click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Arsinoe II

Arsinoë II was a Ptolemaic queen and co-regent of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Arsinoe was queen of Thrace and Macedonia by marriage to King Lysimachus and co-ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom with her brother-husband, Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Arsinoe was given the unprecedented Egyptian title "King of Upper and Lower Egypt", marking her a full pharaoh. Arsinoë was the first daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Hellenistic state of Egypt, his second wife Berenice I of Egypt, she was maybe born in Memphis, but was raised in the new city of Alexandria, where her father moved his capital. Nothing is known of her childhood or education, but judging from her life as patron of scholars and noted for her learning, she is estimated to have been given a high education, her brothers were tutored by intellectuals hired by their fathers, it is regarded that she attended these lessons as well: she corresponded with the intellectual Strato of Lampsacus in life, he may have been her tutor.

At about age 15, Arsinoë married King Lysimachus,with whom she had three sons: Ptolemy Epigonos and Philip. In order to position her sons for the throne, she had Lysimachus' first son, poisoned on account of treason. Arsinoe paid for a rotunda in the Samothrace temple complex, where she was an initiate. After Lysimachus' death in battle in 281 BC, she fled to Cassandreia and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos, one of the sons of Ptolemy I Soter from his previous wife, Eurydice of Egypt; the marriage was for political reasons as they both claimed the throne of Thrace. Their relationship was never good; as Ptolemy Keraunos was becoming more powerful, she decided it was time to stop him and conspired against him with her sons. This action caused Ptolemy Keraunus to kill two of her sons and Philip, while the eldest, was able to escape and to flee north, to the kingdom of the Dardanians, she herself sought refuge in the Samothrace temple complex, which she had benefited during her tenure as queen.

She left from Samothrace for Alexandria, Egypt, to seek protection from her brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus. It is not known, she may have left so early as 280, directly after the murder of the younger sons, or as late as 276, when the claim of her eldest son to the Macedonian throne had failed after the succession of Antigonus II Gonatas. In Egypt, she is believed to have instigated the accusation and exile of her brother Ptolemy II's first wife, Arsinoe I. Whether this was true is unknown: it is not known which year she arrived in Egypt, her sister-in-law may have been exiled at that point, or her divorce may have taken place without her involvement. Whatever the case, after the divorce of Ptolemy, Arsinoe II married her younger brother; as a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi". The closer circumstances and reasons behind the marriage is not known, her role as queen was unprecedented in the dynasty at the time and became a role model for Ptolemaic queens: she acted alongside her brother in ritual and public display, became a religious and literal patron and was included in the Egyptian and Greek cults created by him for them.

Sharing in all of her brother's titles, she was quite influential, having towns dedicated to her, her own cult, appearing on coinage and contributing to foreign policy, including Ptolemy II's victory in the First Syrian War between Egypt and the Seleucid Empire. According to Posidippus, she won three chariot races at the Olympic Games in 272 BC. After her death, Ptolemy II established a cult of Arsinoe Philadelphus, she received burial and deification rites at Mendes, where she had been a priestess, which are commemorated in the Mendes stele. This stele includes the decree of Ptolemy II announcing her cult. All temples in Egypt were required to include a cult statue of Arsinoe II alongside the main god of the sanctuary. In the relief at the top of the stele, Arsinoe is depicted among the deities receiving sacrifice from Ptolemy - an image which recurs throughout the country. Separate temples were constructed for Arsinoe, at Memphis and elsewhere; the Fayyum region became the Arsinoite nome, with Arsinoe as its patron goddess.

From 263 BC, a portion of tax on orchard and vineyard produce in each nome of Egypt was dedicated to funding the nome's cult of Arsinoe. Arsinoe's cult was propagated in Alexandria. An annual priesthood, known as the Canephorus of Arsinoe Philadelphus, was established by 269 BC; the holder of the office was included as part of the dating formula in all official documents until the late second century BC. An annual procession was held in Arsinoe's honour, led by the Canephorus; every household along the procession's route was required to erect a small altar of sand and sacrifice birds and lentils for Arsinoe. A large temple was erected by the harbour in Alexandria; the admiral Callicrates of Samos erected another sanctuary at Cape Zephyrium, at the eastern end of the harbour, where Arsinoe was worshipped as Aphrodite Euploia. Similar sanctuaries were established at a number of port-cities under Ptolemaic control, including Citium in Cyprus, Delos in the Nesiotic League, Thera; as a result of these sanctuaries, Arsinoe became associated with protection from shipwrecks.

Coinage and statuettes depicting the divine Arsinoe survive. Her

Salwa El-Deghali

Salwa Fawzi El-Deghali is a Libyan academic and a member of the National Transitional Council representing women and in charge of legal affairs. El-Deghali possess a Doctor of Philosophy in constitutional law, she taught at the Academy of Graduate Studies in Benghazi. El-Deghali is one of three women on the National Transitional Council, though she is the only one, publicly identified. El-Deghali represents women's interests and is responsible for Legal Affairs, she has warned against the possibility of a pro-Gaddafi fifth column within the National Liberation Army. Her position gives her the responsibility of investigating the crimes of mercenaries employed by Muammar Gaddafi and collecting and presenting evidence of his war crimes to the International Criminal Court, her primary responsibility will be to help form a functioning government, writing laws to be in effect during the transition period, preparing for elections. However, she has stated that the job of writing a constitution for the country will fall to an elected assembly and not her Legal Advisory Committee

Phic3unalikevirus

Phic3unalikevirus is a genus of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Siphoviridae. Bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are three species in this genus including the type species Streptomyces phage phiC31. Group: dsDNA Phic3unalikeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail; the head is about 53 nm in diameter, consisting of 72 capsomers. The tail is long and flexible, at about 100 nm long, 5 nm wide, has a 15 nm wide baseplate and four tail fibers ended by terminal knobs. Streptomyces phage phiC31 has been sequenced, it has about 41k nucleotides, with 53 proteins. The complete genome, as well as two similar but unclassified strains, are available here Viral replication is cytoplasmic; the virus attaches to the host cell's adhesion receptors using its terminal fibers, ejects the viral DNA into the host cytoplasm via long flexible tail ejection system. Replication follows the replicative transposition model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Once the viral genes have been replicated, the procapsid is packed.

The tail is assembled and the mature virions are released via lysis. Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion. According to ICTV, the genus Phic3unalikevirus was first accepted under the name PhiC31-like viruses in 2004, assigned to family Siphoviridae in order Caudovirales. In 2012, the genus was renamed to Phic3unalikevirus. Viralzone: Phic3unalikevirus ICTV

2016 Newcastle City Council election

The 2016 Newcastle City Council Council elections took place on 5 May 2016 to elect one third of the members of Newcastle City Council in England. The elections took place on the same day as other local elections. Despite the election, it was mathematically impossible for the Labour Party to lose control of the council given that only a third of seats are up for election. However, a number of key wards were in the spotlight; the Labour Party sought to expand its representation throughout of the seat, capitalising on gains made in 2015 in areas such as North Jesmond. In 2015, Newcastle City Council leader Nick Forbes said he wanted to make Newcastle a'Liberal Democrat-free zone’. Despite this however, many seats won the party in 2015 were held by the Liberal Democrats in 2016 including Fawdon, North Heaton and Castle. Seats up for election during this cycle were last up for election during 2012. A number of high-profile councillors were up for re-election including current council leader Nick Forbes.

The official opposition to Labour, the Liberal Democrats aimed to hold as much as possible throughout the city in the Castle, West Gosforth and Fawdon wards following heavy losses over the past five years. The party lost control of additional two seats in 2016, in the Ouseburn and North Jesmond wards, losing to the Labour Party The Green Party again targeted South Heaton, where the candidate Andrew Gray came second to Labour's John-Paul Stephenson, who won with 59% of the vote; the Conservatives targeted the West Gosforth ward where in 2015, candidate Steve Kyte was only 17 votes short of winning. However, in 2016, the LibDems again held on to the seat. Following a strong showing in many seats in 2015, UKIP targeted seats in the East of the city such as Byker and Walker. Despite this, in 2016, no UKIP councillors were elected to Newcastle City Council. Http://democracy.newcastle.gov.uk/mgElectionElectionAreaResults.aspx? EID=6&RPID=3367655 retrieved 23:32 10 May 2016

Bike freeway

A bike freeway known as a cycling superhighway, fast cycle route or bicycle highway, is an informal name for a bicycle path, meant for long-distance traffic. There is no official definition of a bicycle highway; the characteristics of a cycle motorway mentioned by authorities and traffic experts include an absence of single-level intersections with motorized traffic, a better road surface and the absence of traffic lights. Bicycle highways are mentioned in connection with traffic jam. Due to higher average speeds than normal cycling infrastructure, they should be an alternative for the car in commuter traffic. A cycle motorway follows the route of a railway. In the Netherlands, the following people can use a bike freeway: Cyclists:'ordinary' cyclists, cargo bikes, pedelecs Riders of a motorized bicycle with a maximum speed of 25 km / hour Depending on the location mopeds, with a maximum speed of 40 km / hour Pedestrians if pavement and footpath are missing Riders of a segway Drivers of a disabled vehicle.

However, a maximum speed of 30 km / hour applies to them. In the Netherlands the bicycle highway is not defined in the RVV. However, there is a guideline for developing bicycle highways; the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management describes the bicycle highway as a long cycle path without crossings, on which cyclists can travel long distances. By building bicycle highways, the government hopes, among other things, to promote the use of bicycles for commuter traffic and thus prevent traffic jams. In Belgium this type of cycle path is not mentioned in the Road Code. In Belgium the provincial governments and the Flemish Region take the initiative for the construction of bicycle highways. At the Flemish Regional level there are no guidelines on the design of cycle highways, only on'normal' cycle paths. In practice, there are differences between the provinces; this is because the authorized Flemish departments and agencies are organized per province, which results in different emphasis per region.

They are called a bicycle highway because of the route signaling. There is no maximum speed; the Flemish bicycle highways are indicated as such. All routes are indicated with a number starting with an F, going from F1 to F791; the cost of building a bicycle super highway depends on many things, but is between €300000/km and €800000/km. In the Netherlands: The minimum desired width of the bicycle lane is 2.00 meters on the bicycle highway. The absolute minimum width of the bicycle lane is 1.50 meters. In Belgium: Antwerp: double direction bicycle paths must be at least 3 meters wide Flemish Brabant: double-direction bicycle paths must be 4 meters wide, single-direction bicycle paths 2.5 meters East Flanders: double-direction cycle paths must be at least 3 meters wide. Within Flanders, a network of bike freeways, consisting of around 120 routes, is being rolled out, connecting all Flemish cities. All routes are indicated with a number starting with an F, going from F1 to F791; the whole network will consist of 2400 km bike freeways.

As of 2018, around 1500 km is completed. Most Flemish cities are therefore connected by bike freeways or a temporary alternative. It's therefore possible to travel around the whole Flemish region by bike from city to city with a nearly absence of single-level intersections with motorized traffic. Ghent is for example connected by bike freeways to all neighbouring Flemish cities. A lot of bike freeways are purpose built bicycle superhighways with own bicycle bridges and intersections or at least bicycle paths. Lots of these purpose built. However, lots of existing towpaths along rivers and canals have been integrated within this network of bike freeways as they responded to the minimum requirements with only minor adaptations; the first Dutch route opened in 2004 between Etten-Leur. In 2017 several bicycle superhighways were opened in the Arnhem-Nijmegen region, with the RijnWaalpad as the best example of this new type of cycling infrastructure. In Denmark there exists a network of long distance and high speed cycle paths that connect the suburban areas of Copenhagen with the city core.

There are eight routes in operation in September 2018. There are plans of building 45 routes with a total length of 476 km by 2021 in the cities and municipalities of the Capitol Region of Denmark; the first Danish route, C99, opened in 2012 between the Vesterbro rail station in Copenhagen and Albertslund, a western suburb. The route cost 13.4 million DKK and is 17.5 km long, built with few stops and new paths away from traffic. “Service stations” with air pumps are located at regular intervals, where the route must cross streets and running boards are provided so cyclists can wait without having to put their feet on the ground. Similar projects have since been built in Germany among other countries. There are plans in Germany to build bicycle highways. A 100 km long fast cycle route has been planned between the cities of Duisburg and Hamm, the first parts of which were completed in 2015. Use is made here of a disused railway line. In addition, there is a plan to connect Aachen via a 30 km-long cycle route with the Dutch town of Heerl

MacArthur Park (song)

"MacArthur Park" is a song written and composed by Jimmy Webb. Richard Harris was the first to record it in 1968. "MacArthur Park" was subsequently covered by numerous artists, including a 1969 Grammy-winning version by country music singer Waylon Jennings, a number one Billboard Hot 100 disco arrangement by Donna Summer in 1978. In 1967, producer Bones Howe had asked Webb to create a pop song with classical elements, different movements, changing time signatures. Webb delivered "MacArthur Park" to Howe with "everything he wanted", but Howe did not care for the ambitious arrangement or unorthodox lyrics and the song was rejected by the group The Association, for whom it was intended. "MacArthur Park" was written and composed by Jimmy Webb in the summer and fall of 1967 as part of an intended cantata. Webb brought the entire cantata to The Association, but the group rejected it; the inspiration for the song was his breakup with Susie Horton. MacArthur Park, in Los Angeles, was where the couple would meet for lunch and spent their most enjoyable times together.

At that time, Horton worked for Aetna insurance, whose offices were located just across the street from the park. When asked by interviewer Terry Gross what was going through his mind when he wrote the lyric, Webb replied that it was meant to be symbolic and referred to the end of a love affair. In an interview with Newsday in October 2014, Webb explained: Everything in the song was visible. There's nothing in it; the old men playing checkers by the trees, the cake, left out in the rain, all of the things that are talked about in the song are things I saw. And so it's a kind of musical collage of this whole love affair that kind of went down in MacArthur Park.... Back I was kind of like an emotional machine, like whatever was going on inside me would bubble out of the piano and onto paper. Webb and Horton remained friends after her marriage to another man; the breakup was the primary influence for "By the Time I Get to Phoenix", another song written and composed by Webb. After his relationship breakup, Webb stayed for a while at the residence of Buddy Greco, upon whose piano the piece was composed and dedicated.

Greco closed all his shows with this number for forty years. The idea to write and compose a classically structured song with several movements that could be played on the radio came from a challenge by music producer Bones Howe, who produced recordings for The Association; the song begins as a poem about love moves into a lover's lament. The song consists of four sections or movements: A mid-tempo introduction and opening section, called "In the Park" in the original session notes, is built around piano and harpsichord, with horns and orchestra added; this arrangement choruses. A slow tempo and quiet section follows, called "After the Loves of My Life," recorded by Ed Ames on his 1968 LP, Ed Ames Sings Apologize. An up-tempo instrumental section, called "Allegro", is led by drums and percussion, punctuated by horn riffs, builds to an orchestral climax. A mid-tempo reprise of the first section, concludes with the final choruses and climax. "MacArthur Park" was first recorded by Richard Harris, after he met the composer at a fundraiser in East Los Angeles, California in late 1967.

Webb had been invited to provide the musical backdrop at the piano. Out of the blue, who had just starred in the film Camelot and had performed several musical numbers in it, suggested to Webb that he wanted to release a record. At first, Webb did not take Harris but he received a telegram from Harris requesting that Webb "come to London and make a record". Webb flew to London and played Harris a number of songs for the project, but none seemed to fit Harris for his pop music debut; the last song that Webb played for Harris was "MacArthur Park" written for The Association, whose members had promptly rejected it because of its length, complex structure, unorthodox lyrics. But Harris selected it; the track was recorded on December 1967, at Armin Steiner's Sound Recorders in Hollywood. String and brass overdubs were recorded over two sessions on December 29 and 30; the musicians in the original studio recording included members of the famous "Wrecking Crew" of Los Angeles-based studio musicians who played on many of the hit records of the 1960s and 1970s.

Personnel used included Hal Blaine on drums, Larry Knechtel on keyboards, Joe Osborn on bass guitar, Tommy Tedesco and Mike Deasy on guitars, along with Webb himself on harpsichord. The song was included on Harris's album A Tramp Shining in 1968 and selected for release as a single, an unusual choice, given the song's length and complex structure, it was released in April 1968 and was played by 77 WABC on Tuesday April 9, 1968. It made its way onto the Hot 100 at number 79 on May 11, 1968, peaking at number 2 on June 22, 1968 behind Herb Alpert's "This Guy's in Love with You", it peaked at number 10 on Billboard's Easy Listening survey and was number 8 on WABC's overall 1968 chart. It topped the music charts in Europe and Australia and won the 1969 Grammy Award for Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist. In 1992, Miami Herald journalist Dave Barry conducted a poll among his readers, they selected Harris's recording as the worst song of all time, both in terms of "Worst Lyrics" and "Worst Overall Song".

In September 1978, American singer Donna Summer released a multi-million selling vinyl single disco version of "MacArthur Park". The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 the week of November 11, 1978, for 3 weeks, earned