Mainland Southeast Asia

Mainland Southeast Asia is the continental portion of Southeast Asia. It lies east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China and is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east, it includes the countries of Myanmar, peninsular Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam. The term Indochina was coined in the early nineteenth century, it emphasizes the cultural influence on the area of Chinese civilization. The term was adopted as the name of the colony of French Indochina; the origins of the name Indo-China are attributed jointly to the Danish-French geographer Conrad Malte-Brun, who referred to the area as indo-chinois in 1804, the Scottish linguist John Leyden, who used the term Indo-Chinese to describe the area's inhabitants and their languages in 1808. Scholarly opinions at the time regarding China's and India's historical influence over the area were conflicting, the term was itself controversial—Malte-Brun himself argued against its use in a edition of his Universal Geography, reasoning that it over-emphasized Chinese influence, suggested Chin-India instead.

Indo-China had gained traction and soon supplanted alternative terms such as Further India and the Peninsula beyond the Ganges. However, as the French established the colony of French Indochina, use of the term became more restricted to the French colony, today the area is referred to as Mainland Southeast Asia. In biogeography, the Indochinese bioegion is a major region in the Indomalayan realm, a phytogeographical floristic region in the Oriental Paleotropical Kingdom, it includes the native fauna of all the countries above. The adjacent Malesian Region covers the Maritime Southeast Asian countries, straddles the Indomalaya and Australasian regions; the Indochinese Peninsula projects southward from the Asian continent proper. It contains several mountain ranges extending from the Tibetan Plateau in the north, interspersed with lowlands drained by three major river systems running in a north–south direction: the Irrawaddy, the Chao Phraya, the Mekong. To the south it forms the Malay Peninsula, on which are located Southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia.

Mainland Southeast Asia contrasts with Maritime Southeast Asia through the division of land-based lifestyles in Indochina and the sea-based lifestyles of the Malay and Philippine archipelagos, as well as the dividing line between the Austroasiatic, Tai–Kadai, Sino-Tibetan languages and Austronesian languages. The languages of the mainland form the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area: although belonging to several independent language families, they have converged over the course of history and share a number of typological similarities; the countries of mainland Southeast Asia received cultural influence from both India and China to varying degrees. Some cultures, such as those of Cambodia, Laos and Malaysia are influenced by India with a smaller influence from China. Others, such as Vietnam, are more influenced by Chinese culture with only minor cultural influences from India via the Champa civilization that Vietnam conquered during its southward expansion. Today, most of these countries show pronounced Western cultural influences, which began during the European imperialism in Asia and colonialism in Southeast Asia.

Overall, Mainland Southeast Asia is predominantly Buddhist. Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area Southeast Asian Massif Zomia Malay Peninsula Golden Chersonese Greater Mekong Subregion Bernard Philippe Groslier; the art of Indochina: including Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. Crown Publishers. History of the mountain people of southern Indochina up to 1945 (Bernard Bourotte, i.e. Jacques Méry, U. S. Agency for International Development, 195? Media related to Indochina at Wikimedia Commons

Sweeney's Men

Sweeney's Men was an Irish traditional band. They emerged from the mid-1960s Irish roots revival, along with groups such as The Dubliners and the Clancy Brothers; the founding line-up in May 1966 was Andy Irvine and "Galway Joe" Dolan. Before creating the band in 1966, Irvine and Dolan had met in Dublin and had performed and travelled together, on and off, around Ireland; the name'Sweeney's Men' was inspired by Dolan's reading of Flann O'Brien's comic novel At Swim-Two-Birds, which depicts the mad, anti-religious, tree-leaping pagan King Sweeney of Antrim. The band's manager was Eamonn O'Doherty, he and the band travelled in a red VW van; the band travelled to Milltown Malbay to enjoy musical sessions with the piper Willie Clancy. The early days of the band have been described by Irvine in his song "My heart's tonight in Ireland". In June 1967, Dolan decided to travel to Israel to fight in the Six-Day War and was replaced by Terry Woods. Woods who played the 12-string guitar, had travelled in the US and studied the American folk tradition brought an American musical influence to the group.

At the time, they played the bouzouki, guitar, tin whistle, concertina and 5-string banjo. This line-up recorded their first full-length album, Sweeney's Men in 1968; the band did not stick to Irish songs since all three were big fans of American music and their repertoire included American songs like "Tom Dooley" alongside traditional songs like "Willy O'Winsbury" from the Scottish tradition. Irvine left the band in May 1968. Irvine was replaced by Henry McCullough, repatriated to Ireland while on an Eire Apparent tour, owing to visa problems. McCullough played electric guitar, his tenure saw the band explore more progressive, psychedelic territory. After playing with Sweeney's Men at the Cambridge Folk Festival, McCullough left in July 1968 to join Joe Cocker's Grease Band, was replaced by Al O'Donnell, it was as a duo that Woods and Moynihan recorded the band's second, final, album The Tracks of Sweeney, released in 1969 and including some of their own compositions, such as Moynihan's "Standing on the Shore".

Shortly after this release, they broke up, on 22 November 1969. A new Irish-English folk super-group was formed in 1970, with Moynihan, Irvine and his wife Gay, plus Ashley Hutchings joining on bass, but this never happened. Following the break-up of Sweeney's Men, four of the members played in other notable bands: Andy Irvine: Planxty, Patrick Street, East Wind, Mozaik, LAPD, Usher's Island, several duos while pursuing a solo career. Johnny Moynihan: Planxty, De Dannan, Fleadh Cowboys, solo career and with Anne Briggs and Andrew McNamara. Terry Woods: Steeleye Span, Gay & Terry Woods, The Woods Band and The Pogues. Henry McCullough: The Grease Band and Wings. In 1986, Woods and McCullough reunited for a special edition of the BP Fallon Orchestra, a radio show hosted by Dave Fanning of RTÉ Radio. Irvine and Moynihan were re-united for a one-off gig as Sweeney's Men in Rostrevor, County Down on 22 July 2007, when the band was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the local Fiddler's Green Festival.

Irvine wrote "Had hoped we might'blague' Galway Joe Dolan into doing it but he hasn't been on a stage for about two lifetimes and that wasn't going to work. Johnny had hit on the great idea of asking Paul Brady to play with us as Paul had stood in for Dolan at a gig in Limerick in 1967 after Joe's speedy departure for Israel and the 6 Day War". Irvine and Woods played together once again on 16 & 17 June 2012, as part of Irvine's 70th Birthday party concerts at Vicar Street in Dublin, a dozen tracks from the shows were released by Irvine as a live album, it worked so well that they gigged again in Ireland in 2012 and played five full-house gigs in Galway, Cork and Limerick during November 2013. Their play list included some new songs as well as old standards, in performances that demonstrated that they retain their old vitality and virtuosity across a wide range of instruments. A significant innovation that Sweeney's Men contributed to Irish music was Moynihan's introduction of the bouzouki, with the tuning of GDAD', one octave lower than the open-tuned mandolin instead of the traditional Greek tuning of CFAD'.

For a band with such a short lifespan, their influence was considerable. Thanks to Irvine, they helped evolve a more structured approach to the accompaniment of ballads. Irvine's interaction with Moynihan’s bouzouki playing and with Lunny's up to and including Planxty, consolidated this contrapuntal approach. Original Releases"Old Maid in the Garrett"/"The Derby Ram", 1967.


The laimosphere is the microbiologically enriched zone of soil that surrounds below-ground portions of plant stems. The combining form laim- from laimos denotes a connecting organ while -sphere indicates a zone of influence. Topographically, the laimosphere includes the soil around any portion of subterranean plant organs other than roots where exuded nutrients stimulate microbial activities. Subterranean plant organs with a laimosphere include hypocotyls, stems, corms and leaves. Propagules of soil-borne plant pathogens, whose germination is stimulated by a plant exudates in the laimosphere, can initiate hypocotyl and stem rots leading to "damping-off". Pathogens found to cause such diseases are species of Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium and Sclerotinia. Atkinson, T. G. et al. 1974. Root rot reaction in wheat resistance not mediated by laimosphere antagonists. Phytopathology 64:97-101. Baker, K. F. 1957. The U. C. system for producing healthy container-grown plants. Univ. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta. Service Manual 23.

Hancock, J. G. 1977. Soluble metabolites in intercellular regions of squash hypocotyl tissues: implications for exudation. Plant and Soil 47:103-112. Johnson, L. F. and N. G. Bartley. 1981. Cotton laimosphere their antibiotic effect on Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology 71:884-981. Kasuya, M. et al. 2006. Induction of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani by incorporation of dried plant residues into soil. Phytopathology 96: 1372-1379. Magyarosy, A. C. 1973. Effect of squash mosaic virus infection on microbial populations around the hypocotyl and chloroplast structure and function. Ph. D. Dissertation, Univ. Calif. Berkeley. Magyarosy, A. and J. G. Hancock. 1972. Microbial population of the laimosphere of squash Plant and Soil 37:187-190. Magyarosy, A. C. and J. G. Hancock. 1974. Association of virus-induced changes in laimosphere microflora and hypocotyl exudation with protection to Fusarium stem rot. Phytopathology 64:994-1000