Antipope Clement VII
Robert of Geneva was elected to the papacy as Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, was the first antipope residing in Avignon, France. His election led to the Western Schism, he was the son of Amadeus III, Count of Geneva, was born in chateau d'Annecy in 1342. He became Bishop of Thérouanne in 1361, Archbishop of Cambrai in 1368, a cardinal on 30 May 1371. From 1373 he held the position of Archdeacon of Dorset, from 1374 Prebend of All Saints Parish Church in Middle Woodford in Wiltshire, leaving both positions in 1378. From 1375, he held a living as rector of Bishopwearmouth in County Durham and instead used the income from that prized living for his papal election expenses. In 1377, while serving as papal legate in upper Italy, in order to put down a rebellion in the Papal States, known as the War of the Eight Saints, he commanded troops lent to the papacy by the condottiere John Hawkwood to reduce the small city of Cesena in the territory of Forlì, which resisted being added to the Patrimony of Peter for the second time in a generation.
In 1392, he inherited the title of Count of Geneva, his four older brothers having each in turn inherited dying without issue before him. The title passed from him through his eldest sister Mary to her son, Humbert de Thoire. Elected pope at Fondi on 20 September 1378 by the French cardinals in opposition to Urban VI, he was the first antipope of the Western Schism, the second of the two periods referred to as the Great Schism, which lasted until 1417. Clement owed the immediate support of several of the Italian barons. Charles V of France, who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector. Clement succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, Flanders, he had adherents, scattered through Germany, while Portugal on two occasions acknowledged him, but afterwards forsook him. Burgundy and Savoy acknowledged his authority. Unable to maintain himself in Italy, he took up his residence at Avignon in the southern French Comtat Venaissin, where he became dependent on the French court.
By the bait of a kingdom to be carved expressly out of the States of the Church and to be called the kingdom of Adria, coupled with the expectation of succeeding to Queen Joanna, Clement incited Louis I, Duke of Anjou, the eldest of the brothers of Charles V, to take arms in his favour. These tempting offers gave rise to a series of expeditions into Italy carried out exclusively at Clement’s expense, in the first of which Louis went to war with some 40,000 troops; the campaign was unsuccessful: Louis died at Bisceglie on 20 September 1384. Still, these enterprises on several occasions planted Angevin domination in the south of the Italian peninsula, their most decisive result was the assuring of Provence to the dukes of Anjou and afterwards to the kings of France. After the death of Louis, Clement hoped to find brave and interested champions in Louis' son and namesake Louis II of Anjou, to which he donated the larger part of the Pontifical States. Clement tried to ally with Louis I, Duke of Orléans, the brother of Charles VI.
The prospect of his brilliant progress to Rome was before Clement's eyes. There came a time, when Clement and more his following had to acknowledge the vanity of these elusive dreams. Moreover, his ambitions and the financial needs of his court had resorted to simony, the loss of land and extortion which discerned among his adherents the germs of disaffection, he had created excellent cardinals, but he seems never to have sincerely desired the termination of the schism. He died at Avignon on 16 September 1394, it was determined that he would be recorded as an antipope rather than as a pope. Uncertainty over who the legitimate pope might be during the time of the Western Schism gave rise to the legal theory called Conciliarism, which claimed that a general council of the church was superior to the pope and could therefore judge between rival claimants. Papal selection before 1059 Papal conclave This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Valois, Joseph Marie Noel.
"Clement VII". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 485. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Weber, Nicholas Aloysius. "Robert of Geneva". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 13. New York: Robert Appleton
Avignon is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city, about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts. Between 1309 and 1377, during the Avignon Papacy, seven successive popes resided in Avignon and in 1348 Pope Clement VI bought the town from Joanna I of Naples. Papal control persisted until 1791; the town is now the capital of the Vaucluse department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its ramparts. The historic centre, which includes the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, the Pont d'Avignon, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995; the medieval monuments and the annual Festival d'Avignon have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism. The earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks: Аὐενιὼν = Auenion Άουεννίων = Aouennion; the Roman name Avennĭo Cavarum, i.e. "Avignon of Cavares" shows that Avignon was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of Cavares, along with Cavaillon and Orange.
The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European or pre-Latin theme ab-ên with the suffix -i-ōn This theme would be a hydronym – i.e. a name linked to the river, but also an oronym of terrain. The Auenion of the 1st century BC was Latinized to Avennĭo, -ōnis in the 1st century and was written Avinhon in classic Occitan spelling or Avignoun in Mistralian spelling The inhabitants of the commune are called avinhonencs or avignounen in both Occitan and Provençal dialect. Avignon is on the left bank of the Rhône river, a few kilometres above its confluence with the Durance, about 580 km south-east of Paris, 229 km south of Lyon and 85 km north-north-west of Marseille. On the west it shares a border with the department of Gard and the communes of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon and Les Angles and to the south it borders the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and the communes of Barbentane, Rognonas, Châteaurenard, Noves; the city is in the vicinity of Orange, Nîmes, Arles, Salon-de-Provence, Marseille. Directly contiguous to the east and north are the communes of Caumont-sur-Durance, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Sorgues.
The region around Avignon is rich in limestone, used for building material. For example, the current ramparts, measuring 4,330 metres long, were built with the soft limestone abundant in the region called mollasse burdigalienne. Enclosed by the ramparts, the Rocher des Doms is a limestone elevation of urgonian type, 35 metres high and is the original core of the city. Several limestone massifs are present around the commune and they are the result of the oceanisation of the Ligurian-Provençal basin following the migration of the Sardo-Corsican block; the other significant elevation in the commune is the Montfavet Hill – a wooded hill in the east of the commune. The Rhone Valley is an old alluvial zone: loose deposits cover much of the ground, it consists of sandy alluvium more or less coloured with pebbles consisting of siliceous rocks. The islands in the Rhone, such as the Île de la Barthelasse, were created by the accumulation of alluvial deposits and by the work of man; the relief is quite low despite the creation of mounds allowing local protection from flooding.
In the land around the city there are clay, silt and limestone present. The Rhone passes the western edge of the city but is divided into two branches: the Petit Rhône, or "dead arm", for the part that passes next to Avignon and the Grand Rhône, or "live arm", for the western channel which passes Villeneuve-lès-Avignon in the Gard department; the two branches are separated by the Île de la Barthelasse. The southernmost tip of the Île de la Barthelasse once formed of a separated island, the L'Île de Piot; the banks of the Rhone and the Île de la Barthelasse are subject to flooding during autumn and March. The publication Floods in France since the 6th century until today – research and documentation by Maurice Champion tells about a number of them, they have never stopped as shown by the floods in 1943–1944 and again on 23 January 1955 and remain important today – such as the floods of 2 December 2003. As a result, a new risk mapping has been developed; the Durance flows along the southern boundary of the commune into the Rhone and marks the departmental boundary with Bouches-du-Rhône.
It is a river, considered "capricious" and once feared for its floods (it was once called the "3rd scourge of Provence" as well as for its low water: the Durance has both Alpine and Mediterranean morphology, unusual. There are many natural and artificial water lakes in the commune such as the Lake of Saint-Chamand east of the city. There have been many diversions throughout the course of history, such as feeding the moat surrounding Avignon or irrigating crops. In the 10th century part of the waters from the Sorgue d'Entraigues were diverted and today pass under the ramparts to enter the city.. This watercourse is called the Vaucluse Canal but Avignon people still call it the Sorgue or Sorguette, it is visible in the city in the famous Rue des teinturiers. It fed the moat around the first ramparts fed the moat on the newer east
20th-century classical music
20th-century classical music describes art music, written nominally from 1901 to 2000. This century was without a dominant style and composers created diverse kinds of music. Modernism and post-romanticism can all be traced to the decades before the turn of the century, but can be included because they evolved beyond the musical boundaries of the 19th-century styles that were part of the earlier common practice period. Neoclassicism, expressionism, came after 1900. Minimalism started much in the century and can be seen as a change from the modern to post-modern era, although some date post-modernism from as early as ca. 1930. Atonality, musique concrète and electronic music were all developed during this century. Jazz and folk music were important influences on many composers at this time. At the turn of the century, music was characteristically late Romantic in style. Composers such as Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss and Jean Sibelius were pushing the bounds of Post-Romantic Symphonic writing. At the same time, the Impressionist movement, spearheaded by Claude Debussy, was being developed in France.
Debussy in fact loathed the term Impressionism: "I am trying to do'something different—in a way realities—what the imbeciles call'impressionism' is a term, as poorly used as possible by art critics". Maurice Ravel's music often labelled as impressionist, explores music in many styles not always related to it. Many composers reacted to the Post-Romantic and Impressionist styles and moved in quite different directions; the single most important moment in defining the course of music throughout the century was the widespread break with traditional tonality, effected in diverse ways by different composers in the first decade of the century. From this sprang an unprecedented "linguistic plurality" of styles and expression. In Vienna, Arnold Schoenberg developed atonality, out of the expressionism that arose in the early part of the 20th century, he developed the twelve-tone technique, developed further by his disciples Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Stravinsky explored twelve-tone technique, too. After the First World War, many composers started returning to the past for inspiration and wrote works that draw elements from it.
This type of music thus became labelled neoclassicism. Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev and Paul Hindemith all produced neoclassical works. Italian composers such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo developed musical Futurism; this style tried to recreate everyday sounds and place them in a "Futurist" context. The "Machine Music" of George Antheil and Alexander Mosolov developed out of this; the process of extending musical vocabulary by exploring all available tones was pushed further by the use of Microtones in works by Charles Ives, Julián Carrillo, Alois Hába, John Foulds, Ivan Wyschnegradsky, Harry Partch and Mildred Couper among many others. Microtones are those intervals. In the 1940s and 50s composers, notably Pierre Schaeffer, started to explore the application of technology to music in musique concrète; the term electroacoustic music was coined to include all forms of music involving magnetic tape, synthesizers and other electronic devices and techniques. Live electronic music uses live electronic sounds within a performance, Cage's Cartridge Music being an early example.
Spectral music is a further development of electroacoustic music that uses analyses of sound spectra to create music. Cage, Boulez, Milton Babbitt, Luigi Nono and Edgard Varèse all wrote electroacoustic music. From the early 1950s onwards, Cage introduced elements of chance into his music. Process music explores a particular process, laid bare in the work; the term experimental music was coined by Cage to describe works that produce unpredictable results, according to the definition "an experimental action is one the outcome of, not foreseen". The term is used to describe music within specific genres that pushes against their boundaries or definitions, or else whose approach is a hybrid of disparate styles, or incorporates unorthodox, distinctly unique ingredients. Important cultural trends informed music of this period, modernist, postmodernist or otherwise. Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev were drawn to primitivism in their early careers, as explored in works such as The Rite of Spring and Chout.
Other Russians, notably Dmitri Shostakovich, reflected the social impact of communism and subsequently had to work within the strictures of socialist realism in their music. Other comp
Janus of Cyprus
Janus of Cyprus was a King of Cyprus and titular King of Armenian Cilicia and Jerusalem from 1398 to 1432. Janus was born in Genoa, where James I of Cyprus, was a captive, his mother, Helvis of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, named him in honor of the god Janus, the founder of Genoa according to mythological tradition. When his father was elected king, he negotiated an agreement with the Genoese to release him to go to Cyprus, which he signed on 2 February 1383. Under that agreement, the Genoese were given new commercial privileges. However, the Genoese demanded. James sent a noble to John Babin, to act as stepfather to his son; as the Cypriot historian Leontios Makhairas writes, James ordered a special tax which required the Cypriots—both nobles and commoners—to purchase an amount of salt in order to collect the money needed to release his son from Genoese captivity. After his father's death on 9 September 1398, Janus took over the throne of Cyprus, he was crowned in Nicosia's Saint Sophia Cathedral on 11 November 1398.
As king he tried in 1402 to take back Famagusta, under Genoese rule. According to writings of Amati, the administrator of Famagusta, the Genoese Antonio de Karko, was Janus' godfather. Janus conspired with a priest, the spiritual father of de Karko, in order to return the city to the Cypriot kingdom, upon which the priest was to become Bishop of Famagusta. Involved in that conspiracy was Peter Makhairas, brother of Leontios, they made secret keys to the city gates and there were many preparations to take over Famagusta and to murder de Karko with the help of Brother Gregory and to open the gates for Janus' soldiers. However, at the last moment the plan was betrayed, the conspirators were arrested at Famagusta; the king continued his effort to take back Famagusta. In 1403, the governor of Genoa, Jean Le Maingre, had talks with Janus' representative Giorgio Billi which ended in an agreement by which the cities remained under Genoese hands, he forced the Cypriot people to pay special taxes to assemble an army and siege machines, he besieged Famagusta for three years but in vain, since there was access from the sea to the city.
In 1406 the siege ended and the Genoese tried to occupy Limassol, but were defeated. Two years the island was affected by epidemics. There were many raids of locusts on the island, which caused destruction to agriculture. A new epidemic arrived in 1419–20, which caused the death of Janus' second wife, Charlotte on 15 January 1422; because the king was distraught about her death, the body of the dead queen was moved out of the palace where her funeral was, in order to not be seen by Janus. Meanwhile, because Cyprus was still a permanent base of campaign for pirates and adventurers, after raids around the Cypriot coasts, Janus had repeated discussions with the Sultan of Egypt via the sultan's representatives. Janus was unable to stop the raids. Cypriot nobles and officials of the kingdom participated in the raids. Barsbay, the Sultan of Egypt, sent military forces to Cyprus several times. A small force, around 1424, attacked Limassol, in 1425 the Egyptian army attacked Famagusta and pillaged Larnaca together with the nearby area, including Kiti, Kellia and Agrinou.
After Larnaca, they went to Limassol, sacked, including the city's castle. In the summer of 1426, the Mamluks launched a large-scale attack against the island. Led by Tangriver Mohamed and Inal el Kakimi, their army contained over 3,000 men and included Mamluks and Arabs and arrived at the island with 180 ships near Avdimou. Limassol was again occupied. Janus moved from Nicosia to Limassol, he asked in vain for help from the forces in Europe: the Genoese were his enemies, the Venetians and others did not want to destroy commercial relations with the sultan. Following the Battle of Chirokitia against the Mamluks, King Janus was captured by the Egyptian forces, he was ransomed after ten months of captivity in Cairo. During his captivity his brother Hugh of Lusignan, Archbishop of Nicosia, took charge of Cyprus. After their victory the Mamluks pillaged Larnaca again and the capital of Cyprus, Nicosia; the royal family were rescued. The invaders took a great deal of loot and captives; that disaster, together with the previous raids, the war operations of Janus against Genoese, the epidemics and the invasion of locusts caused the Cypriot serfs, who lived in conditions of utter poverty, to revolt.
The leader of the Cypriot revolutionaries was a person called Alexis, declared king in Lefkoniko. The revolution was big, was supported by the population, who elected their own leaders in many places of Cyprus. Meanwhile, Janus was humiliated in Cairo: they took him, tied up with chains and riding a donkey, in front of the sultan, after which he was forced to kneel and worship nine times the soil on which he stepped; the release of Janus was effected after the mediations of Europeans, who collected money for the required ransoms. Cyprus had to offer the sultan an annual tax based on income from 5,000 duchies; this tax continued to be paid after the end of Frankish rule in Cyprus. Together with Janus, some of the captives managed to buy their freedom after their families collected money to ransom them. Others were sold as slaves. While Janus was captive in Cyprus, the nobles and the royal family members were trying to deal
The Western Schism called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 three, men claimed to be the true pope, having excommunicated one another. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance. For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office; the affair is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, although this term is reserved for the more enduring East–West Schism of 1054 between the Western Churches answering to the See of Rome and the Orthodox Churches of the East. The schism in the Western Roman Church resulted from the return of the papacy to Rome under Gregory XI on January 17, 1377, ending the Avignon Papacy, which had developed a reputation for corruption that estranged major parts of Western Christendom; this reputation can be attributed to perceptions of predominant French influence and to the papal curia's efforts to extend its powers of patronage and increase its revenues.
After Pope Gregory XI died in 1378, the Romans rioted to ensure the election of a Roman for pope. On April 8, 1378 the cardinals elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidate presented himself. Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, the Archbishop of Bari, was elected. Urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious and prone to violent outbursts of temper. Many of the cardinals who had elected him soon regretted their decision: the majority removed themselves from Rome to Anagni, where though Urban was still reigning, they elected Robert of Geneva as a rival pope on September 20 of the same year. Robert reestablished a papal court in Avignon; the second election threw the Church into turmoil. There had been rival antipope claimants to the papacy before, but most of them had been appointed by various rival factions; the conflicts escalated from a church problem to a diplomatic crisis that divided Europe. Secular leaders had to choose which claimant they would recognize: Avignon: France, Castile and León, Burgundy, Naples and Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion in Wales recognized the Avignon claimant.
In the Iberian Peninsula there were the Fernandine Wars and the 1383–1385 Crisis in Portugal, during which dynastic opponents supported rival claimants to the papal office. Sustained by such national and factional rivalries throughout Catholic Christianity, the schism continued after the deaths of both the Pope and the initial antipope claimant; when Pope Boniface died in 1404, the eight cardinals of the Roman conclave offered to refrain from electing a new pope if Benedict would resign. In the intense partisanship, characteristic of the Middle Ages, the schism engendered a fanatical hatred noted by Johan Huizinga: when the town of Bruges went over to the "obedience" of Avignon, a great number of people left to follow their trade in a city of Urbanist allegiance. Efforts were made to end the Schism through diplomacy; the French crown tried to coerce antipope Benedict XIII, whom it nominally supported, into resigning. None of these remedies worked; the suggestion that a church council should resolve the Schism, first made in 1378, was not adopted at first because canon law required that a pope call a council.
Theologians like Pierre d'Ailly and Jean Gerson, as well as canon lawyers like Francesco Zabarella, adopted arguments that equity permitted the Church to act for its own welfare in defiance of the letter of the law. The cardinals of both factions secured an agreement that Benedict and Pope Gregory XII would meet at Savona, they balked at the last moment, both groups of cardinals abandoned their preferred leaders. A church council was held at Pisa in 1409 under the auspices of the cardinals to try solving the dispute. At the fifteenth session, 5 June 1409, the Council of Pisa attempted to depose both Pope and antipope as schismatical, heretical and scandalous, but it added to the problem by electing a second antipope, Alexander V, he reigned from June 26, 1409, to his death in 1410, when he was succeeded by antipope John XXIII, who won some but not universal support. A council was convened by Pisan antipope John XXIII in 1414 at Constance to resolve the issue; this was endorsed by Pope Gregory XII.
The council, advised by the theologian Jean Gerson, secured the resignations of John XXIII and Pope Gregory XII, who resigned in 1415, while excommunicating the second antipope, Benedict XIII, who refused to step down. The Council elected Pope Martin V in 1417 ending the schism. Nonetheless, the Crown of Aragon did not recognize Pope Martin V and continued to recognize Benedict XIII. Archbishops loyal to Benedict XIII subsequently elected Antipope Benedict XIV (Bernard G
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years; this absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French, all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, but after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes.
The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. Among the popes who resided in Avignon, subsequent Catholic historiography grants legitimacy to these: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 The two Avignon-based antipopes were: Clement VII: 1378–1394 Benedict XIII: 1394–1423 Benedict XIII was succeeded by three antipopes, who had little or no public following, were not resident at Avignon: Clement VIII: 1423–1429 Benedict XIV: 1424–1429 or 1430 Benedict XIV: 1430?–1437The period from 1378 to 1417, when there were rival claimants to the title of pope, is referred to as the "Western Schism" or "the great controversy of the antipopes" by some Roman Catholic scholars and "the second great schism" by many secular and Protestant historians.
Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the small enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until 1791, under pressure from French revolutionaries, they were absorbed by the short-lived revolutionary Kingdom of France, which, in turn, was abolished in favor of the French First Republic the following year; the papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major temporal role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries; the success of the early Crusades added to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like those of England and the Holy Roman Emperor acting as marshals for the popes and leading "their" armies.
One exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II was moderately successful in the Holy Land; this state of affairs culminated in the unbridled declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam, in November 1302. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." This was directed to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, "Your venerable conceitedness may know that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters." In 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence and beat Pope Boniface VIII, he died shortly thereafter. Nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI, he absolved King Phillip IV and his subjects of their actions against Pope Boniface VIII.
However, Benedict XI died within eight months of being elected to the papacy. After eleven months, Bertrand de Got, a French man and a personal friend of King Phillip IV, was elected as pope and took the name Pope Clement V. Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the Avignon papacy were French. However, this makes. Southern France at that time had a culture quite independent from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were based; the Kingdom of Arles was still independent at that time, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The literature produced by the troubadours in the Languedoc is unique and distinct from that of Royal circles in the north. In terms of religion, the South produced its own variety of Christianity, declared heretical; the movement was fueled in no small part by the strong sense of independence in the
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols. Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. In the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; the symbols used include ancient symbols and modern symbols made upon any media such as symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets, made using a pen on papyrus or parchment or manuscript paper. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms, none of them were comprehensive, this has limited today's understanding of their music; the seeds of what would become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic Church's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity.
The church began notating plainchant melodies so that the same chants could be used throughout the church. Music notation developed further in the Baroque music eras. In the classical period and the Romantic music era, notation continued to develop as new musical instrument technologies were developed. In the contemporary classical music of the 20th and 21st century, music notation has continued to develop, with the introduction of graphical notation by some modern composers and the use, since the 1980s, of computer-based score writer programs for notating music. Music notation has been adapted to many kinds of music, including classical music, popular music, traditional music; the earliest form of musical notation can be found in a cuneiform tablet, created at Nippur, in Babylonia, in about 1400 BC. The tablet represents fragmentary instructions for performing music, that the music was composed in harmonies of thirds, that it was written using a diatonic scale. A tablet from about 1250 BC shows a more developed form of notation.
Although the interpretation of the notation system is still controversial, it is clear that the notation indicates the names of strings on a lyre, the tuning of, described in other tablets. Although they are fragmentary, these tablets represent the earliest notated melodies found anywhere in the world. Ancient Greek musical notation was in use from at least the 6th century BC until the 4th century AD; the notation consists of symbols placed above text syllables. An example of a complete composition is the Seikilos epitaph, variously dated between the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Three hymns by Mesomedes of Crete exist in manuscript; the Delphic Hymns, dated to the 2nd century BC use this notation, but they are not preserved. Ancient Greek notation appears to have fallen out of use around the time of the Decline of the Western Roman Empire. Byzantine music has survived as music for court ceremonies, including vocal religious music, it is not known if it is based on the monodic modal singing and instrumental music of Ancient Greece.
Greek theoretical categories played a key role to understand and transmit Byzantine music the tradition of Damascus had a strong impact on the pre-Islamic Near East comparable to Persian music. Unlike Western notation Byzantine neumes always indicate modal steps in relation to a clef or modal key; this key or the incipit of a common melody was enough to indicate a certain melodic model given within the echos. Despite ekphonetic notation further early melodic notation developed not earlier than between the 9th and the 10th century. Like the Greek alphabet notational signs are ordered left to right; the question of rhythm was based on cheironomia, well-known melodical phrases given by gestures of the choirleaders, which existed once as part of an oral tradition. Today the main difference between Western and Eastern neumes is that Eastern notation symbols are differential rather than absolute, i.e. they indicate pitch steps, the musicians know to deduce from the score and the note they are singing presently, which correct interval is meant.
These step symbols themselves, or better "phonic neumes", resemble brush strokes and are colloquially called gántzoi in Modern Greek. Notes as pitch classes or modal keys are represented in written form only between these neumes. In modern notation they serve as an optional reminder and modal and tempo directions have been added, if necessary. In Papadic notation medial signatures meant a temporary change into another echos; the so-called "great signs" were once related to cheironomic signs. Since Chrysanthos of Madytos there are seven standard note names used for "solfège" pá, vú, ghá, dhē, ké, zō, nē, while the older practice still used t