Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
Art and engraving on United States banknotes
In early 18th century Colonial America, engravers began experimenting with copper plates as an alternative medium to wood. Applied to the production of paper currency, copper-plate engraving allowed for greater detail and production during printing, it was the transition to steel engraving that enabled banknote design and printing to advance in the United States during the 19th century. The first issue of government-authorized paper currency in America was printed by the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1690; this first issue, dated 10 December 1690, was printed from an engraved copper plate with four subjects to a sheet. The first engraver identified in archival records was John Coney who appears to have been paid 30£ on 12 March 1703 to engrave three copper plates for the Massachusetts issue dated 21 November 1702. Given the many design similarities between the 1690 note and those engraved by Coney in 1702, there has been speculation that he may have engraved the earlier note. If true, he would be the first American to engrave on copper plates.
Several historical figures with a background in engraving and printing were involved in the production of early American currency. Benjamin Franklin began printing Province of Pennsylvania notes in 1729, took on a partner in 1749, left the currency printing business after the 1764 issue. Paul Revere both engraved and printed bank notes for the Province and the state of Massachusetts between 1775 and 1779, the Province of New Hampshire in 1775. Revere's father, Apollos Rivoire, was John Coney's pupil. David Rittenhouse engraved some border designs for the 10 May 1775 Continental currency and 25 March 1776 Colony of New Jersey 6£ note. Francis Hopkinson does not appear to have done engraving, but he is credited with the designs for border-cuts and mottos on three issues of Continental currency in 1778–1779; the first series of Federally-issued United States banknotes was authorized by Congressional acts on 17 July 1861 and 5 August 1861. While the Demand Notes were issued from the United States Treasury, they were engraved and printed elsewhere.
In 1861, in fact until the mid-1870s, the Treasury Department lacked the facilities or infrastructure to engrave and print the bulk of it financial paper and therefore relied on external contracts with private bank note companies. By means of a Congressional act dated 11 July 1862, the Secretary of the Treasury received authorization to purchase machinery and employ the staff necessary to manufacture currency at the Treasury, it was not until 1877 that the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was given funding for labor, paper and other expenses with the provision that all work be conducted on site, for a price commensurate with that of the private bank note companies. On 1 October 1877, the BEP took over the production of both United States Note and National Bank Note production. “TO ARTISTS, ENGRAVERS AND OTHERS – Designs for National Currency Notes are hereby invited, of the denominations of $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 and $1,000, to be issued under the Act of Congress authorizing a National Currency, approved 25 February 1863”.
Salmon Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, placed this classified notice in late March, 1863. Other than describe some of the required features of each note, the only direction given to prospective applicants was that submissions must be original and that "the designs must be national in their character", it is uncertain how many proposals were submitted, or what was involved in the selection process, but the final decision was to draw on the use of historic American images which adorn the Capitol Rotunda. The motivation for this selection was two-fold: educationally it would circulate images depicting important scenes from American history while at the same time enhancing the security of the note by involving complex engravings. By July 1863, contracts were signed with American Bank Note Company and Continental Bank Note Company to design and begin printing National Bank Notes. ABNCo was contracted for the $20, $50, $100 denominations, CBNCo was contracted for the $5 and $10 denominations, National Bank Note Company contracted for the designs for the $2, $500, $1,000 denominations.
The contract descriptions addresses each denomination individually and specifies which image from the Capitol Rotunda should be used for the reverse and what type of vignettes should be on the obverse. The first National Bank Notes were issued on 21 December 1863. Blake, George Herbert. United States paper money. George H. Blake. Fielding, Mantle. American Engravers Upon Steel. Burt Franklin. Friedberg, Arthur L.. Paper Money of the United States: A Complete Illustrated Guide With Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 978-0-87184-520-7. Hessler, Gene; the Engraver's Line – An Encyclopedia of Paper Money & Postage Stamp Art. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-36-3. Hessler, Gene. U. S. Essay and Specimen Notes. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-62-2. Newman, Eric P.. The Early Paper Money of America. Krause Publications. Stauffer, David M.. American Engravers Upon Steel; the Grolier Club of the City of New York
Thomas Campbell (poet)
Thomas Campbell was a Scottish poet. He was a founder and the first President of the Clarence Club and a co-founder of the Literary Association of the Friends of Poland, he was one of the initiators of a plan to found what became University College London. In 1799, he wrote "The Pleasures of Hope", a traditional 18th-century didactic poem in heroic couplets, he produced several stirring patriotic war songs—"Ye Mariners of England", "The Soldier's Dream", "Hohenlinden" and in 1801, "The Battle of Mad and Strange Turkish Princes". Born on High Street, Glasgow in 1777, he was the youngest of the eleven children of Alexander Campbell, son of the 6th and last Laird of Kirnan, descended from the MacIver-Campbells, his mother, was the daughter of Robert Campbell of Craignish and Mary, daughter of Robert Simpson, "a celebrated Royal Armourer". In about 1737, his father went to Falmouth, Virginia as a merchant in business with his wife's brother Daniel Campbell, becoming a Tobacco Lord trading between there and Glasgow.
They enjoyed a long period of prosperity until he lost his property and their old and respectable firm collapsed in consequence of the American Revolutionary War. Having lost nearly £20,000, Campbell's father was nearly ruined. Several of Thomas' brothers remained in Virginia. Both his parents were intellectually inclined, his father being a close friend of Thomas Reid while his mother was known for her refined taste and love of literature and music. Thomas Campbell was educated at the High School of Glasgow and the University of Glasgow, where he won prizes for classics and verse-writing, he spent the holidays as a tutor in the western Highlands and his poems Glenara and the Ballad of Lord Ullin's Daughter were written during this time while visiting the Isle of Mull. In 1797, Campbell travelled to Edinburgh to attend lectures on law, he continued to support himself as a tutor and through his writing, aided by Robert Anderson, the editor of the British Poets. Among his contemporaries in Edinburgh were Sir Walter Scott, Henry Brougham, Francis Jeffrey, Thomas Brown, John Leyden and James Grahame.
These early days in Edinburgh influenced such works as The Wounded Hussar, The Dirge of Wallace and the Epistle to Three Ladies. In 1799, six months after the publication of the Lyrical Ballads of Wordsworth and Coleridge, "The Pleasures of Hope" was published, it is a rhetorical and didactic poem in the taste of his time, owed much to the fact that it dealt with topics near to men's hearts, with the French Revolution, the partition of Poland and with negro slavery. Its success was instantaneous, but Campbell was deficient in energy and perseverance and did not follow it up, he went abroad in June 1800 without any definite aim, visited Gottlieb Friedrich Klopstock at Hamburg, made his way to Regensburg, taken by the French three days after his arrival. He found refuge in a Scottish monastery; some of his best lyrics, "Hohenlinden", "Ye Mariners of England" and "The Soldier's Dream", belong to his German tour. He spent the winter in Altona, where he met an Irish exile, Anthony McCann, whose history suggested The Exile of Erin.
He had at that time the intention of writing an epic on Edinburgh to be entitled "The Queen of the North". On the outbreak of war between Denmark and England he hurried home, the "Battle of the Baltic" being drafted soon after. At Edinburgh he was introduced to the first Lord Minto, who took him in the next year to London as occasional secretary. In June 1803 appeared a new edition of the "Pleasures of Hope", to which some lyrics were added. In 1803 Campbell married his second cousin, Matilda Sinclair, settled in London, he was well received in Whig society at Holland House. His prospects, were slight when in 1805 he received a government pension of £200. In that year the Campbells removed to Sydenham. Campbell was at this time employed on the Star newspaper, for which he translated the foreign news. In 1809 he published a narrative poem in the Spenserian stanza, Gertrude of Wyoming – referring to the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania and the Wyoming Valley Massacre – with which were printed some of his best lyrics.
He was slow and fastidious in composition, the poem suffered from overelaboration. Francis Jeffrey wrote to the author: "Your timidity or fastidiousness, or some other knavish quality, will not let you give your conceptions glowing, bold, powerful, as they present themselves. Believe me, the world will never know how you are a great and original poet till you venture to cast before it some of the rough pearls of your fancy." In 1812 he delivered a series of lectures on poetry in London at the Royal Institution. In 1814 he went to Paris, making there the acquaintance of the elder Schlegel, of Baron Cuvier and others, his pecuniary anxieties were relieved in 1815 by a legacy of £4000. He continued to occupy himself with his Specimens of the British Poets, the design of, projected years before; the work was published in 1819. It contains a selection with short lives of the poets, prefixed to it a critical essay on poetry. In 1820 he accepted the editorship of the New Monthly Magazine, in the same year made another tour in Germany.
Four years appeared his "Theodric", a not successful poem of domestic life. Campbell took an active share in the foundation of University College London, visiting Berlin to inquire into the G
John Vanderlyn was an American neoclassicist painter. Vanderlyn was born at Kingston, New York, was the grandson of colonial portrait painter Pieter Vanderlyn, he was employed by a print-seller in New York, was first instructed in art by Archibald Robinson, a Scotsman, afterwards one of the directors of the American Academy of the Fine Arts. He went to Philadelphia, where he spent time in the studio of Gilbert Stuart and copied some of Stuart's portraits, including one of Aaron Burr, who placed him under Gilbert Stuart as a pupil, he was a protégé of Aaron Burr. He returned to the United States in 1801 and lived in the home of Burr the Vice President, where he painted the well-known portraits of Burr and his daughter. In 1802 he painted two views of Niagara Falls, which were engraved and published in London in 1804, he returned to Paris in 1803 visiting England in 1805, where he painted the Death of Jane McCrea for Joel Barlow. Vanderlyn went to Rome, where he painted his picture of Marius amid the Ruins of Carthage, shown in Paris, obtained the Napoleon gold medal there.
This success caused him to remain in Paris for seven years. In 1812 he showed a nude Ariadne; when Aaron Burr fled to Paris, Vanderlyn was for a time his only support. Vanderlyn returned to the United States in 1815, painted portraits of various eminent men, including James Monroe, John C. Calhoun, Governor Joseph C. Yates, Governor George Clinton, James Madison, Robert R Livingston, Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor. In 1834, he completed a posthumous full-length portrait of George Washington for the U. S. House of Representatives, based on Gilbert Stuart's 1796 Lansdowne portrait, he exhibited panoramas and built The Rotunda in New York City, which displayed panoramas of Paris, Mexico and some battle-pieces. In 1825 Vanderlyn was one of the founders of the National Academy of Design, taught at its school. In 1842, through friendly influences, he was commissioned by Congress to paint The Landing of Columbus for the Rotunda of the United States Capitol. Going to Paris, he hired, it was engraved for the United States five-dollar banknotes.
This painting was reproduced in an engraving used on the Columbian 2c Postage Issue of 1893. Vanderlyn was the first American to study in France instead of in England, to acquire accurate draughtsmanship, he was more academic than his fellows. His Landing of Columbus has been called "hardly more than respectable." He died in poverty at Kingston, New York, on 23 September 1852. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Vanderlyn, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 886. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Avery, Kevin J. & Fodera, Peter L.. John Vanderlyn's gardens of Versailles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list City of Kingston, New York, Web pages on John Vanderlyn. Study for Landing of Columbus at the Birmingham Museum of Art
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal at the surface. For iron or steel with low carbon content, which has poor to no hardenability of its own, the case-hardening process involves infusing additional carbon or nitrogen into the surface layer. Case-hardening is done after the part has been formed into its final shape, but can be done to increase the hardening element content of bars to be used in a pattern welding or similar process; the term face hardening is used to describe this technique, when discussing modern armour. Hardening is desirable for metal components that are subject to sliding contact with hard or abrasive materials, as the hardened metal is more resistant to surface wear. However, because hardened metal is more brittle than softer metal, through-hardening is not always a suitable choice. In such circumstances, case-hardening can produce a component that will not fracture, but provides adequate wear resistance on the hardened surface.
Early iron smelting made use of bloomeries which produced two layers of metal: one with a low carbon content, worked into wrought iron, one with a high carbon outer layer. Since the high carbon iron is hot short, meaning it fractures and crumbles when forged, it was not useful without more smelting; as a result, it went unused in the west until the popularization of the finery forge. The wrought iron, with nearly no carbon in it, was malleable and ductile but not hard. Case-hardening involves packing the low-carbon iron within a substance high in carbon heating this pack to encourage carbon migration into the surface of the iron; this forms a thin surface layer of higher carbon steel, with the carbon content decreasing deeper from the surface. The resulting product combines much of the toughness of a low-carbon steel core, with the hardness and wear resistance of the outer high-carbon steel; the traditional method of applying the carbon to the surface of the iron involved packing the iron in a mixture of ground bone and charcoal or a combination of leather, hooves and urine, all inside a well-sealed box.
This carburizing package is heated to a high temperature but still under the melting point of the iron and left at that temperature for a length of time. The longer the package is held at the high temperature, the deeper the carbon will diffuse into the surface. Different depths of hardening are desirable for different purposes: sharp tools need deep hardening to allow grinding and resharpening without exposing the soft core, while machine parts like gears might need only shallow hardening for increased wear resistance; the resulting case-hardened part may show distinct surface discoloration, if the carbon material is mixed organic matter as described above. The steel darkens and shows a mottled pattern of black and purple caused by the various compounds formed from impurities in the bone and charcoal; this oxide surface works to bluing, providing a degree of corrosion resistance, as well as an attractive finish. Case colouring refers to this pattern and is encountered as a decorative finish on firearms.
Case-hardened steel combines extreme hardness and extreme toughness, something, not matched by homogeneous alloys since hard steel alone tends to be brittle. Carbon itself is solid at case-hardening temperatures and so is immobile. Transport to the surface of the steel was as gaseous carbon monoxide, generated by the breakdown of the carburising compound and the oxygen packed into the sealed box; this takes place with pure carbon but too to be workable. Although oxygen is required for this process it is re-circulated through the CO cycle and so can be carried out inside a sealed box; the sealing is necessary to stop the CO either leaking out or being oxidised to CO2 by excess outside air. Adding an decomposed carbonate "energiser" such as barium carbonate breaks down to BaO + CO2 and this encourages the reaction C + CO2 <—> 2 COincreasing the overall abundance of CO and the activity of the carburising compound. It is a common knowledge fallacy that case-hardening was done with bone but this is misleading.
Although bone was used, the main carbon donor was horn. Bone contains some carbonates but is calcium phosphate; this does not have the beneficial effect of encouraging CO production and it can introduce phosphorus as an impurity into the steel alloy. Both carbon and alloy steels are suitable for case-hardening; these mild steels are not hardenable due to the low quantity of carbon, so the surface of the steel is chemically altered to increase the hardenability. Case-hardened steel is formed by diffusing carbon, nitrogen and/or boron into the outer layer of the steel at high temperature, heat treating the surface layer to the desired hardness; the term case-hardening is derived from the practicalities of the carburization process itself, the same as the ancient process. The steel work piece is placed inside a case packed tight with a carbon-based case-hardening compound; this is collectively known as a carburizing pack. The pack is put inside a hot furnace for a variable length of time. Time and temperature determines.
However, the depth of hardening is limited
An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, magazines, teaching materials, video games and films. Illustration means providing an example; the origin of the word “illustration” is late Middle English: via Old French from Latin illustratio, from the verb illustrate. Contemporary illustration uses a wide range of styles and techniques, including drawing, printmaking, montage, digital design, multimedia, 3D modelling. Most illustrators work on a freelance basis. Depending on the purpose, illustration may be expressive, realistic or technical. Specialist areas include: Architectural illustration Archaeological illustration Botanical illustration Concept art Fashion illustration Information graphics Technical illustration Medical illustration Narrative illustration Picture books Scientific illustration Technical and scientific illustration communicates information of a technical or scientific nature.
This may include exploded views, fly-throughs, instructional images, component designs, diagrams. The aim is "to generate expressive images that convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer"Technical and scientific illustration is designed to describe or explain subjects to a nontechnical audience, so must provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer's interest and understanding". In contemporary illustration practice, 2D and 3D software is used to create accurate representations that can be updated and reused in a variety of contexts. In the art world, illustration has at times been considered of less importance than graphic design and fine art. Today, due in part to the growth of graphic novel and video game industries, as well as increased use of illustration in magazines and other publications, illustration is now becoming a valued art form, capable of engaging a global market. Original illustration art has been known to attract high prices at auction.
The US artist Norman Rockwell's painting "Breaking Home Ties" sold in a 2006 Sotheby's auction for USD15.4 million. Many other illustration genres are valued, with pinup artists such as Gil Elvgren and Alberto Vargas, for example attracting high prices; the art of illustration is linked to the industrial processes of printing and publishing. The illustrations of medieval codices were known as illuminations, were individually hand drawn and painted. With the invention of the printing press during the 15th century, books became more distributed illustrated with woodcuts. 1600s Japan saw the origination of Ukiyo-e, an influential illustration style characterised by expressive line, vivid colour and subtle tones, resulting from the ink-brushed wood block printing technique. Subjects included popular figures and every day life. Hokusai’s The Great Wave of Kanazawa is a famous image of the time. During the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, the main reproduction processes for illustration were engraving and etching.
In 18th Century England, a notable illustrator was William Blake. By the early 19th century, the introduction of lithography improved reproduction quality. In Europe, notable figures of the early 19th Century were John Leech, George Cruikshank, Dickens illustrator Hablot Knight Browne, and, in France, Honoré Daumier. All contributed to "serious" publications. At this time, there was a great demand for caricature drawings encapsulating social mores and classes; the British humorous magazine Punch built on the success of Cruikshank's Comic Almanac and employed many well-regarded illustrators, including Sir John Tenniel, the Dalziel Brothers, Georges du Maurier. Although all fine art trained, their reputations were gained as illustrators. Punch was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s; the magazine was the first to use the term "cartoon" to describe a humorous illustration and its widespread use led to John Leech being known as the world's first "cartoonist". In common with similar magazines such as the Parisian Le Voleur, Punch realised good illustration sold as well as good text.
With publication continuing into the 21st Century, Punch chronicles a gradual shift in popular illustration, from reliance on caricature to sophisticated topical observation. From the early 1800s newspapers, mass market magazines, illustrated books had become the dominant consumer media in Europe and the New World. By the 19th century, improvements in printing technology freed illustrators to experiment with color and rendering techniques; these developments in printing effected all areas of literature from cookbooks and traveling guides, as well as children's books. Due to advances in printing, it became more affordable to produce color photographs within books and other materials. By 1900 100 percent of paper was machine-made, while a person working by hand could produce 60-100lbs of paper per day, mechanization yielded around 1,000lbs per day. Additionally, in the 50 year period between 1846 and 1916, book production increased 400% and the price of books was cut in half. In America, this led to a "golden age of illustration" from before the 1880s until the early 20th century.
A small group of illustrators became successful, with the imagery they created considered a portrait of American aspirations of the time. Among the best known illustrators of that period were N. C. Wyeth and Howard Pyl