In early 18th century Colonial America, engravers began experimenting with copper plates as an alternative medium to wood. Applied to the production of paper currency, copper-plate engraving allowed for greater detail and production during printing, it was the transition to steel engraving that enabled banknote design and printing to advance in the United States during the 19th century. The first issue of government-authorized paper currency in America was printed by the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1690; this first issue, dated 10 December 1690, was printed from an engraved copper plate with four subjects to a sheet. The first engraver identified in archival records was John Coney who appears to have been paid 30£ on 12 March 1703 to engrave three copper plates for the Massachusetts issue dated 21 November 1702. Given the many design similarities between the 1690 note and those engraved by Coney in 1702, there has been speculation that he may have engraved the earlier note. If true, he would be the first American to engrave on copper plates.
Several historical figures with a background in engraving and printing were involved in the production of early American currency. Benjamin Franklin began printing Province of Pennsylvania notes in 1729, took on a partner in 1749, left the currency printing business after the 1764 issue. Paul Revere both engraved and printed bank notes for the Province and the state of Massachusetts between 1775 and 1779, the Province of New Hampshire in 1775. Revere's father, Apollos Rivoire, was John Coney's pupil. David Rittenhouse engraved some border designs for the 10 May 1775 Continental currency and 25 March 1776 Colony of New Jersey 6£ note. Francis Hopkinson does not appear to have done engraving, but he is credited with the designs for border-cuts and mottos on three issues of Continental currency in 1778–1779; the first series of Federally-issued United States banknotes was authorized by Congressional acts on 17 July 1861 and 5 August 1861. While the Demand Notes were issued from the United States Treasury, they were engraved and printed elsewhere.
In 1861, in fact until the mid-1870s, the Treasury Department lacked the facilities or infrastructure to engrave and print the bulk of it financial paper and therefore relied on external contracts with private bank note companies. By means of a Congressional act dated 11 July 1862, the Secretary of the Treasury received authorization to purchase machinery and employ the staff necessary to manufacture currency at the Treasury, it was not until 1877 that the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was given funding for labor, paper and other expenses with the provision that all work be conducted on site, for a price commensurate with that of the private bank note companies. On 1 October 1877, the BEP took over the production of both United States Note and National Bank Note production. “TO ARTISTS, ENGRAVERS AND OTHERS – Designs for National Currency Notes are hereby invited, of the denominations of $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 and $1,000, to be issued under the Act of Congress authorizing a National Currency, approved 25 February 1863”.
Salmon Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, placed this classified notice in late March, 1863. Other than describe some of the required features of each note, the only direction given to prospective applicants was that submissions must be original and that "the designs must be national in their character", it is uncertain how many proposals were submitted, or what was involved in the selection process, but the final decision was to draw on the use of historic American images which adorn the Capitol Rotunda. The motivation for this selection was two-fold: educationally it would circulate images depicting important scenes from American history while at the same time enhancing the security of the note by involving complex engravings. By July 1863, contracts were signed with American Bank Note Company and Continental Bank Note Company to design and begin printing National Bank Notes. ABNCo was contracted for the $20, $50, $100 denominations, CBNCo was contracted for the $5 and $10 denominations, National Bank Note Company contracted for the designs for the $2, $500, $1,000 denominations.
The contract descriptions addresses each denomination individually and specifies which image from the Capitol Rotunda should be used for the reverse and what type of vignettes should be on the obverse. The first National Bank Notes were issued on 21 December 1863. Blake, George Herbert. United States paper money. George H. Blake. P. 23. Fielding, Mantle. American Engravers Upon Steel. Burt Franklin. Friedberg, Arthur L.. Paper Money of the United States: A Complete Illustrated Guide With Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 978-0-87184-520-7. Hessler, Gene; the Engraver's Line – An Encyclopedia of Paper Money & Postage Stamp Art. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-36-3. Hessler, Gene. U. S. Essay and Specimen Notes. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-62-2. Newman, Eric P.. The Early Paper Money of America. Krause Publications. Stauffer, David M.. American Engravers Upon Steel; the Grolier Club of the City of New York
Anointed is a contemporary Christian music duo from Columbus, known for their strong vocals and harmonies, featuring siblings Steve Crawford and Da'dra Crawford Greathouse, along with former members Nee-C Walls and Mary Tiller. Their musical style includes elements of R&B, rock and piano ballads; the group has won two Stellar Awards and three Grammy Award nominations. The group has been featured on several Christian compilation albums such as Real Life Music, 1996 and WOW The 90s. Anointed was formed in 1988, they were all still in high school at that time. Their debut, Spiritual Love Affair, was released on Brainstorm Records in 1993 and distributed by WAL Records, a subsidiary of Word. In 1995 Anointed released The Call; this album would go on to become their best selling album to date, to this day it is one of the best selling and popular contemporary Christian albums of the 1990s. The album won a Stellar award and a Grammy nomination; the group released Under the Influence in October 1996. After the release of the group's fourth album in 1999, an extended tour followed.
This was one of the most exciting, yet demanding times for the group. The demand gave way to a trio becoming a duet. However, 2001, the sibling duo, headed for the studio to produce what would be their first brother and sister project. If We Pray was released early fall 2001. However, in 2002, because of transitions in the label, Anointed requested to be released from their deal and they and Word records amicably parted ways. Following this, the band was signed on to the Sony Urban label and Now Is The Time was released on April 5, 2005. Both Dadra and Steve are leading worship and Pastoring at Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas, they have been there since 2006. They have released solo projects within the last few years, of which have been digitally distributed. 1993: Spiritual Love Affair debut studio album 1995: The Call 1996: Under the Influence 1999: Anointed 2001: If We Pray 2003: The Best of Anointed compilation album 2005: Now Is the Time 1994: It's in God's Hands Now 1996: Under the Influence 2004: Gonna Lift Your Name 2012: Face To Face Short form"The Call" "It's in God's Hands Now" "Under The Influence"Long formMercy Alive with Bryan Duncan Live in Concert One Voice With Bryan Duncan And Crystal Lewis Live in Concert 30 Years of the Dove Awards "Best Performances" with Michael W. Smith, Born Again Church Choir and Larnelle Harris Live in Concert Background vocals on the song "Hooked", on the album "The Lady" by Vickie Winans.
MCA Records. "Any Kind Of Love" on the Ben Tankard album, "Play Me In Your Key." "Beautiful" – special contribution to a Left Behind soundtrack "Second Chances", song featured on the soundtrack of the 2002 film Jonah: A VeggieTales Movie "Waiting in the Wings", song from Under The Influence featured on the compilation album Real Life Music "The Word", featured on the compilation album Songs From The Book "United We Stand" with Bryan Duncan, featured on the compilation album Unforgettable Duets Vol 1 "One Voice", featured on the compilation album Songs From The Book "The Word Was Made Flesh", featured on the compilation album Emanuel "Never Be Another" featured on the album Cool By George Duke "The Covenant", featured on the compilation album My Utmost For his Highest "Crown Him With Many Crowns", featured on the album I'll Lead You Home by Michael W. Smith "Joyful, Joyful We Adore Thee" with Michael W. Smith, featured on the compilation album My Utmost For his Highest "Send Out A Prayer", featured on the compilation album Keep The Faith Collection "Power of Prayer" "Tet-A-Tet" featured on the children's album Carman Yo Kidz!
2: The Armor of God GMA Dove Awards1996: Contemporary Gospel Album of the Year for The Call 1996: Contemporary Gospel Recorded Song of the Year for "The Call" 1996: Urban Recorded Song of the Year for "It's in God's Hands Now" 1997: Urban Recorded Song of the Year for "Under the Influence" 1998: Special Event Album of the Year for God With Us: A Celebration of Christmas Carols and Classics 2000: Contemporary Gospel Album of the Year for Anointed 2000: Urban Recorded Song of the Year for "Anything Is Possible" Nominations2006: Urban Contemporary Album of the Year, Now Is The Time 2006: Urban Recorded Song of the Year, "Gonna Lift Your Name" Stellar Awards1994: Best New Artist 1996: Album of the Year for The CallGrammy Award nominations1996: Contemporary R&B Gospel Album of the Year – The Call 1998: Contemporary Gospel Album of the Year – Under The Influence 2000: Contemporary Gospel Album of the Year – Anointed Official website
The Battle of Frenchman's Butte, fought on May 28, 1885, occurred when a force of Cree, dug in on a hillside near Frenchman's Butte, was unsuccessfully attacked by the Alberta Field Force. It was fought in what was the District of Saskatchewan of the Northwest Territories. A band of Cree led by war chief Wandering Spirit, living in what is now central Alberta and Saskatchewan joined the North-West Rebellion of 1885 after the Métis success at the Battle of Duck Lake; the starving band seized food and supplies from several white settlements and captured Fort Pitt, taking prisoners. Major-General Thomas Bland Strange, a retired British officer living near Calgary, raised a force of cowboys and other white settlers, added to them two units of North-West Mounted Police, headed north, he was reinforced by three infantry units from the east. While he left some of his force to provide protection for the isolated white settlements in the area, he led several hundred troops east to Fort Pitt; the Cree retreated to the nearby hills.
Over the next few days, Strange's scouts fought skirmishes with small groups of Cree and marched over Frenchman's Butte. On the night of May 27, the Cree waited. Early on the morning of May 28, the Cree warriors divided into two groups. Wandering Spirit, the Cree war chief, led some 200 warriors to positions in the trenches and rifle pits, while Little Poplar remained with a second group to protect the camp, some two miles away. General Strange arrived opposite the Cree position at six in the morning and opened fire with a piece of artillery; the Cree responded. Some Canadian troops tried to cross the valley. On top of this, there was a steep, open hillside in front of the Cree, making any frontal assault suicidal. Strange deployed them along the bottom of the valley; the two units of NWMP formed the left flank. To their right was the 65th Battalion, Mount Royal Rifles, with the Winnipeg Light Infantry Battalion in the centre, while the right flank was formed by the Alberta Mounted Rifles; the two sides exchanged fire for three hours.
Cree rifle fire wounded some of the Canadian troops in the valley, while the Canadian artillery put holes in the hillside, damaging the trenches. General Strange ordered Major Sam Steele to lead the NWMP north and outflank the Cree; the Cree saw this, Wandering Spirit led a group of warriors along the tops of the hills, parallel to Steele, opened fire. This caused the NWMP to believe that the Cree's lines were much longer than they were, so Steele turned back. Around the same time, some Cree warriors managed to outflank the Alberta Mounted Rifles and captured the supply train. Afraid of being attacked from behind, General Strange ordered his force to retreat; the Canadians withdrew to Fort Pitt after three hours of fighting. The Cree slipped away that day, initiating the final stage of the rebellion, as more than 1,000 men searched the woods for Big Bear's band. "On May 29, near Frenchman's Butte Inspector S. B. Steele made contact with an Indian scouting party. Steele's scouts were fired upon. Steele's troops killed the first Indian casualty of the war.
They rode down with a friend to view the remains and found his body on top the hill where he evidently had been dragged by the scout. His body was stripped of all clothing with the rope still around his neck, which had cut into his jaw, he was a huge fine looking Indian,'Ma-me-nook'by name. The scout who had captured his mount had galloped around the prairie with the rope attached to his saddle pommel, trailing the body in the grass in circles, the trails of which were still visible, he had thus been left exposed for days before being buried. I requested to have him buried." H. A. MacKay, memories, HBCo archives and Glenbow Archives; the battle was a victory for the Cree, albeit a hollow one. It bought them time to escape from Strange; the Métis had been defeated at the Battle of Batoche three weeks earlier, Poundmaker's joint Cree-Assiniboine force had been forced to surrender. The Big Bear band fell apart during the retreat to the north; the Battle of Loon Lake on June 3 demoralized them further, by early July the rebellion was over.
Big Bear was imprisoned. Wandering Spirit was executed along with seven others. General Strange retired back to the Alberta Field Force disbanded. In the spring of 2008, Parks and Sport Minister Christine Tell proclaimed in Duck Lake, that "the 125th commemoration, in 2010, of the 1885 Northwest Resistance is an excellent opportunity to tell the story of the prairie Métis and First Nations peoples' struggle with Government forces and how it has shaped Canada today". Frenchman Butte is a National Historic Site of Canada, which locates the theatre of the 1885 battle staged between Cree and Canadian troops. List of battles won by Indigenous peoples of the Americas