The Arnolfini Portrait is a 1434 oil painting on oak panel by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. It forms a full-length double portrait, believed to depict the Italian merchant Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini and his wife in their residence at the Flemish city of Bruges, it is considered one of the most original and complex paintings in Western art, because of its beauty, complex iconography, geometric orthogonal perspective, expansion of the picture space with the use of a mirror. According to Ernst Gombrich "in its own way it was as new and revolutionary as Donatello's or Masaccio's work in Italy. A simple corner of the real world had been fixed on to a panel as if by magic... For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term"; the portrait has been considered by Erwin Panofsky and some other art historians as a unique form of marriage contract, recorded as a painting. Signed and dated by van Eyck in 1434, it is, with the Ghent Altarpiece by the same artist and his brother Hubert, the oldest famous panel painting to have been executed in oils rather than in tempera.
The painting was bought by the National Gallery in London in 1842. Van Eyck used the technique of applying several layers of thin translucent glazes to create a painting with an intensity of both tone and colour; the glowing colours help to highlight the realism, to show the material wealth and opulence of Arnolfini's world. Van Eyck took advantage of the longer drying time of oil paint, compared to tempera, to blend colours by painting wet-in-wet to achieve subtle variations in light and shade to heighten the illusion of three-dimensional forms; the medium of oil paint permitted van Eyck to capture surface appearance and distinguish textures precisely. He rendered the effects of both direct and diffuse light by showing the light from the window on the left reflected by various surfaces, it has been suggested that he used a magnifying glass in order to paint the minute details such as the individual highlights on each of the amber beads hanging beside the mirror. The illusionism of the painting was remarkable for its time, in part for the rendering of detail, but for the use of light to evoke space in an interior, for "its utterly convincing depiction of a room, as well of the people who inhabit it".
Whatever meaning is given to the scene and its details, there has been much debate on this, according to Craig Harbison the painting "is the only fifteenth-century Northern panel to survive in which the artist's contemporaries are shown engaged in some sort of action in a contemporary interior. It is indeed tempting to call this the first genre painting – a painting of everyday life – of modern times"; the painting is in good condition, though with small losses of original paint and damages, which have been retouched. Infrared reflectograms of the painting show many small alterations, or pentimenti, in the underdrawing: to both faces, to the mirror, to other elements; the couple are shown in an upstairs room with a chest and a bed in it during early summer as indicated by the fruit on the cherry tree outside the window. The room functioned as a reception room, as it was the fashion in France and Burgundy where beds in reception rooms were used as seating, for example, when a mother with a new baby received visitors.
The window has six interior wooden shutters, but only the top opening has glass, with clear bulls-eye pieces set in blue and green stained glass. The two figures are richly dressed; the furs may be the expensive sable for him and ermine or miniver for her. He wears a hat of plaited straw dyed black, as worn in the summer at the time, his tabard was more purple than it may be intended to be silk velvet. Underneath he wears a doublet of patterned material silk damask, her dress has elaborate dagging on the sleeves, a long train. Her blue underdress is trimmed with white fur. Although the woman's plain gold necklace and the rings that both wear are the only jewellery visible, both outfits would have been enormously expensive, appreciated as such by a contemporary viewer. There may be an element of restraint in their clothes befitting their merchant status – portraits of aristocrats tend to show gold chains and more decorated cloth, although "the restrained colours of the man's clothing correspond to those favoured by Duke Phillip of Burgundy".
The interior of the room has other signs of wealth. It would have had a mechanism with pulley and chains above, to lower it for managing the candles; the convex mirror at the back, in a wooden frame with scenes of The Passion painted behind glass, is shown larger than such mirrors could be made at this date – another discreet departure from realism by van Eyck. There is no sign of a fireplace, nor anywhere obvious to put one; the oranges casually placed to the left are a sign of wealth. Further signs of luxury are the elaborate bed-hangings and the carvings on the chair and bench against the back wall the small Ori
Daniel J. Barnes is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent, he has played in Major League Baseball for the Toronto Blue Jays. Barnes attended Manhasset Secondary School in Manhasset, New York, where he earned four varsity letters; as a senior, he posted an 8–1 win–loss record, 0.80 earned run average, 103 strikeouts in 58 innings pitched. After graduation, he attended Princeton University, played three seasons for the Princeton Tigers while majoring in economics. In 2008, Barnes made 12 appearances, four of which were starts, posted a 2–4 record, 4.58 ERA, 37 strikeouts in 371⁄3 innings. Injuries limited him to just 82⁄3 innings in 2009. In 2010, Barnes made nine starts for the Tigers, pitched to a 1–3 record, 5.14 ERA, 40 strikeouts in 49 innings. Barnes was drafted by the Toronto Blue Jays in the 35th round of the 2010 Major League Baseball draft, assigned to the Gulf Coast League Blue Jays of the Rookie-level Gulf Coast League, he made 14 relief appearances for the team, was promoted to the Lansing Lugnuts of the Class-A Midwest League to end the season.
In 372⁄3 combined innings, Barnes finished the 2010 season with a 1–1 win–loss record, 2.15 ERA, 53 strikeouts. He spent the entire 2011 season in Lansing, making 44 appearances and posting a 5–1 record, 2.32 ERA, 99 strikeouts, 13 saves in a career-high 66 innings pitched. Barnes played with the Dunedin Blue Jays of the Class-A Advanced Florida State League for most of the 2012 season, making one appearance for the New Hampshire Fisher Cats of the Class AA Eastern League at the end of the season. In 51 total appearances, he would pitch to a 1–3 record, 1.87 ERA, 65 strikeouts, 34 saves in 53 innings. Barnes made just four appearances totaling three innings pitched in 2013 before being shut down due to a rotator cuff injury. In 2014, Barnes made 36 appearances for Dunedin, posted a 0–5 win–loss record, 4.19 ERA, 49 strikeouts, 7 saves in 38 2⁄3 innings. In the offseason he made 4 relief appearances for the Gigantes de Carolina of the Puerto Rican Winter league. Barnes pitched the entire 2015 minor league season with the New Hampshire Fisher Cats, finishing the season with a 3–2 record, 2.97 ERA, 74 strikeouts in 602⁄3 innings.
He began the 2016 season in New Hampshire, after pitching to a 1.01 ERA in 352⁄3 innings, was promoted to the Buffalo Bisons of the Class AAA International League in June. On August 2, 2016, the Blue Jays promoted Barnes to the major leagues, he made his MLB debut that night, holding a 2–1 lead with a scoreless inning of relief against the Houston Astros that included strikeouts of Alex Bregman and Carlos Correa. Barnes was optioned back to Buffalo on August 9, recalled by the Blue Jays on September 1, he appeared in 12 games for the Blue Jays in 2016, recording a 3.95 ERA and 14 strikeouts in 132⁄3 innings. On October 8, Barnes was added to the Blue Jays' American League Division Series roster after Francisco Liriano suffered a concussion. On May 23, 2017, Barnes earned his first major league win after pitching 12⁄3 scoreless innings against the Milwaukee Brewers in a game the Blue Jays won 4–3. On July 25, he was placed on the 10-day disabled list with a right shoulder impingement. Prior to his injury, Barnes appeared in 37 games for the Blue Jays, pitching to a 3.09 ERA with 47 strikeouts in 432⁄3 innings.
Barnes was activated from the disabled list on August 4. He would go on to appear in 23 more games for the Blue Jays in 2017, finishing the season with a 3.55 ERA and 62 strikeouts in 66 innings. Barnes finished the season second among qualified American League relievers in inherited runner efficiency, allowing only 5 of 37 inherited runners to score. On December 6, Barnes was voted the Blue Jays' Rookie of the Year for 2017 by the Toronto chapter of the Baseball Writers' Association of America. On June 11, 2018, in a game against the Tampa Bay Rays, Barnes reached both 100 major league games played and 100 career strikeouts, he was placed on the 10-day disabled list with left knee tendinitis on June 22, was activated on August 1. Barnes appeared in 47 games for the Blue Jays in 2018, finished the season with a 5.71 ERA. The Blue Jays designated Barnes for assignment on January 29, 2019, he was outrighted to the Buffalo Bisons on February 5, he became a free agent following the 2019 season. Barnes' parents and Maria, attended Columbia University and Barnard College and are both doctors.
He has an older brother and three younger sisters named Anastasia and Katie. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Danny Barnes on Twitter
Ząbkowice Śląskie is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland. It is the seat of Ząbkowice Śląskie County, of the smaller administrative district called Gmina Ząbkowice Śląskie; the town lies 63 kilometres south of the regional capital Wrocław. As of 2011, it had a population of 16,086; the town was established by Duke of Silesia Henry IV Probus, of the Piast dynasty, as Frankenstein in the early 13th century, following the Mongol invasion of Poland. The town was founded in the vicinity of the old Polish settlement of Sadlno, through which ran a trade route connecting Silesia and Bohemia; the town was sited on a piece of land that belonged to the episcopal lands of Zwrócona and to the Monastery at Trzebnica. The town was located halfway between the sites of two existing towns that had failed to attract enough settlers: Frankenberg and Löwenstein, inherited its German name from both, its positioning on the so-called King's Road between Prague and Wrocław, not too far from the commercially important city of Kłodzko would favour the development of the town.
The town received municipal rights around 1280, the first mention of civitas Frankenstein is dated 10 January 1287. At the beginning of the 14th century, the first town hall and the castle were erected; the city remained under rule of the Polish Piast dynasty before it was sold to the Bohemian King in 1351. In 1428 the city was invaded by the Hussites. In 1456, Bohemian King Ladislaus the Posthumous gave the city in hereditary possession to the Czech noble Podiebrad family, to which it belonged until 1569; the city was damaged in 1468, during the Bohemian–Hungarian War, until 1490 it belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary, before becoming again part of Bohemia. In the 16th century, the castle and defensive walls were rebuilt. Trade and craft flourished. In the early 17th century the plague killed about one third of the population, it has been speculated that events at that time may have inspired the Frankenstein story; the Thirty Years' War ended the town's prosperity. Austrian and Swedish troops marched through the city, damaged.
Afterwards, until the late 19th century, it remained a small town. In 1742 it was annexed by Prussia. In 1858 the town had to be rebuilt. On this occasion, the upper part of the 15th-century leaning tower was reconstructed in a straight manner; the town was a county seat from 1816 to 1945. From 1871 to 1945 it was part of Germany; the city was not destroyed during World War II. After Germany's defeat in World War II, the town once again became part of Poland, along with most of Silesia, was renamed Ząbkowice Śląskie in 1946; the totality of its population was expelled. Ząbkowice Śląskie was repopulated by Poles expelled from former Eastern Poland, annexed by the Soviet Union, as well as those arriving from central Poland. Ząbkowice Śląskie is called the Silesian Pisa as it is known for its Leaning Tower, one of the main attractions in this part of Poland. However, there are tourist attractions such as the 13th-century fortifications and the ruins of a 14th-century castle; the Leaning Tower 13th century fortifications Ruins of the Ducal Castle Saint Anne church Town Hall Church of the Nativity of Virgin Mary Saint Hedwig church David Pareus, German Reformed Protestant theologian and reformer Karl von Strotha, Prussian officer and Minister of War Fritz Erler, German artist, born in Frankenstein Wilhelm Kroll, German classic philologist Günther Specht, Luftwaffe pilot Horst Hannig, Luftwaffe pilot Piotr Zieliński, Polish football player Ząbkowice Śląskie municipal website Frankenstein.pl: events of 1606 involving undertakers which might have inspired the 1818 novel by Mary Shelley Jewish Community in Ząbkowice Śląskie on Virtual Shtetl "Annales Francostenen" of 1655 Frankenstein-Schlesien.de "Frankenstein".