Victor Lonzo Fleming was an American film director and producer. His most popular films were The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Director. Fleming has those same two films listed in the top 10 of the American Film Institute's 2007 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies list. Victor Fleming was born at the Banbury Ranch near what is now La Cañada Flintridge, the son of Eva and William Richard Lonzo Fleming, he served in the photographic section during World War I, acted as chief photographer for President Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, France. He showed a mechanical aptitude early in life, he soon rose to the rank of cinematographer, working with both Dwan and D. W. Griffith, directed his first film in 1919. Many of his silent films were action movies starring Douglas Fairbanks, or Westerns; because of his robust attitude and love of outdoor sports, he became known as a "man's director". Under his direction, Vivien Leigh won the Best Actress Oscar, Hattie McDaniel won for Best Supporting Actress, Olivia De Havilland was nominated.
In 1932, Fleming directed some of the studio's most prestigious films. Red Dust and Reckless showcasing Jean Harlow, while Treasure Island and Captains Courageous brought a touch of literary distinction to boy's-own adventure stories, his two most famous films came in 1939, when The Wizard of Oz was followed by Gone With the Wind. Fleming's version of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, with Spencer Tracy, was rated below Rouben Mamoulian's 1931 pre-code version, which had starred Fredric March. Fleming's 1942 film version of John Steinbeck's Tortilla Flat starred Tracy, John Garfield, Hedy Lamarr, Frank Morgan. Other films that Fleming made with Tracy include Captains Courageous, A Guy Named Joe, Test Pilot, he directed Clark Gable in a total of five films – Red Dust, The White Sister, Test Pilot, Gone with the Wind, Adventure. He owned the Moraga Estate in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California a horse ranch. Frequent guests to his estate included Clark Gable, Vivien Leigh, Ingrid Bergman, Spencer Tracy, he died while en route to a hospital in Cottonwood, Arizona after suffering a heart attack on January 6, 1949.
His death occurred shortly after completing Joan of Arc with Ingrid Bergman, one of the few films that he did not make for MGM. Despite mixed reviews, Fleming's film version of the life of Joan received seven Academy Award nominations, winning two, it was reported in James Curtis' book Spencer Tracy: A Biography that Anne Revere once said Fleming was "violently pro-Nazi" and opposed to the United States entering World War II. According to the Fleming biography Victor Fleming: An American Movie Master, by author Michael Sragow, Fleming had once mocked the UK at the outset of World War II by taking a bet as to how long the country could withstand an attack by Germany; the accuracy of Revere's characterization of Fleming has been disputed, however. According to Victor Fleming: An American Movie Master, Revere had made her comment because she felt she had been cast in the film The Yearling over Flora Robson because Robson was British. However, at the time of the casting, Fleming was working on the film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, which featured a British producer and a cast composed of British or British Commonwealth actors.
Furthermore, Revere did not know Fleming beyond their professional relationship. Victor Fleming on IMDb Victor Fleming at AllMovie Victor Fleming at the TCM Movie Database The Real Rhett Butler – David Denby on Victor Fleming
Hula is a 1927 American silent romantic comedy film directed by Victor Fleming, based on the novel Hula, a Romance of Hawaii by Armine von Tempski. The film was released by Paramount Pictures. Hula Calhoun is the daughter of Bill Calhoun, she follows the advice of her uncle Edwin, follows a simple and natural life, far from social conventions of her family and is considered a "wild child" who wears pants and rides horses. Courted with adoration by Harry Dehan, Hula prefers a young British engineer, Anthony Haldane, who came to the island to oversee the construction of a dam on her father's property. However, Haldane is married. At a party, Haldane tries to keep his distance but Hula gets drunk and performs a seductive hula dance for him, she manages to provoke him so much. When his wife, appears, Hula makes a deal with one of the foreman to use dynamite to blow up a point on the dam. Thinking that her husband is now ruined, Mrs. Haldane agrees to the divorce, the two lovers can get married. Clara Bow as Hula Calhoun Clive Brook as Anthony Haldane Arlette Marchal as Mrs. Bane Albert Gran as Bill Calhoun Arnold Kent as Harry Dehan Patricia Dupont as Margaret Haldane Agostino Borgato as Uncle Edwin Duke Kahanamoku as Hawaiian boy In the opening scene of the film Hula is shown swimming nude in a stream, is wearing pants and articulates her sexual desires.
Similar to Sadie Thompson, the film depicts a modern woman, located outside the bounds of American civilization and thus able to act in an "uncivilized" manner like natives who live on the islands. Nudity in film The White Flower Hula on IMDb Hula at AllMovie Stills at the Walter Film Poster and Film Museum
The Mollycoddle is a 1920 American film starring Douglas Fairbanks and Wallace Beery, directed by Victor Fleming. Beery plays an ice-cold villain brawling with Fairbanks' character all the way down the side of a steep mountain in one sequence. A copy of the film is in other film collections; as described in a film magazine, Richard Marshall, nicknamed The Mollycoddle by his friends, is the descendant of hard-hitting, fearless western stock, although born in Arizona he has been raised since a child in England and acquired English ways. Upon meeting some Americans who are about to go home in a private yacht, he joins them. Fearing that Richard is a secret service operative, the owner of the yacht, smuggling diamonds into the United States, withdraws the invitation. Friends, smuggle him aboard and, when the owner discovers him, he is put to work shoveling coal in the boiler room. Off the coast of Texas he jumps ship and swims ashore, is picked up by a fishing net and makes his way to Arizona, where the party is exploring the diamond mines.
Richard discovers the plot to hem the party in a little valley. The scheme nearly succeeds, but Richard captures the smuggler in a tall tree, rolls with him down a steep embankment, drags a half-drowned man to shore. In addition, he of course win the girl. Douglas Fairbanks as Richard Marshall III, IV and V Ruth Renick as Virginia Hale Wallace Beery as Henry von Holkar Paul Burns as Samuel Levinski Morris Hughes as Patrick O'Flannigan George Stewart as Ole Olsen Charles Stevens as Yellow Horse Lewis Hippe as First Mate Betty Bouton as Mollie Warren Adele Farrington as Mrs. Warren Albert MacQuarrie as Driver of the Desert Yacht Freddie Hawk as Girl Hobo Bob Burns as Barfly Frank Campeau as Man at Trading Post Eagle Eye as Chief Bull Montana as Cannery Worker Cinematography by William C. McGann and Harris Thorpe Art Direction by Edward M. Langley Second Unit Director Theodore Reed Technical effects by Robert Fairbanks Supervisor - Douglas Fairbanks The Mollycoddle on IMDb synopsis The Mollycoddle Glass slide at silenthollywood.com
Pre-Code Hollywood refers to the brief era in the American film industry between the widespread adoption of sound in pictures in 1929 and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code censorship guidelines, popularly known as the "Hays Code", in mid-1934. Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor, it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1, 1934, with the establishment of the Production Code Administration. Before that date, movie content was restricted more by local laws, negotiations between the Studio Relations Committee and the major studios, popular opinion, than by strict adherence to the Hays Code, ignored by Hollywood filmmakers; as a result, some films in the late 1920s and early 1930s depicted or implied sexual innuendo, mild profanity, illegal drug use, prostitution, abortion, intense violence, homosexuality. Strong female characters were ubiquitous in such pre-Code films as Female, Baby Face, Red-Headed Woman. Gangsters in films like The Public Enemy, Little Caesar, Scarface were seen by many as heroic rather than evil.
Along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades in US films. Nefarious characters were seen to profit from their deeds, in some cases without significant repercussions, drug use was a topic of several films. Many of Hollywood's biggest stars such as Clark Gable, Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Blondell, Edward G. Robinson got their start in the era. Other stars who excelled during this period, like Ruth Chatterton and Warren William, would wind up forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late 1933 and escalating throughout the first half of 1934, American Roman Catholics launched a campaign against what they deemed the immorality of American cinema. This, plus a potential government takeover of film censorship and social research seeming to indicate that movies which were seen to be immoral could promote bad behavior, was enough pressure to force the studios to capitulate to greater oversight. In 1922, after some risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder William H.
"Will" Hays, a figure of unblemished rectitude. Hays nicknamed the motion picture "Czar", was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities." Hollywood mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula" in 1924, which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before, such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916, little had come of the efforts.
In 1929, an American Roman Catholic layman Martin Quigley, editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald, Father Daniel A. Lord, a Jesuit priest, created a code of standards, submitted it to the studios. Lord's concerns centered on the effects sound film had on children, whom he considered susceptible to their allure. Several studio heads, including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, met with Lord and Quigley in February 1930. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention, it was the responsibility of the Studio Relations Committee, headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required; the Code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of "general principles" which concerned morality; the second was a set of "particular applications", an exacting list of items that could not be depicted.
Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden, it stated that the notion of an "adults-only policy" would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that "maturer minds may understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm." If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed what Brandeis University cultural historian Thomas Doherty called "the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime". The Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage could not be portrayed as attractive and beautiful, presented in a way that might arouse passion, nor be made to seem right and permissible. All criminal action had to be punish
Douglas Fairbanks was an American actor, screenwriter and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films including The Thief of Bagdad, Robin Hood, The Mark of Zorro but spent the early part of his career making comedies. Fairbanks was a founding member of United Artists, he was a founding member of The Motion Picture Academy and hosted the 1st Academy Awards in 1929. With his marriage to Mary Pickford in 1920, the couple became Hollywood royalty and Fairbanks was referred to as "The King of Hollywood", a nickname passed on to actor Clark Gable. Though considered as one of the biggest stars in Hollywood during the 1910s and 1920s, Fairbanks' career declined with the advent of the "talkies", his final film was The Private Life of Don Juan. Fairbanks was born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman in Denver, the son of Hezekiah Charles Ullman and Ella Adelaide, he had two half-brothers, John Fairbanks, Jr. and Norris Wilcox, a full brother, Robert Payne Ullman. His father was born in Berrysburg and raised in Williamsport.
He was the fourth child in a Jewish family consisting of four daughters. Charles's parents, Lazarus Ullman and Lydia Abrahams, had immigrated to the U. S. in 1830 from Baden, Germany. When he was 17, Charles started a small publishing business in Philadelphia. Two years he left for New York to study law. Charles met Ella Adelaide Marsh after she married his friend and client John Fairbanks, a wealthy New Orleans sugar mill and plantation owner; the couple had a son and shortly thereafter John Senior died of tuberculosis. Ella, born into a wealthy southern Roman Catholic family, was overprotected and knew little of her husband's business, she was swindled out of her fortune by her husband's partners. The efforts of Charles Ullman, acting on her behalf, failed to regain any of the family fortune for her. Distraught and lonely, she met and married a courtly Georgian, Edward Wilcox, who turned out to be an alcoholic. After they had a son, she divorced Wilcox with Charles acting as her own lawyer in the suit.
The pretty southern belle soon became romantically involved with Charles and agreed to move to Denver with him to pursue mining investments. They arrived in Denver in 1881 with John, they were married and in 1882 had a child, Robert and a second son, Douglas, a year later. Charles purchased several mining interests in the Rocky Mountains, he re-established his law practice. Charles Ullman, after hearing of his wife's philandering, abandoned the family when Douglas was five years old. Douglas and his older brother Robert were brought up by their mother, who gave them the family name Fairbanks, after her first husband. Douglas Fairbanks began acting at an early age, in amateur theatre on the Denver stage, performing in summer stock at the Elitch Gardens Theatre, other productions sponsored by Margaret Fealy, who ran an acting school for young people in Denver, he attended Denver East High School, was expelled for cutting the wires on the school piano. He left school in the spring of 1899, at the age of 15.
He variously claimed to have attended Colorado School of Mines and Harvard University, but neither claim is true. He went with the acting troupe of Frederick Warde, beginning a cross country tour in September 1899, he toured with Warde for two seasons, functioning in dual roles, both as actor and as the assistant stage manager in his second year with the group. After two years he moved to New York, where he found his first Broadway role in Her Lord and Master, which premiered in February 1902, he worked as a clerk in a Wall Street office between acting jobs. His Broadway appearances included the popular A Gentleman from Mississippi in 1908–09. On July 11, 1907, Fairbanks married Anna Beth Sully, the daughter of wealthy industrialist Daniel J. Sully, in Watch Hill, Rhode Island, they had one son, Douglas Fairbanks Jr. a noted actor. In 1915, the family moved to Los Angeles. After moving to Los Angeles, Fairbanks signed a contract with Triangle Pictures in 1915 and began working under the supervision of D.
W. Griffith, his first film was titled The Lamb, in which he debuted the athletic abilities that would gain him wide attention among theatre audiences. His athleticism was not appreciated by Griffith, he was brought to the attention of Anita Loos and John Emerson, who wrote and directed many of his early romantic comedies. In 1916, Fairbanks established his own company, the Douglas Fairbanks Film Corporation, would soon get a job at Paramount. Fairbanks met actress Mary Pickford at a party in 1916, the couple soon began an affair. In 1917, they joined Fairbanks' friend Charlie Chaplin selling war bonds by train across the United States. Pickford and Chaplin were the two highest paid film stars in Hollywood at that time. To curtail these stars' astronomical salaries, the large studios attempted to monopolize distributors and exhibitors. By 1918, Fairbanks was Hollywood's most popular actor, within three years of his arrival, Fairbanks' popularity and business acumen raised him to the third-highest paid.
In 1917, Fairbanks capitalized on his rising popularity by publishing a self-help book and Live which extolled the power of positive thinking and self-confidence in raising one's health and social prospects. To avoid being controlled by the studios and to protect their independence, Fair
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, it houses the tomb of Shah Jahan, the builder. The tomb is the centerpiece of a 17-hectare complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years; the Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be 52.8 billion rupees. The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri; the Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".
It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year and in 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World initiative; the Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631, to be built in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian princess who died giving birth to their 14th child, Gauhara Begum. Construction started in 1632, the mausoleum was completed in 1643, while the surrounding buildings and garden were finished five years later; the imperial court documenting Shah Jahan's grief after the death of Mumtaz Mahal illustrates the love story held as the inspiration for the Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal buildings including the Gur-e Amir, Humayun's Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb, Shah Jahan's own Jama Masjid in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones.
Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement. The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal, it is a large, white marble structure standing on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan topped by a large dome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin; the base structure is a large multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners forming an unequal eight-sided structure, 55 metres on each of the four long sides. Each side of the iwan is framed with a huge pishtaq or vaulted archway with two shaped arched balconies stacked on either side; this motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered corner areas, making the design symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets frame one at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners; the main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Shah Jahan. The most spectacular feature is the marble dome; the dome is nearly 35 metres high, close in measurement to the length of the base, accentuated by the cylindrical "drum" it sits on, 7 metres high.
Because of its shape, the dome is called an onion dome or amrud. The top is decorated with a lotus design which serves to accentuate its height; the shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed chattris placed at its corners, which replicate the onion shape of the main dome. The dome is asymmetrical, their columned bases provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires extend from edges of base walls, provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome; the lotus motif is repeated on guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial which mixes traditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements; the main finial was made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early 19th century. This feature provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements; the finial is topped by a typical Islamic motif whose horns point heavenward. The minarets, which are each more than 40 metres tall, display the designer's penchant for symmetry.
They were designed as working minarets— a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb; the chattris all share the same decorative elements of a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. The minarets were constructed outside of the plinth so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with many tall constructions of the period, the material from the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb; the exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the finest in Mughal architecture. As the surface area changes, the decorations are refined proportionally; the decorative elements were created by applying paint, stone inlays or carvings. In line with the Islamic proh