinense term Kalirongan means "Karunungan ng Lihim" or "Wisdom of Secret" or "Wisdom of Kali". In his book KALI: History of a Forbidden Filipino Fighting Arts, Fred Lazo put forward that Kali was an ancient root word for blade, that the Filipino words for right hand and left hand are contractions of the terms "way of the blade" and "without blade" as weapons are held with the right hand and the left hand is empty. In their book Cebuano Eskrima: Beyond the Myth however, Dr. Ned Nepangue and Celestino Macachor contend that the term Kali in reference to Filipino martial arts did not exist until the Buenaventura Mirafuente wrote in the preface of the first known published book on Arnis, Mga Karunungan sa Larong Arnis by Placido Yambao, the term Kali as the native mother fighting art of the Philippine islands.

Most Kali derives from the pre-Hispanic Filipino term for blades and fencing, documented by Ferdinand Magellan's expedition chronicler Antonio Pigafetta during their journey through the Visayas and in old Spanish to Filipino Mother Tongue dictionary and vocabulary books dating from 1612 to the late 1800s, such as in Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala by Fr. Pedro de San Buenaventura; the term calis in various forms was present in these old Spanish documents in Ilocano, Kapampangan, Bicolano, Hiligaynon and Moro-Maguindanao in Mindanao. In some of these dictionaries, the term calis refers to a sword or knife kris or keris, while in others it refers to both swords and knives and their usage as well as a form of esgrima stick fighting. While Mirafuente posits that the original term was "Kali" and that the letter "S" was added the late Grandmaster Remy Presas suggests that the "S" was dropped in modern times and became presently more known as "Kali" in FMA circles. Practitioners of the arts are called arnisador and arnisadora for those who call theirs arnis, eskrimador or eskrimadora for those who call their art eskrima, kalista or mangangali for those who practise kali.

As Arnis was an art practised by the poor or commoner class, most practitioners lacked the scholarly education to create any kind of written record. While the same can be said of many martial arts, this is true for Arnis because all of its history is anecdotal, oral or promotional; the origin of Arnis can be traced back to native fighting techniques during conflicts among the various Prehispanic Filipino tribes or kingdoms

Johannes Oporinus

Johannes Oporinus was a humanist printer in Basel. Johannes Oporinus, the son of the painter Hans Herbst, was born in Basel, he completed his academic training in Basel. After working as a teacher in the Cistercian convent of St. Urban, he returned to Basel, where he worked as a proofer in the shop of Johann Froben, the most important Basel printer of the early 16th Century. In addition, he taught at the Basel Latin school from 1526. After 1537 Oporinus taught Greek at the University of Basel. In 1542 he resigned his academic post to devote himself full-time to his printing workshop. In addition, he completed a medical studies and was temporarily famulus to the iconoclastic physician Paracelsus, he is said to have married the widow of the publisher Johan Hervagius the younger. He died in debt, his manuscript collection and his extensive correspondence are preserved in the Basel University Library. After a Latin version of Gesta Danorum in 1534, entitled Saxonis grammatici Danorum historiae libri XVI, in 1542/43 he made the first edition of the Latin Koran edited by Theodor Bibliander from a translation made by Robert of Ketton in Spain between 1142 and 1143 by command of Peter the Venerable, which caused Oporinus serious difficulties.

The Basel city council wanted to prevent the publication but yielded due to the intervention of Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon. The most important publication of his workshop was the anatomical atlas De humani corporis fabrica by the humanist physician Andreas Vesalius, in 1543. In October 1546 a book on the assassination of the Spanish Protestant Juan Díaz, entitled Historia vera de morti sancti viri Ioannis Diazii Hispanics by Claudium Senarclaeum, was published by his workshop, attributed to Francisco de Enzinas. In addition, his press published numerous polemical theological works and historiographical works, his fine knowledge of ancient languages served the quality of correct textual editions. Oporinus printed a work on church history by Matthias Flacius Illyricus: Catalogus testium veritatis and the first eleven of Wigand's thirteen Magdeburg Centuries. In 1559 he published the complete editio princeps of Diodorus Siculus' Bibliotheca historica. Looking at title page or at colophon of an Oporinus edition, the printer's device is striking.

It shows the mythological lyre player Arion of Lesbos, supported by a Dolphin on the sea. There are more variant forms of it. Harry Clark, The Publication of the Koran in Latin: A Reformation Dilemma; the Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 3–12. Available via JSTOR Carlos Gilly, Die Manuskripte in der Bibliothek des Johannes Oporinus: Verzeichnis der Manuskripte und Druckvorlagen aus dem Nachlass Oporins anhand des von Theodor Zwinger und Basilius Amerbach erstellten Inventariums.. Schwabe, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1088-4 Martina Hartmann, Humanismus und Kirchenkritik. Matthias Flacius Illyricus als Erforscher des Mittelalters. Thorbecke, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-7995-5719-9 Martina Hartmann, Arno Mentzel-Reuters, Die Magdeburger Centurien und die Anfänge der quellenbezogenen Geschichtsforschung. Ausstellung. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Munich. Andreas Jociscus Oratio De Ortv, Vita, Et Obitv Ioannis Oporini Basiliensis, Typographicoru Germaniæ Principis. Rihelius, Strasbourg Oliver K. Olson Matthias Flacius and the survival of Luther’s Reform..

Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel, ISBN 3-447-04404-7 Karl Steiff, "Oporinus, Johannes", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 24, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 381–387 Martin Steinmann Johannes Oporinus. Ein Basler Buchdrucker um die Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts.. Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basel. Martin Steinmann, Aus dem Briefwechsel des Basler Druckers Johannes Oporinus. Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde 69: 104–203 Sample pages from Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica Digitized Magdeburg Centuries Oporinus, Johannes in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Digital edition of De humani corporis fabrica.

Bail handle

A bail handle, or bail, is a handle that consists of an open loop that moves within two fixed mounts or ears. Several designs are available: bails are made of metal or plastic, it is a type of package handle which may be used for carrying an item, such as bucket. A bail handle can be used to hang an item such as a pharmaceutical bottle potted plants, etc. A flip-top closure on a bottle or jar is sometimes called a bail closure. Decorative bail handles appeared on pieces of French Rococo furniture during the early 18th century; these handles on drawers were rounded and hinged onto an escutcheon plate and hung down in the shape of a half moon or arch. Due to being hinged, they were able to move up and down and they were elaborately decorated. Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6 Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4


Oostkamp is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the villages of Hertsberge, Oostkamp proper and Waardamme. On January 1, 2019, Oostkamp had a total population of 23,698; the total area is 79.65 km² which gives a population density of 289 inhabitants per km². The name Oostkamp comes from the Medieval name "Orscamp"; the old word ors is a cognate of the English word horse. The Canadian 4th Armoured Division liberated the village on 8 September 1944 during the Battle of Moerbrugge. A monument was erected by the Ghent-Bruges Canal to honour the 53 Canadian casualties. With the Belgian Unity Law the four villages of Oostkamp proper, Hertsberge and Waardamme became the municipality of Greater Oostkamp. Sint Pieters-in-de-Bandenkerk, a hall church with a Romanesque tower, a late Gothic middle nave, a baroque organ from 1717. Macieberrot, a Marian grotto from 1914 In 2012, all the different municipal services, accommodated over the years in a scattered collection of facilities, moved to a new complex:'OostCampus'.

On March 9, 2017, the mayor and the chairman of the Social Services moved from their former site in'Beukenpark' to OostCampus, now the City Hall and Civic Centre of Oostkamp. The building, designed by Spanish architect Carlos Arroyo, has received important awards, such as: Gold Prijs Bouwmeester 2013 awarded by the Government of Flanders, in the category'Renovation'. Archdaily's 65 best new buildings in the world 2012 Holcim Silver Award for Sustainable Construction in Europe 2011 It was featured in the 14th edition of the Venice Biennale of Architecture 2012 Oostkamp has about twenty outstanding examples of Kasteel, meaning castles, châteaux and mansions; these were erected as'countryside retreats' of'leisure houses' by the nobles and merchants of the area, many of them with permanent abodes in nearby Bruges. Most kastelen are private property and therefore not to be visited. Many are visible from the public road. Kasteel Gruuthuse inhabited in the 13th century by the Gruuthuse family, now by the counts d'Ursel.

Kasteel de Breidels, inhabited by baron Albert Peers de Nieuwburgh. Kasteel Newburgh, inhabited by the baron Snoy. Kasteel Schoonhove, inhabited by baron Rotsart de Hertaing. Kasteel Kevergem, inhabited by lady Lucie de Schietere de Lophem. Kasteel de Herten, built by Baron van der Plancken, purchased by the Global Estate Group in 2012 Kasteel de Cellen, built by knight de Bie de Westvoorde, now the premises of an insurance company Kasteel Macieberg, built by the family Arents de Beerteghem, now decorated as the Freinetschool Ivy Kasteel Beukenpark, built by the family Beaucourt de Noortvelde, until 2017 an administrative center of the municipality of Oostkamp Villa't Valkennest, built by the family Kervyn de Meerendré, now a youth centre. Kasteel Cruydenhove, now the restaurant and reception rooms for the Van der Valk hotel. Kasteel Pecsteen, inhabited by Baron Pecsteen. Kasteel Raepenburg, inhabited by the family d'Udekem d'Acoz. Kasteel Sint-Hubertus, built by the family van Outryve d'Ydewalle, now inhabited by the Knights de Schietere de Lophem.

Kasteel Lakenbos Rood Kasteel, built by Knight Eugène-Augustin van Outryve d'Ydewalle, notorious for the murder of his son-in-law Jhr. Henri d'Udekem d'Acoz. Kasteel De Akker, built by Jhr. Adhémar de Thibault de Boesinghe and Emma van Outryve d'Ydewalle. Kasteel Doeveren, built by the family de Thibault de Boesinghe the property of families Arents de Beerteghem and Janssens de Bisthoven. Kasteel Zorgvliet, built by marquis de Croester and the property of Paul van Caloen de Basseghem; the castle was burned during a thunderstorm. Landhuis Leegendael, built by Knight Guy de Schietere de Lophem, now a Bed and Breakfast. Kasteel de Woesten, built by the family Peers de Nieuwburgh and owned by the family Mahieu-De Witte. Kasteel Rooiveld, built in the 15th century as a hunting lodge by the family de Melgar de Breydelaere de Sporkinshove. Inhabited by the family Janssens de Bisthoven]] Kasteel van Hertsberge and inhabited by the family of baron Rapaert de Grass. Blauw Kasteel, is a protected medieval castle and the oldest preserved castle of Oostkamp.

Owned by marquis Paolo Arconati-Visconti, the family Peers de Nieuwburgh bought the castle in 1979. In 2000, they sold the castle to the current owners. - Chaumont, France - Bad Langensalza, Germany - Bad Nauheim, Germany Official Website Website of Heemkring Oostkamp: Studygroup of the local customs and folklore of Oostkamp A wiki by citizens - The creators of this wiki try to preserve the friendly character of the municipality

Degressive proportionality

Degressive proportionality is an approach to the allocation of seats in a legislature or other decision-making body. Degressive proportionality means that while the subdivisions do not each elect an equal number of members, smaller subdivisions are allocated more seats than would be allocated in proportion to their population; this is an alternative to, for instance, Each subdivision electing the same number of members, Each subdivision electing a number of members proportional to its population. Degressive proportionality is intermediate between those two approaches; as a term it does not describe any one particular formula. Each German state has three to six seats in the Bundesrat of Germany depending on its population; this means the least populous state, has three seats while the most populous one, North Rhine-Westphalia, has only six seats. Under the Treaty of Lisbon, the European Parliament uses a system of degressive proportionality to allocate its 750 seats among the member states of the European Union.

Treaty negotiations, rather than a specific formula, determine the apportionment between member states. Any system that reserves a minimum number of seats for a sub-body is to some extent degressively proportional. One example is the election of the US presidential Electoral College; as each state has a minimum of three members of the college, voters in smaller states have disproportionally more say in the election than the national average. Like the US Electoral College, Spain's Congress of Deputies adds two extra seats to the otherwise proportional number allocated to each Province. There may be a real or perceived danger that one or more of the largest subdivisions will dominate the legislature; that danger reduces. The smallest subdivisions those on the periphery of the territory, may have different interests from many of the other subdivisions. There is a danger that these interests will be ignored if they have a tiny number of representatives; that danger reduces. More pragmatically, the smallest subdivisions may be in a position to cause disproportionate trouble for the whole territory, for example by threatening to secede.

That danger reduces. Many of the advantages listed above would apply to certain smaller areas that are not recognised as separate subdivisions for electoral purposes, it is unfair if they are not accorded the same treatment as areas that are recognised electorally as separate subdivisions. Penrose method

Arthur Gorson

Arthur Gorson known as Arthur H. Gorson is a film producer, he has experience as a cinematographer, screenwriter and record producer. He is active in TV, film and commercial production; as a record producer, he produced over 20 albums for major labels with artists such as Golden Earring, Phil Ochs and Tom Rush. His photographic work with artists such as Bob Marley is known. A series of his photos were included in the 2012 authorized documentary Marley directed by Kevin Mcdonald. Gorson was raised in New York City, he served as chairman of the Campus Americans for Democratic Action. American protest singer Philip Ochs noticed his organizational skills and invited him to be his manager; the Arthur H. Gorson Management Company went on to represent Ochs and singers David Blue, Tom Rush, Jim & Jean, Eric Andersen, he was the first to present The Who and Cream in concert. He packaged his folk performers together and sent them on tours where they played at venues around the country, he expanded into record production, producing Blue's debut album and Rush's The Circle Game.

Gorson went on to head production companies based in New York. He relocated to Los Angeles where he assumed the position of feature producer for Dreamstreet, Inc. with offices at Universal and Paramount, working with directors such as Tony Scott, Taylor Hackford and Andrei Konchalovsky. Gorson has multiple feature film credits as producer; these include Cronos, directed by Guillermo Del Toro and shot by Academy Award winner Guillermo Navarro. Better Watch Out!, directed by Monte Hellman and starring Robert Culp and Richard Beymer, was produced by Gorson from a story by Hellman and Carlos Lazlo. He was a producer of the historical epic Cabeza de Vaca, directed by Nicolas Echevarria and made for American Playhouse Theatrical Films, IMCINE and Producciones Iguana, he is credited as executive producer on Timur Bekmambetov's groundbreaking 2005 film Night Watch. That film broke, he had a long-running creative relationship with the late Jamaican Filmmaker Perry Henzell and is credited as a producer on Henzell's 2019 released film No Place Like Home.

His recent documentary The Roots of Reggae had its U. S. premiere at the Palm Beach Film Festival. A Filmmaker's Odyssey had its international film festival premiere at the Santa Barbara Film Festival. Turning his attention to short-form activities, Gorson's recent commercial credits include:Century 21,Athos, California Lottery, LG Phones, Health Care, Mazda Automobiles, Frito-Lay, Bank Imperial, Cutty Sark, Woolrich, Super Bock Beer, The Palms Hotel, Universal Orlando, Mortal Kombat, Mars Bars, Tommy Hilfiger, he has produced over 50 top music videos for artists such as the Dave Matthews Band, Lisa Marie Presley, Marilyn Manson, Stevie Nicks, Ozzy Osbourne, Tommy Lee, Dr. Dre, Iron Maiden, Everlast, Damian Marley, Shooter Jennings, Velvet Revolver, Cypress Hill, he has produced a series of long-form interactive concert DVDs including Iron Maiden at Rock in Rio, Megadeth's Rude Awakening, Wu Tang Clan's 36 Chambers, Ernest Ranglin's Order of Distinction. In these areas he has worked with directors such as Dean Karr, Zac Snyder, Patricia Riggen, Timur Bekmambetov, Alejandro Toledo.

He completed "The Harder They Come: Collector's Edition" for Shout! Factory; the 3 disc set includes 5 hours of original material: 5 featuettes, interviews with Ridley Scott and the original filmmakers. As of Summer, 2019, videos he produced with Dean Karr have received over 430 Million combined views on YouTube, his work has received international recognition, including: Silver Telly Award. He is the recipient of multiple RIAA gold and platinum awards, as well as a British Video Association Award for "Rock in Rio" long-form DVD. Gorson is Executive Producer at Wild Indigo, LLC. American Troubadour The Circle Game When in Rome" music video Phil Ochs in Concert "Crash Into Me" music video "Sweet Dreams" music video "Rock in Rio" concert dvd "Wu Tang Clan" concert dvd "Harder They Come" music video "Stay" music video "Infinite Love" music video - short "See What Unfolds Steve Aoki" concert "It was Written" music video "Gravedigger" music video "Beautiful" music video Initiation: Silent Night, Deadly Night 4 Silent Night, Deadly Night 3: Better Watch Out!

Cronos Cabeza De Vaca Night Watch No Place Like Home Roots of Reggae A Filmmaler's Odyssey